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Provides basic multi-tenancy features for OpenWISP (using the Django web-framework)

Project description

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Implementation of user management and multi-tenancy for OpenWISP (built with python & django).

https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openwisp/openwisp2-docs/master/assets/design/openwisp-logo-black.svg

Deploy it in production

An automated installer is available at ansible-openwisp2.

Install stable version from pypi

Install from pypi:

pip install openwisp-users

Install development version

Install tarball:

pip install https://github.com/openwisp/openwisp-users/tarball/master

Alternatively you can install via pip using git:

pip install -e git+git://github.com/openwisp/openwisp-users#egg=openwisp_users

Setup (integrate in an existing django project)

INSTALLED_APPS in settings.py should look like the following:

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
    'openwisp_utils.admin_theme',
    # overrides some templates in django-allauth
    'openwisp_users.accounts',
    'django_extensions',
    'allauth',
    'allauth.account',
    'allauth.socialaccount',
    # must come before the django admin
    # to override the admin login page
    'openwisp_users',
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'django.contrib.sites',
    'rest_framework',
    'rest_framework.authtoken',
    'drf_yasg',
]

also add AUTH_USER_MODEL and SITE_ID to your settings.py:

AUTH_USER_MODEL = 'openwisp_users.User'
SITE_ID = 1

urls.py:

from django.conf.urls import include, url
from django.contrib import admin
from django.contrib.staticfiles.urls import staticfiles_urlpatterns

urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^admin/', include(admin.site.urls)),
    url(r'^accounts/', include('allauth.urls')),
    url(r'^api/v1/', include('openwisp_users.api.urls')),
]

urlpatterns += staticfiles_urlpatterns()

For additional steps to properly configure allauth in your project, please refer to their documentation: allauth documentation installation section.

Installing for development

Install sqlite:

sudo apt-get install sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev openssl libssl-dev

Install your forked repo:

git clone git://github.com/<your_fork>/openwisp-users
cd openwisp-users/
python setup.py develop

Install test requirements:

pip install -r requirements-test.txt

Start Redis

docker-compose up -d

Create database:

cd tests/
./manage.py migrate
./manage.py createsuperuser

Launch development server:

./manage.py runserver

You can access the admin interface at http://127.0.0.1:8000/admin/.

Run tests with:

# --parallel and --keepdb are optional but help to speed up the operation
./runtests.py --parallel --keepdb

Settings

OPENWISP_ORGANIZATION_USER_ADMIN

type: boolean
default: False

Indicates whether the admin section for managing OrganizationUser items is enabled or not.

It is disabled by default because these items can be managed via inline items in the user administration section.

OPENWISP_ORGANIZATION_OWNER_ADMIN

type: boolean
default: True

Indicates whether the admin section for managing OrganizationOwner items is enabled or not.

Find out more information about organization owners.

OPENWISP_USERS_AUTH_API

type: boolean
default: False

Indicates whether the REST API is enabled or not.

OPENWISP_USERS_AUTH_THROTTLE_RATE

type: str
default: 100/day

Indicates the rate throttling for the Obtain Authentication API endpoint.

Please note that the current rate throttler is very basic and will also count valid requests for rate limiting. For more information, check Django-rest-framework throttling guide.

REST API

To enable the API the setting OPENWISP_USERS_AUTH_API must be set to True.

Live documentation

A general live API documentation (following the OpenAPI specification) at /api/v1/docs/.

Browsable web interface

https://github.com/openwisp/openwisp-users/raw/master/docs/images/api-ui.png

Additionally, opening any of the endpoints listed below directly in the browser will show the browsable API interface of Django-REST-Framework, which makes it even easier to find out the details of each endpoint.

Obtain Authentication Token

/api/v1/user/token/

This endpoint only accepts the POST method and is used to retrieve the Bearer token that is required to make API requests to other endpoints.

Example usage of the endpoint:

http POST localhost:8000/api/v1/user/token/ username=openwisp password=1234

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Allow: POST, OPTIONS
Content-Length: 52
Content-Type: application/json
Date: Wed, 13 May 2020 10:59:34 GMT
Server: WSGIServer/0.2 CPython/3.6.9
Vary: Cookie
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
X-Frame-Options: DENY

{
    "token": "7a2e1d3d008253c123c61d56741003db5a194256"
}

Authenticating with the user token

The authentication class openwisp_users.api.authentication.BearerAuthentication is used across the different OpenWISP modules for authentication.

To use it, first of all get the user token as described above in Obtain Authentication Token, then send the token in the Authorization header:

# get token
TOKEN=$(http POST :8000/api/v1/user/token/ username=openwisp password=1234 | jq -r .token)

# send bearer token
http GET localhost:8000/api/v1/firmware/build/ "Authorization: Bearer $TOKEN"

Organization permissions

Here’s a summary of the default permissions:

  • All users who belong to the Administrators group and are organization managers (OrganizationUser.is_admin=True), have the permission to edit the organizations details which they administrate.
  • Only super users have the permission to add and delete organizations.
  • Only super users and organization owners have the permission to change the OrganizationOwner inline or delete the relation.

Organization Owners

An organization owner is a user who is designated as the owner of a particular organization and this owner can not be deleted or edited by other administrators. Only the superuser has the permissions to do this.

By default, the first manager of an organization is designated as the owner of that organization.

If the OrganizationUser instance related to the owner of an organization is deleted or flagged as is_admin=False, the admin interface will return an error informing users that the operation is not allowed, the owner should be changed before attempting to do that.

Organization membership helpers

The User model provides methods to check whether the user is a member, manager or owner of an organization in an efficient way.

These methods are needed because an user may be administrator in one organization, but simple end-user is another organization, so we need to easily distinguish between the different use cases and at the same time avoid to generate too many database queries.

import swapper

User = swapper.load_model('openwisp_users', 'User')
Organization = swapper.load_model('openwisp_users', 'Organization')

user = User.objects.first()
org = Organization.objects.first()
user.is_member(org)
user.is_manager(org)
user.is_owner(org)

# also valid (avoids query to retrieve Organization instance)
device = Device.objects.first()
user.is_member(device.organization_id)
user.is_manager(device.organization_id)
user.is_owner(device.organization_id)

is_member(org)

Returns True if the user is member of the Organization instance passed. Alternatively, UUID or str can be passed instead of an organization instance, which will be interpreted as the organization primary key; this second option is recommended when building the organization instance requires an extra query.

This check shall be used when access needs to be granted to end-users who need to consume a service offered by an organization they’re member of (eg: authenticate to a public wifi service).

is_manager(org)

Returns True if the user is member of the Organization instance and has the OrganizationUser.is_admin field set to True. Alternatively, UUID or str can be passed instead of an organization instance, which will be interpreted as the organization primary key; this second option is recommended when building the organization instance requires an extra query.

This check shall be used when access needs to be granted to the managers of an organization users who need to perform administrative tasks (eg: download the firmware image of their organization).

is_owner(org)

Returns True if the user is member of the Organization instance and is owner of the organization (checks the presence of an OrganizationOwner instance for the user). Alternatively, UUID or str can be passed instead of an organization instance, which will be interpreted as the organization primary key; this second option is recommended when building the organization instance requires an extra query.

There can be only one owner for each organization.

This check shall be used to avoid that managers would be able to take control of an organization and exclude the original owner without their consent.

organizations_dict

The methods described above use the organizations_dict property method under the hood, which builds a dictionary in which each key contains the primary key of the organization the user is member of, and each key contains another dictionary which allows to easily determine if the user is manager (is_admin) and owner (is_owner).

This data structure is cached automatically and accessing it multiple times over the span of multiple requests will not generate multiple database queries.

The cache invalidation also happens automatically whenever an OrganizationUser or an OrganizationOwner instance is added, changed or deleted.

Usage exmaple:

>>> user.organizations_dict
... {'20135c30-d486-4d68-993f-322b8acb51c4': {'is_admin': True, 'is_owner': False}}
>>> user.organizations_dict.keys()
... dict_keys(['20135c30-d486-4d68-993f-322b8acb51c4'])

organizations_managed

This attribute returns a list containing the primary keys of the organizations which the user can manage.

Usage example:

>>> user.organizations_managed
... ['20135c30-d486-4d68-993f-322b8acb51c4']

organizations_owned

This attribute returns a list containing the primary keys of the organizations which the user owns.

Usage example:

>>> user.organizations_owned
... ['20135c30-d486-4d68-993f-322b8acb51c4']

Permissions helpers

The User model provides methods to check permissions in an efficient way (without generating database queries each time the permissions are accessed).

permissions

The permissions property helper returns the user’s permissions from the cache, cache invalidation is handled automatically.

>>> user.permissions
... {'account.add_emailaddress',
     'account.change_emailaddress',
     'account.delete_emailaddress',
     'account.view_emailaddress',
     'openwisp_users.add_organizationuser',
     'openwisp_users.add_user',
     'openwisp_users.change_organizationuser',
     'openwisp_users.change_user',
     'openwisp_users.delete_organizationuser',
     'openwisp_users.delete_user'}

has_permission(permission)

For superusers, the method returns True regardless of the permission passed to it. While for other users, the method checks whether the user has the specified permission and returns True or False accordingly.

It uses the permissions property helper under the hood to avoid generating database queries each time is called.

>>> user.has_permission('openwisp_users.add_user')
... True

Django REST Framework Permission Classes

The custom Django REST Framework permission classes IsOrganizationMember, IsOrganizationManager and IsOrganizationOwner can be used in the API to ensure that the request user is in the same organization as requested object and is organization member, manager or owner respectively. Usage example:

from openwisp_users.api.permissions import IsOrganizationManager
from rest_framework import generics

class MyApiView(generics.APIView):
    permission_classes = (IsOrganizationMember,)

organization_field

type: string
default: organization

organization_field can be used to define where to look to find the organization of the current object. In most cases this won’t need to be changed, but it does need to be changed when the organization is defined only on a parent object.

For example, in openwisp-firmware-upgrader, organization is defined on Category and Build has a relation to category, so the organization of Build instances is inferred from the organization of the Category.

Therefore, to implement the permission class correctly, we would have to do:

from openwisp_users.api.permissions import IsOrganizationManager
from rest_framework import generics

class MyApiView(generics.APIView):
    permission_classes = (IsOrganizationMember,)
    organization_field = 'category__organization'

This will translate into accessing obj.category.organization. Ensure the queryset of your views make use of select_related in these cases to avoid generating too many queries.

Multitenancy mixins

  • MultitenantAdminMixin: adding this mixin to a ModelAdmin class will make it multitenant (users will only be able to see items of the organizations they manage or own). Set multitenant_shared_relations to the list of parameters you wish to have only organization specific options.
  • MultitenantOrgFilter: admin filter that shows only organizations the current user can manage in its available choices.
  • MultitenantRelatedOrgFilter: similar MultitenantOrgFilter but shows only objects which have a relation with one of the organizations the current user can manage.

Extend openwisp-users

One of the core values of the OpenWISP project is Software Reusability, for this reason openwisp-users provides a set of base classes which can be imported, extended and reused to create derivative apps.

This will be extreme beneficial for you if you want to create additional fields for User model, example asking for Social Security Number of the User for registeration.

In order to implement your custom version of openwisp-users, you need to perform the steps described in this section.

When in doubt, the code in the test project and the sample app will serve you as source of truth: just replicate and adapt that code to get a basic derivative of openwisp-users working.

Premise: if you plan on using a customized version of this module, we suggest to start with it since the beginning, because migrating your data from the default module to your extended version may be time consuming.

1. Initialize your custom module

The first thing you need to do is to create a new django app which will contain your custom version of openwisp-users.

A django app is nothing more than a python package (a directory of python scripts), in the following examples we’ll call this django app myusers, but you can name it how you want:

django-admin startapp myusers

Keep in mind that the command mentioned above must be called from a directory which is available in your PYTHON_PATH so that you can then import the result into your project.

Now you need to add myusers to INSTALLED_APPS in your settings.py, ensuring also that openwisp_users has been removed:

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    # ... other apps ...

    # 'openwisp_users'  <-- comment out or delete this line
    'myusers'
]

For more information about how to work with django projects and django apps, please refer to the django documentation.

2. Install openwisp-users

Install (and add to the requirement of your project) openwisp-users:

pip install openwisp-users

3. Add EXTENDED_APPS

Add the following to your settings.py:

EXTENDED_APPS = ('openwisp_users',)

4. Add openwisp_utils.staticfiles.DependencyFinder

Add openwisp_utils.staticfiles.DependencyFinder to STATICFILES_FINDERS in your settings.py:

STATICFILES_FINDERS = [
    'django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.FileSystemFinder',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles.finders.AppDirectoriesFinder',
    'openwisp_utils.staticfiles.DependencyFinder',
]

5. Add openwisp_utils.loaders.DependencyLoader

Add openwisp_utils.loaders.DependencyLoader to TEMPLATES in your settings.py:

TEMPLATES = [
    {
        'BACKEND': 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates',
        'OPTIONS': {
            'loaders': [
                'django.template.loaders.filesystem.Loader',
                'django.template.loaders.app_directories.Loader',
                'openwisp_utils.loaders.DependencyLoader',
            ],
            'context_processors': [
                'django.template.context_processors.debug',
                'django.template.context_processors.request',
                'django.contrib.auth.context_processors.auth',
                'django.contrib.messages.context_processors.messages',
            ],
        },
    }
]

6. Inherit the AppConfig class

Please refer to the following files in the sample app of the test project:

You have to replicate and adapt that code in your project.

For more information regarding the concept of AppConfig please refer to the “Applications” section in the django documentation.

7. Create your custom models

For the purpose of showing an example, we added a simple social_security_number field in User model to the models of the sample app in the test project.

You can add fields in a similar way in your models.py file.

For doubts regarding how to use, extend or develop models please refer to the “Models” section in the django documentation.

8. Add swapper configurations

Once you have created the models, add the following to your settings.py:

# Setting models for swapper module
AUTH_USER_MODEL = 'myusers.User'
OPENWISP_USERS_GROUP_MODEL = 'myusers.Group'
OPENWISP_USERS_ORGANIZATION_MODEL = 'myusers.Organization'
OPENWISP_USERS_ORGANIZATIONUSER_MODEL = 'myusers.OrganizationUser'
OPENWISP_USERS_ORGANIZATIONOWNER_MODEL = 'myusers.OrganizationOwner'

Substitute myusers with the name you chose in step 1.

9. Create database migrations

Create database migrations:

./manage.py makemigrations

Now, manually create a file 0002_default_groups_and_permissions.py in the migrations directory just create by the makemigrations command and copy contents of the sample_users/migrations/0002_default_groups_and_permissions.py.

Apply database migrations:

./manage.py migrate

10. Create the admin

Refer to the admin.py file of the sample app.

To introduce changes to the admin, you can do it in two main ways which are described below.

For more information regarding how the django admin works, or how it can be customized, please refer to “The django admin site” section in the django documentation.

1. Monkey patching

If the changes you need to add are relatively small, you can resort to monkey patching.

For example:

from openwisp_users.admin import (
    UserAdmin,
    GroupAdmin,
    OrganizationAdmin,
    OrganizationOwnerAdmin,
    BaseOrganizationUserAdmin,
)

# OrganizationAdmin.field += ['example_field'] <-- Monkey patching changes example

For your convenience of adding fields in User forms, we provide the following functions:

usermodel_add_form

When monkey patching the UserAdmin class to add add fields in the “Add user” form, you can use this function. In the example, Social Security Number is added in the add form:

Social Security Number in Add form
usermodel_change_form

When monkey patching the UserAdmin class to add fields in the “Change user” form to change / modify user form’s profile section, you can use this function. In the example, Social Security Number is added in the change form:

Social Security Number in Change form

2. Inheriting admin classes

If you need to introduce significant changes and/or you don’t want to resort to monkey patching, you can proceed as follows:

from django.contrib import admin
from openwisp_users.admin import (
    UserAdmin as BaseUserAdmin,
    GroupAdmin as BaseGroupAdmin,
    OrganizationAdmin as BaseOrganizationAdmin,
    OrganizationOwnerAdmin as BaseOrganizationOwnerAdmin,
    OrganizationUserAdmin as BaseOrganizationUserAdmin,
)
from swapper import load_model
from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model

Group = load_model('openwisp_users', 'Group')
Organization = load_model('openwisp_users', 'Organization')
OrganizationOwner = load_model('openwisp_users', 'OrganizationOwner')
OrganizationUser = load_model('openwisp_users', 'OrganizationUser')
User = get_user_model()

admin.site.unregister(Group)
admin.site.unregister(Organization)
admin.site.unregister(OrganizationOwner)
admin.site.unregister(OrganizationUser)
admin.site.unregister(User)


@admin.register(Group)
class GroupAdmin(BaseGroupAdmin):
    pass


@admin.register(Organization)
class OrganizationAdmin(BaseOrganizationAdmin):
    pass


@admin.register(OrganizationOwner)
class OrganizationOwnerAdmin(BaseOrganizationOwnerAdmin):
    pass


@admin.register(OrganizationUser)
class OrganizationUserAdmin(BaseOrganizationUserAdmin):
    pass


@admin.register(User)
class UserAdmin(BaseUserAdmin):
    pass

11. Create root URL configuration

Please refer to the urls.py file in the sample project.

For more information about URL configuration in django, please refer to the “URL dispatcher” section in the django documentation.

12. Import the automated tests

When developing a custom application based on this module, it’s a good idea to import and run the base tests too, so that you can be sure the changes you’re introducing are not breaking some of the existing features of openwisp-users.

In case you need to add breaking changes, you can overwrite the tests defined in the base classes to test your own behavior.

See the tests of the sample app to find out how to do this.

You can then run tests with:

# the --parallel flag is optional
./manage.py test --parallel myusers

Substitute myusers with the name you chose in step 1.

Other base classes that can be inherited and extended

The following steps are not required and are intended for more advanced customization.

1. Extending the API Views

The API view classes can be extended into other django applications as well. Note that it is not required for extending openwisp-users to your app and this change is required only if you plan to make changes to the API views.

Create a view file as done in API views.py.

Remember to use these views in root URL configurations in point 11.

For more information about django views, please refer to the views section in the django documentation.

Contributing

Please refer to the OpenWISP contributing guidelines.

Changelog

See CHANGES.

License

See LICENSE.

Project details


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