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A quick and simple cryptographically secure script to generate high entropy passphrases using the Electronic Frontier Foundation's wordlists

Project description


A quick and simple cryptographically secure script to generate high entropy passphrases using the Electronic Frontier Foundation's wordlists, including their fandom-inspired wordlists.


pip3 install passphraseme


Run passphraseme with a number to generate secure passphrases using EFF's large wordlist, like this:

$ passphraseme 7
banana stopwatch appealing germinate survival retired comma
$ passphraseme 5
borrower harvest stature entity blimp

You can also optionally choose a different wordlist. Here are all of the command line arguments:

Short Long Description
-h --help show help message
--sep Separator (default " ")
-s1 --short1 Use EFF's general short wordlist
-s2 --short2 Use EFF's short wordlist with unique prefixes
-got --game-of-thrones Use EFF's Game of Thrones wordlist (Passwords of Westeros)
-hp --harry-potter Use EFF's Harry Potter wordlist (Accio Passphrase!)
-st --star-trek Use EFF's Star Trek wordlist (Live Long and Passphrase)
-sw --star-wars Use EFF's Star Wars wordlist (The Passphrase Is Strong With This One)
-d [dictionary] --dictionary [dictionary] Custom wordlist filename

For example, you can choose to use one of EFF's short wordlists, like this:

$ passphraseme -s1 5
glide canal flag sage those
$ passphraseme -s2 5
optical anonymous nirvana agitate feudalist

Or you can embrace your inner nerd and use a fandom wordlist:

$ passphraseme --game-of-thrones 5
crow betrayed severely gloating asked
$ passphraseme --harry-potter 5
mirror relief date future mysterious
$ passphraseme --star-trek 5
children refused captain cornwell vulcan
$ passphraseme --star-wars 5
unkar struggle names ally cantina

You can also choose to use a custom wordlist, like this:

$ passphraseme -d /usr/share/dict/words 7
leading's Oz's caesareans lactate eloped interposed wowed

And if you prefer, you can use a custom separator, like - instead of :

$ passphraseme --sep - 5
$ passphraseme --sep . 5

Strength of passphrases

This table shows the strength (bits of entropy) of passphraseme-generated passphrases of different lengths (1-10 words).

Bits of entropy/word 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
EFF large wordlist (default) 12.925 12.9 (0 s) 25.8 (0 s) 38.8 (0 s) 51.7 (1 h) 64.6 (1 y) 77.5 (10.6k y) 90.5 (82M y) 103.4 (642B y) 116.3 (4.99e15 y) 129.2 (3.88e19 y)
EFF short wordlists 10.339 10.3 (0 s) 20.7 (0 s) 31.0 (0 s) 41.4 (4 s) 51.7 (1 h) 62.0 (83 d) 72.4 (295 y) 82.7 (382.3k y) 93.1 (495M y) 103.4 (642B y)
EFF fandom wordlists 11.965 12.0 (0 s) 23.9 (0 s) 35.9 (0 s) 47.9 (6 m) 59.8 (17 d) 71.8 (196 y) 83.8 (787.1k y) 95.7 (3B y) 107.7 (1.26e13 y) 119.7 (5.04e16 y)

The brute force time is calculated like this:

I'm assuming you're using a passphrase for macOS 10.8+ (PBKDF2-SHA512) to encrypt your disk with FileVault. According to this post, the password cracking tool hashcat can guess 193,900 passphrases per second on an Amazon AWS p3.16xlarge instance, which costs $24.48 per hour.

If an attacker is willing to spend up to $1 billion per day to guess your passphrase, they can afford to run 1.7 million of these AWS instances at once, meaning they can guess ~330 billion passphrases per second. On average, a brute force attack will find the passphrase after searching half the keyspace, so the times above are how long it takes to search half the keyspace.

Note that the time "3.88e19 y" means "3.88 x 1019 years". Also note that the brute force times will vary wildly, both much quicker or much slower, depending on the hash function or KDF used -- basically, depending on what software you're using this passphrase with.

Check out to see the maths.


The wordlists included were created by Electronic Frontier Foundation, and are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0. For the fandom wordlists (Game of Thrones, Harry Potter, Star Trek, and Star Wars), EFF notes that "Any trademarks within the word list are the property of their respective trademark holders, who are not affiliated with the Electronic Frontier Foundation and do not sponsor or endorse these passwords."

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