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Module enablig a sh like infix syntax (using pipes)

# Infix programming toolkit

Module enabling a sh like infix syntax (using pipes).

# Introduction

As an example, here is the solution for the 2nd Euler Project exercise:

Find the sum of all the even-valued terms in Fibonacci which do not exceed four million.

Given fib a generator of Fibonacci numbers:

``````euler2 = (fib() | where(lambda x: x % 2 == 0)
| take_while(lambda x: x < 4000000)
| add)
``````

# Deprecations of pipe 1.x

In pipe 1.x a lot of functions were returning iterables and a lot other functions were returning non-iterables, causing confusion. The one returning non-iterables could only be used as the last function of a pipe expression, so they are in fact useless:

``````range(100) | where(lambda x: x % 2 == 0) | add
``````

can be rewritten with no less readability as:

``````sum(range(100) | where(lambda x: x % 2 == 0))
``````

so all pipes returning a non-pipe are now deprecated and will be removed in pipe 2.0.

# Vocabulary

• A Pipe: a Pipe is a 'pipeable' function, something that you can pipe to, In the code '[1, 2, 3] | add' add is a Pipe
• A Pipe function: A standard function returning a Pipe so it can be used like a normal Pipe but called like in : [1, 2, 3] | concat("#")

# Syntax

I don't like `import * `but for the following examples in an REPL it will be OK, so:

``````>>> from pipe import *
``````

The basic syntax is to use a Pipe like in a shell:

``````>>> sum(range(100) | select(lambda x: x ** 2) | where(lambda x: x < 100))
285
``````

Some pipes take an argument, some do not need one:

``````>>> sum([1, 2, 3, 4] | where(lambda x: x % 2 == 0))
6

>>> sum([1, [2, 3], 4] | traverse)
10
``````

A Pipe as a function is nothing more than a function returning a specialized Pipe.

# Constructing your own

You can construct your pipes using Pipe class initialized with lambdas like:

``````stdout = Pipe(lambda x: sys.stdout.write(str(x)))
select = Pipe(lambda iterable, pred: (pred(x) for x in iterable))
``````

Or using decorators:

``````@Pipe
def stdout(x):
sys.stdout.write(str(x))
``````

# Existing Pipes in this module

``````tee
tee outputs to the standard output and yield unchanged items, usefull for
debugging
>>> sum([1, 2, 3, 4, 5] | tee)
1
2
3
4
5
15

chain
Chain a sequence of iterables:
>>> list([[1, 2], [3, 4], ] | chain)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Warning : chain only unfold iterable containing ONLY iterables:
[1, 2, ] | chain
Gives a TypeError: chain argument #1 must support iteration
Consider using traverse.

traverse
Recursively unfold iterables:
>>> list([[1, 2], [[, []], ]] | traverse)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> squares = (i * i for i in range(3))
>>> list([[0, 1, 2], squares] | traverse)
[0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 4]

map()
Apply a conversion expression given as parameter
to each element of the given iterable
>>> list([1, 2, 3] | map(lambda x: x * x))
[1, 4, 9]

select()
An alias for map().
>>> list([1, 2, 3] | select(lambda x: x * x))
[1, 4, 9]

where()
Only yields the matching items of the given iterable:
>>> list([1, 2, 3] | where(lambda x: x % 2 == 0))


take_while()
Like itertools.takewhile, yields elements of the
given iterable while the predicat is true:
>>> list([1, 2, 3, 4] | take_while(lambda x: x < 3))
[1, 2]

skip_while()
Like itertools.dropwhile, skips elements of the given iterable
while the predicat is true, then yields others:
>>> list([1, 2, 3, 4] | skip_while(lambda x: x < 3))
[3, 4]

chain_with()
Like itertools.chain, yields elements of the given iterable,
then yields elements of its parameters
>>> list((1, 2, 3) | chain_with([4, 5], ))
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

take()
Yields the given quantity of elemenets from the given iterable, like head
in shell script.
>>> list((1, 2, 3, 4, 5) | take(2))
[1, 2]

tail()
Yiels the given quantity of the last elements of the given iterable.
>>> list((1, 2, 3, 4, 5) | tail(3))
[3, 4, 5]

skip()
Skips the given quantity of elements from the given iterable, then yields
>>> list((1, 2, 3, 4, 5) | skip(2))
[3, 4, 5]

islice()
Just the itertools.islice
>>> list((1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) | islice(2, 8, 2))
[3, 5, 7]

izip()
Just the itertools.izip
>>> list((1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
...  | izip([9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1]))
[(1, 9), (2, 8), (3, 7), (4, 6), (5, 5), (6, 4), (7, 3), (8, 2), (9, 1)]

groupby()
Like itertools.groupby(sorted(iterable, key = keyfunc), keyfunc)
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) \
| groupby(lambda x: x % 2 and "Even" or "Odd")
| select(lambda x: "%s : %s" % (x, (x | concat(', '))))
| concat(' / ')
'Even : 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 / Odd : 2, 4, 6, 8'

sort()
Like Python's built-in "sorted" primitive. Allows cmp (Python 2.x
only), key, and reverse arguments. By default sorts using the
identity function as the key.

>>> ''.join("python" | sort)
'hnopty'
>>> list([5, -4, 3, -2, 1] | sort(key=abs))
[1, -2, 3, -4, 5]

dedup()
Deduplicate values, using the given key function if provided (or else
the identity)

>>> list([1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 2, 3] | dedup)
[1, 2, 3]
>>> list([1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 2, 3] | dedup(key=lambda n:n % 2))
[1, 2]

uniq()
Like dedup() but only deduplicate consecutive values, using the given
key function if provided (or else the identity)

>>> list([1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 2, 3] | uniq)
[1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3]
>>> list([1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 2, 3] | uniq(key=lambda n:n % 2))
[1, 2, 3, 2, 3]

reverse
Like Python's built-in "reversed" primitive.
>>> list([1, 2, 3] | reverse)
[3, 2, 1]

strip
Like Python's strip-method for str.
>>> '  abc   ' | strip
'abc'
>>> '.,[abc] ] ' | strip('.,[] ')
'abc'

rstrip
Like Python's rstrip-method for str.
>>> '  abc   ' | rstrip
'  abc'
>>> '.,[abc] ] ' | rstrip('.,[] ')
'.,[abc'

lstrip
Like Python's lstrip-method for str.
>>> 'abc   ' | lstrip
'abc   '
>>> '.,[abc] ] ' | lstrip('.,[] ')
'abc] ] '

t
Like Haskell's operator ":"
>>> list(0 | t(1) | t(2)) == list(range(3))
True

permutations()
Returns all possible permutations
>>> list('ABC' | permutations(2))
[('A', 'B'), ('A', 'C'), ('B', 'A'), ('B', 'C'), ('C', 'A'), ('C', 'B')]

>>> list(range(3) | permutations)
[(0, 1, 2), (0, 2, 1), (1, 0, 2), (1, 2, 0), (2, 0, 1), (2, 1, 0)]

transpose()
Transposes the rows and columns of a matrix
>>> [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]] | transpose
[(1, 4, 7), (2, 5, 8), (3, 6, 9)]
``````

# Euler project samples

Find the sum of all the multiples of 3 or 5 below 1000.

``````euler1 = (itertools.count() | select(lambda x: x * 3) | take_while(lambda x: x < 1000) | add) \
+ (itertools.count() | select(lambda x: x * 5) | take_while(lambda x: x < 1000) | add) \
- (itertools.count() | select(lambda x: x * 15) | take_while(lambda x: x < 1000) | add)
assert euler1 == 233168
``````

Find the sum of all the even-valued terms in Fibonacci which do not exceed four million.

``````euler2 = fib() | where(lambda x: x % 2 == 0) | take_while(lambda x: x < 4000000) | add
assert euler2 == 4613732
``````

Find the difference between the sum of the squares of the first one hundred natural numbers and the square of the sum.

``````square = lambda x: x * x
euler6 = square(itertools.count(1) | take(100) | add) - (itertools.count(1) | take(100) | select(square) | add)
assert euler6 == 25164150
``````

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