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Library for interfacing with a Polymesh node

Project description

This project is forked from https://github.com/polkascan/py-substrate-interface

Python Polymath Substrate Interface

Latest Version Supported Python versions

Python Polymath Substrate Interface Library

Description

This library specializes in interfacing with a Polymesh node, providing additional convenience methods to deal with SCALE encoding/decoding (the default output and input format of the Substrate JSONRPC), metadata parsing, type registry management and versioning of types.

Documentation

https://polkascan.github.io/py-substrate-interface/

Installation

pip install polymath-substrate-interface

Initialization

The following examples show how to initialize for Polymesh chain:

Substrate Node Template

Compatible with https://github.com/substrate-developer-hub/substrate-node-template

substrate = SubstrateInterface(
    url="http://127.0.0.1:9933",
    address_type=42,
    type_registry_preset='substrate-node-template'
)

If custom types are introduced in the Substrate chain, the following example will add compatibility by creating a custom type registry JSON file and including this during initialization:

{
  "runtime_id": 2,
  "types": {
    "MyCustomInt": "u32",
    "MyStruct": {
      "type": "struct",
      "type_mapping": [
         ["account", "AccountId"],
         ["message", "Vec<u8>"]
      ]
    }
  },
  "versioning": [
  ]
}
custom_type_registry = load_type_registry_file("my-custom-types.json")

substrate = SubstrateInterface(
    url="http://127.0.0.1:9933",
    address_type=42,
    type_registry_preset='substrate-node-template',
    type_registry=custom_type_registry
)

Keeping type registry presets up to date

When on-chain runtime upgrades occur, types used in call- or storage functions can be added or modified. Therefor it is important to keep the type registry presets up to date. At the moment the type registry for Polymesh is being actively maintained for this library and an check and update procedure can be triggered with:

substrate.update_type_registry_presets()

Examples

Get extrinsics for a certain block

# Set block_hash to None for chaintip
block_hash = "0x588930468212316d8a75ede0bec0bc949451c164e2cea07ccfc425f497b077b7"

# Retrieve extrinsics in block
result = substrate.get_runtime_block(block_hash=block_hash)

for extrinsic in result['block']['extrinsics']:

    if 'account_id' in extrinsic:
        signed_by_address = ss58_encode(address=extrinsic['account_id'], address_type=2)
    else:
        signed_by_address = None

    print('\nModule: {}\nCall: {}\nSigned by: {}'.format(
        extrinsic['call_module'],
        extrinsic['call_function'],
        signed_by_address
    ))

    # Loop through params
    for param in extrinsic['params']:

        if param['type'] == 'Address':
            param['value'] = ss58_encode(address=param['value'], address_type=2)

        if param['type'] == 'Compact<Balance>':
            param['value'] = '{} DOT'.format(param['value'] / 10**12)

        print("Param '{}': {}".format(param['name'], param['value']))

Make a storage call

The modules and storage functions are provided in the metadata (see substrate.get_metadata_storage_functions()), parameters will be automatically converted to SCALE-bytes (also including decoding of SS58 addresses).

balance_info = substrate.get_runtime_state(
    module='System',
    storage_function='Account',
    params=['5E9oDs9PjpsBbxXxRE9uMaZZhnBAV38n2ouLB28oecBDdeQo']
).get('result')

if balance_info:
    print("\n\nCurrent free balance: {} KSM".format(
        balance_info.get('data').get('free', 0) / 10**12
    ))

Or get a historic balance at a certain block hash:

balance_info = substrate.get_runtime_state(
    module='System',
    storage_function='Account',
    params=['5E9oDs9PjpsBbxXxRE9uMaZZhnBAV38n2ouLB28oecBDdeQo'],
    block_hash=block_hash
).get('result')

if balance_info:
    print("\n\nFree balance @ {}: {} KSM".format(
        block_hash,
        balance_info.get('data').get('free', 0) / 10**12
    ))

Or get all the key pairs of a map:

# Get all the stash and controller bondings.
all_bonded_stash_ctrls = substrate.iterate_map(
    module='Staking',
    storage_function='Bonded',
    block_hash=block_hash
)

Create and send signed extrinsics

The following code snippet illustrates how to create a call, wrap it in an signed extrinsic and send it to the network:

from substrateinterface import SubstrateInterface, SubstrateRequestException, Keypair

substrate = SubstrateInterface(
    url="ws://127.0.0.1:9944",
    address_type=42,
    type_registry_preset='kusama'
)

keypair = Keypair.create_from_mnemonic('episode together nose spoon dose oil faculty zoo ankle evoke admit walnut')

call = substrate.compose_call(
    call_module='Balances',
    call_function='transfer',
    call_params={
        'dest': '5E9oDs9PjpsBbxXxRE9uMaZZhnBAV38n2ouLB28oecBDdeQo',
        'value': 1 * 10**12
    }
)

extrinsic = substrate.create_signed_extrinsic(call=call, keypair=keypair)

try:
    result = substrate.submit_extrinsic(extrinsic, wait_for_inclusion=True)
    print("Extrinsic '{}' sent and included in block '{}'".format(result['extrinsic_hash'], result['block_hash']))

except SubstrateRequestException as e:
    print("Failed to send: {}".format(e))

Create mortal extrinsics

By default immortal extrinsics are created, which means they have an indefinite lifetime for being included in a block. However it is recommended to use specify an expiry window, so you know after a certain amount of time if the extrinsic is not included in a block, it will be invalidated.

extrinsic = substrate.create_signed_extrinsic(call=call, keypair=keypair, era={'period': 64})

The period specifies the number of blocks the extrinsic is valid counted from current head.

Keypair creation and signing

mnemonic = Keypair.generate_mnemonic()
keypair = Keypair.create_from_mnemonic(mnemonic)
signature = keypair.sign("Test123")
if keypair.verify("Test123", signature):
    print('Verified')

By default a keypair is using SR25519 cryptography, alternatively ED25519 can be explictly specified:

keypair = Keypair.create_from_mnemonic(mnemonic, crypto_type=KeypairType.ED25519)

Creating keypairs with soft and hard key derivation paths

mnemonic = Keypair.generate_mnemonic()
keypair = Keypair.create_from_uri(mnemonic + '//hard/soft')

By omitting the mnemonic the default development mnemonic is used:

keypair = Keypair.create_from_uri('//Alice')

Getting estimate of network fees for extrinsic in advance

keypair = Keypair(ss58_address="EaG2CRhJWPb7qmdcJvy3LiWdh26Jreu9Dx6R1rXxPmYXoDk")

call = self.kusama_substrate.compose_call(
    call_module='Balances',
    call_function='transfer',
    call_params={
        'dest': 'EaG2CRhJWPb7qmdcJvy3LiWdh26Jreu9Dx6R1rXxPmYXoDk',
        'value': 2 * 10 ** 3
    }
)
payment_info = self.kusama_substrate.get_payment_info(call=call, keypair=keypair)

Offline signing of extrinsics

This example generates a signature payload which can be signed on another (offline) machine and later on sent to the network with the generated signature.

Generate signature payload on online machine:

substrate = SubstrateInterface(
    url="http://127.0.0.1:9933",
    address_type=42,
    type_registry_preset='substrate-node-template',
)

call = substrate.compose_call(
    call_module='Balances',
    call_function='transfer',
    call_params={
        'dest': '5GrwvaEF5zXb26Fz9rcQpDWS57CtERHpNehXCPcNoHGKutQY',
        'value': 2 * 10**8
    }
)

era = {'period': 64, 'current': 22719}
nonce = 0

signature_payload = substrate.generate_signature_payload(call=call, era=era, nonce=nonce)

Then on another (offline) machine generate the signature with given signature_payload:

keypair = Keypair.create_from_mnemonic("nature exchange gasp toy result bacon coin broccoli rule oyster believe lyrics")
signature = keypair.sign(signature_payload)

Finally on the online machine send the extrinsic with generated signature:

keypair = Keypair(ss58_address="5EChUec3ZQhUvY1g52ZbfBVkqjUY9Kcr6mcEvQMbmd38shQL")

extrinsic = substrate.create_signed_extrinsic(
    call=call,
    keypair=keypair,
    era=era,
    nonce=nonce,
    signature=signature
)

result = substrate.submit_extrinsic(
    extrinsic=extrinsic
)

print(result['extrinsic_hash'])

Metadata and type versioning

Py-substrate-interface makes it also possible to easily interprete changed types and historic runtimes. As an example we create an (not very useful) historic call of a module that has been removed later on: retrieval of historic metadata and apply the correct version of types in the type registry is all done automatically. Because parsing of metadata and type registry is quite heavy, the result will be cached per runtime id. In the future there could be support for caching backends like Redis to make this cache more persistent.

Create an unsigned extrinsic of a module that was removed by providing block hash:

payload = substrate.compose_call(
    call_module='Nicks',
    call_function='clear_name',
    call_params={},
    block_hash="0x918107632d7994d50f3661db3af353d2aa378f696e47a393bab573f63f7d6c3a"
)

License

https://github.com/PolymathNetwork/py-substrate-interface/blob/master/LICENSE

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