pPXF: Full Spectrum and SED Fitting of Galactic and Stellar Spectra

## Project description

## The pPXF Package

**pPXF: Full Spectrum Fitting with Photometry for Stars and Galaxies**

This pPXF package contains a Python implementation of the Penalized PiXel-Fitting (pPXF) method. It uses full-spectrum fitting with photometry (SED) to extract the stellar and gas kinematics, as well as the stellar population of stars and galaxies. The method was originally described in Cappellari & Emsellem (2004) and was substantially upgraded in subsequent years and particularly in Cappellari (2017) and with the inclusion of photometry and linear constraints in Cappellari (2023).

### Attribution

If you use this software for your research, please cite at least Cappellari (2023), or additionally some pPXF papers above. The BibTeX entry for the paper is:

@ARTICLE{Cappellari2023, author = {{Cappellari}, M.}, title = "{Full spectrum fitting with photometry in PPXF: stellar population versus dynamical masses, non-parametric star formation history and metallicity for 3200 LEGA-C galaxies at redshift $z\approx0.8$}", journal = {MNRAS}, eprint = {2208.14974}, year = 2023, volume = 526, pages = {3273-3300}, doi = {10.1093/mnras/stad2597} }

### Installation

install with:

pip install ppxf

Without write access to the global site-packages directory, use:

pip install --user ppxf

To upgrade pPXF to the latest version use:

pip install --upgrade ppxf

### Usage Examples

To learn how to use the pPXF package, copy, modify and run the example programs in the ppxf/examples directory. It can be found within the main ppxf package installation folder inside site-packages. The detailed documentation is contained in the docstring of the file ppxf.py, or on PyPi or as PDF from https://purl.org/cappellari/software.

Examples as Jupyter Notebooks are also available on my GitHub repository.

## pPXF Class

### pPXF Purpose

Extract the galaxy stellar and gas kinematics, stellar population and gas emission by fitting a set of templates to an observed spectrum, or to a combination of a spectrum and photometry (SED), via full-spectrum fitting. It uses the Penalized PiXel-Fitting (pPXF) method originally described in Cappellari & Emsellem (2004) and substantially upgraded in subsequent years and particularly in Cappellari (2017) and with the inclusion of photometry and linear constraints in Cappellari (2023).

The following key optional features are also available:

An optimal template, positive linear combination of different input templates, can be fitted together with the kinematics.

One can enforce smoothness on the template weights during the fit. This is useful to attach a physical meaning to the weights e.g. in terms of the star formation history of a galaxy.

One can fit multiple kinematic components for both the stars and the gas emission lines. Both the stellar and gas LOSVD can be penalized and can be described by a general Gauss-Hermite series.

One can fit simultaneously a spectrum and a set of photometric measurements (SED fitting).

Any parameter of the LOSVD (e.g. sigma) for any kinematic component can either be fitted or held fixed to a given value, while other parameters are fitted. Alternatively, parameters can be constrained to lie within given limits or tied by nonlinear equalities to other parameters.

One can enforce linear equality/inequality constraints on either the template weights or the kinematic parameters.

Additive and/or multiplicative polynomials can be included to adjust the continuum shape of the template to the observed spectrum.

Iterative sigma clipping can be used to clean the spectrum.

It is possible to fit a mirror-symmetric LOSVD to two spectra at the same time. This is useful for spectra taken at point-symmetric spatial positions with respect to the center of an equilibrium stellar system.

One can include sky spectra in the fit, to deal with cases where the sky dominates the observed spectrum and an accurate sky subtraction is critical.

One can model the attenuation curve for an arbitrary number of dust components and for user-provided attenuation curves.

The covariance matrix can be input instead of the error spectrum, to account for correlated errors in the spectral pixels.

One can specify the weights fraction between two kinematics components, e.g. to model bulge and disk contributions.

One can use templates with higher resolution than the galaxy, to improve the accuracy of the LOSVD extraction at low dispersion.

### Calling Sequence

```
from ppxf.ppxf import ppxf
pp = ppxf(templates, galaxy, noise, velscale, start, bias=None,
bounds=None, clean=False, component=0, constr_templ=None,
constr_kinem=None, degree=4, dust=None, fixed=None,
fraction=None, ftol=1e-4, gas_component=None, gas_names=None,
gas_reddening=None, gas_reddening_func=None,
global_search=False, goodpixels=None, lam=None,
lam_temp=None, linear=False, linear_method='lsq_box',
mask=None, method='capfit', mdegree=0, moments=2, phot=None,
plot=False, quiet=False, reddening=None, reddening_func=None,
reg_dim=None, reg_ord=2, reg_step=None, regul=0,
sigma_diff=0, sky=None, templates_rfft=None, tied=None,
trig=False, velscale_ratio=1, vsyst=0, x0=None)
print(pp.sol) # print best-fitting kinematics (V, sigma, h3, h4)
pp.plot() # Plot best fit with gas lines and photometry
```

Example programs are located in the ppxf/examples subdirectory, accessible within the primary ppxf package directory found in site-packages. For guidance on locating the installation folder, refer to this Stack Overflow post.

These Python examples are structured using the py:percent format, and can be opened as Jupyter Notebooks in most Python IDEs.

Additionally, one can view the Jupyter Notebook formatted examples complete with their outputs on my GitHub repository.

### Parameters

- templates: array_like with shape (n_pixels_temp, n_templates)
Vector containing a single log-rebinned spectral template, or an array of shape (n_pixels_temp, n_templates) containing different log-rebinned stellar or gas emission spectral templates to be optimized during the fit of the galaxy spectrum. It has to be n_pixels_temp >= galaxy.size.

To apply linear regularization to the weights via the keyword regul, templates should be an array of shape

2-dim: (n_pixels_temp, n_age),

3-dim: (n_pixels_temp, n_age, n_metal)

4-dim: (n_pixels_temp, n_age, n_metal, n_alpha)

depending on the number of population variables one wants to study. This can be useful to try to attach a physical meaning to the output weights, in term of the galaxy star formation history and chemical composition distribution. In that case the templates may represent single stellar population SSP models and should be arranged in sequence of increasing age, metallicity or alpha (or alternative population parameters) along the second, third or fourth dimension of the array respectively.

IMPORTANT: The templates must be normalized to unity order of magnitude, to avoid numerical instabilities.

When studying stellar population, the relative fluxes of the templates are important. For this reason one must scale all templates by a scalar. This can be done with a command like:

templates /= np.median(templates)

When using individual stars as templates, the relative fluxes are generally irrelevant and one can normalize each template independently. This can be done with a command like:

templates /= np.median(templates, 0)

- galaxy: array_like with shape (n_pixels,)
Vector containing the log-rebinned spectrum of the galaxy to be measured. Both the templates and the galaxy spectra have to be logarithmically rebinned and the continuum should

*not*be subtracted. The rebinning may be performed with the log_rebin routine in ppxf.ppxf_util. The units of the spectrum flux are arbitrary. One can use e.g. erg/(s cm^2 A) or erg/(s cm^2 pixel) as long as the same are used for templates. But see the note at the end of this section.For high redshift galaxies, it is generally easier to bring the spectra close to the restframe wavelength, before doing the pPXF fit. This can be done by dividing the observed wavelength by (1 + z), where z is a rough estimate of the galaxy redshift. There is no need to modify the spectrum in any way, given that a red shift corresponds to a linear shift of the log-rebinned spectrum. One just needs to compute the wavelength range in the rest-frame and adjust the instrumental resolution of the galaxy observations. See Section 2.4 of Cappellari (2017) for details.

galaxy can also be an array of shape (n_pixels, 2) containing two spectra to be fitted, at the same time, with a reflection-symmetric LOSVD. This is useful for spectra taken at point-symmetric spatial positions with respect to the center of an equilibrium stellar system. For a discussion of the usefulness of this two-sided fitting see e.g. Section 3.6 of Rix & White (1992).

IMPORTANT: (1) For the two-sided fitting the vsyst keyword has to be used. (2) Make sure the spectra are rescaled to be not too many order of magnitude different from unity, to avoid numerical instability. E.g. units of erg/(s cm^2 A) may cause problems!

- noise: array_like with shape (n_pixels,)
Vector containing the 1*sigma uncertainty (per spectral pixel) in the galaxy spectrum, or covariance matrix describing the correlated uncertainties in the galaxy spectrum. Of course this vector/matrix must have the same units as the galaxy spectrum.

The overall normalization of the noise does not affect the location of the chi2 minimum. For this reason one can measure reliable kinematics even when the noise is not accurately know.

If galaxy is an array of shape (n_pixels, 2) array, then noise has to be an array with the same shape.

When noise has shape (n_pixels, n_pixels) it is assumed to contain the covariance matrix with elements cov(i, j). When the errors in the spectrum are uncorrelated it is mathematically equivalent to input in pPXF an error vector noise=errvec or a (n_pixels, n_pixels) diagonal matrix noise = np.diag(errvec**2) (note squared!).

IMPORTANT: the penalty term of the pPXF method is based on the

*relative*change of the fit residuals. For this reason, the penalty will work as expected even if the normalization of the noise is arbitrary. See Cappellari & Emsellem (2004) for details. If no reliable noise is available this keyword can just be set to:noise = np.ones_like(galaxy) # Same uncertainty for all pixels

- velscale: float
Velocity scale of the spectra in km/s per pixel. It has to be the same for both the galaxy and the template spectra. An exception is when the velscale_ratio keyword is used, in which case one can input templates with smaller velscale than galaxy.

velscale is precisely

*defined*in pPXF by velscale = c*np.diff(np.log(lambda)), which is approximately velscale ~ c*np.diff(lambda)/lambda. See Section 2.3 of Cappellari (2017) for details.- start :
Vector, or list/array of vectors [start1, start2, ...], with the initial estimate for the LOSVD parameters.

When LOSVD parameters are not held fixed, each vector only needs to contain start = [velStart, sigmaStart] the initial guess for the velocity and the velocity dispersion in km/s. The starting values for h3-h6 (if they are fitted) are all set to zero by default. In other words, when moments=4:

start = [velStart, sigmaStart]

is interpreted as:

start = [velStart, sigmaStart, 0, 0]

When the LOSVD for some kinematic components is held fixed (see fixed keyword), all values for [Vel, Sigma, h3, h4,...] can be provided.

Unless a good initial guess is available, it is recommended to set the starting sigma >= 3*velscale in km/s (i.e. 3 pixels). In fact, when the sigma is very low, and far from the true solution, the chi^2 of the fit becomes weakly sensitive to small variations in sigma (see pPXF paper). In some instances, the near-constancy of chi^2 may cause premature convergence of the optimization.

In the case of two-sided fitting a good starting value for the velocity is velStart = 0.0 (in this case vsyst will generally be nonzero). Alternatively on should keep in mind that velStart refers to the first input galaxy spectrum, while the second will have velocity -velStart.

With multiple kinematic components start must be a list of starting values, one for each different component.

EXAMPLE: We want to fit two kinematic components. We fit 4 moments for the first component and 2 moments for the second one as follows:

component = [0, 0, ... 0, 1, 1, ... 1] moments = [4, 2] start = [[V1, sigma1], [V2, sigma2]]

### Other Parameters

- bias: float, optional
When moments > 2, this parameter biases the (h3, h4, ...) measurements towards zero (Gaussian LOSVD) unless their inclusion significantly decreases the error in the fit. Set this to bias=0 not to bias the fit: the solution (including [V, sigma]) will be noisier in that case. This parameter is ignored if moments <= 2. The default bias should provide acceptable results in most cases, but it would be safe to test it with Monte Carlo simulations as described in the section “How to Set the Kinematic Penalty Keyword” near the end of the documentation. This keyword precisely corresponds to the parameter lambda in the Cappellari & Emsellem (2004) paper. Note that the penalty depends on the

*relative*change of the fit residuals, so it is insensitive to proper scaling of the noise vector. A nonzero bias can be safely used even without a reliable noise spectrum, or with equal weighting for all pixels.- bounds :
Lower and upper bounds for every kinematic parameter. This is an array, or list of arrays, with the same dimensions as start, except for the last dimension, which is 2. In practice, for every element of start one needs to specify a pair of values [lower, upper].

EXAMPLE: We want to fit two kinematic components, with 4 moments for the first component and 2 for the second (e.g. stars and gas). In this case:

moments = [4, 2] start_stars = [V1, sigma1, 0, 0] start_gas = [V2, sigma2] start = [start_stars, start_gas]

then we can specify boundaries for each kinematic parameter as:

bounds_stars = [[V1_lo, V1_up], [sigma1_lo, sigma1_up], [-0.3, 0.3], [-0.3, 0.3]] bounds_gas = [[V2_lo, V2_up], [sigma2_lo, sigma2_up]] bounds = [bounds_stars, bounds_gas]

- component: optional
When fitting more than one kinematic component, this keyword should contain the component number of each input template. In principle, every template can belong to a different kinematic component.

EXAMPLE: We want to fit the first 50 templates to component 0 and the last 10 templates to component 1. In this case:

component = [0]*50 + [1]*10

which, in Python syntax, is equivalent to:

component = [0, 0, ... 0, 1, 1, ... 1]

This keyword is especially useful when fitting both emissions (gas) and absorption (stars) templates simultaneously (see the example for the moments keyword).

- constr_kinem: dictionary, optional
It enforces linear constraints on the kinematic parameters during the fit. This is specified by the following dictionary, where A_ineq and A_eq are arrays (have A.ndim = 2), while b_ineq and b_eq are vectors (have b.ndim = 1). Either the _eq or the _ineq keys can be omitted if not needed:

constr_kinem = {"A_ineq": A_ineq, "b_ineq": b_ineq, "A_eq": A_eq, "b_eq": b_eq}

The resulting pPXF kinematics solution will satisfy the following linear matrix inequalities and/or equalities:

params = np.ravel(pp.sol) # Unravel for multiple components A_ineq @ params <= b_ineq A_eq @ params == b_eq

IMPORTANT: the starting guess start must satisfy the constraints, or in other words, it must lie in the feasible region.

Inequalities can be used e.g. to force one kinematic component to have larger velocity or dispersion than another one. This is useful e.g. when extracting two stellar kinematic components or when fitting both narrow and broad components of gas emission lines.

EXAMPLES: We want to fit two kinematic components, with two moments for both the first and second component. In this case:

moments = [2, 2] start = [[V1, sigma1], [V2, sigma2]]

then we can set the constraint sigma1 >= 3*sigma2 as follows:

A_ineq = [[0, -1, 0, 3]] # 0*V1 - 1*sigma1 + 0*V2 + 3*sigma2 <= 0 b_ineq = [0] constr_kinem = {"A_ineq": A_ineq, "b_ineq": b_ineq}

We can set the constraint sigma1 >= sigma2 + 2*velscale as follows:

A_ineq = [[0, -1, 0, 1]] # -sigma1 + sigma2 <= -2*velscale b_ineq = [-2] # kinem. in pixels (-2 --> -2*velscale)! constr_kinem = {"A_ineq": A_ineq, "b_ineq": b_ineq}

We can set both the constraints V1 >= V2 and sigma1 >= sigma2 + 2*velscale as follows:

A_ineq = [[-1, 0, 1, 0], # -V1 + V2 <= 0 [0, -1, 0, 1]] # -sigma1 + sigma2 <= -2*velscale b_ineq = [0, -2] # kinem. in pixels (-2 --> -2*velscale)! constr_kinem = {"A_ineq": A_ineq, "b_ineq": b_ineq}

We can constrain the velocity dispersion of the second kinematic component to differ less than 10% from that of the first component sigma1/1.1 <= sigma2 <= sigma1*1.1 as follows:

A_ineq = [[0, 1/1.1, 0, -1], # +sigma1/1.1 - sigma2 <= 0 [0, -1.1, 0, 1]] # -sigma1*1.1 + sigma2 <= 0 b_ineq = [0, 0] constr_kinem = {"A_ineq": A_ineq, "b_ineq": b_ineq}

EXAMPLE: We want to fit three kinematic components, with four moments for the first and two for the rest. In this case:

moments = [4, 2, 2] start = [[V1, sigma1, 0, 0], [V2, sigma2], [V3, sigma3]]

then we can set the constraints sigma3 >= sigma1 + 2*velscale and V1 <= V2 <= V3 as follows:

A_ineq = [[0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, -1], # sigma1 - sigma3 <= -2*velscale [1, 0, 0, 0, -1, 0, 0, 0], # V1 - V2 <= 0 [0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, -1, 0]] # V2 - V3 <= 0 b_ineq = [-2, 0, 0] # kinem. in pixels (-2 --> -2*velscale)! constr_kinem = {"A_ineq": A_ineq, "b_ineq": b_ineq}

NOTE: When possible, it is more efficient to set equality constraints using the tied keyword, instead of setting A_eq and b_eq in constr_kinem.

- constr_templ: dictionary, optional
It enforces linear constraints on the template weights during the fit. This is specified by the following dictionary, where A_ineq and A_eq are arrays (have A.ndim = 2), while b_ineq and b_eq are vectors (have b.ndim = 1). Either the _eq or the _ineq keys can be omitted if not needed:

constr_templ = {"A_ineq": A_ineq, "b_ineq": b_ineq, "A_eq": A_eq, "b_eq": b_eq}

The resulting pPXF solution will satisfy the following linear matrix inequalities and/or equalities:

A_ineq @ pp.weights <= b_ineq A_eq @ pp.weights == b_eq

Inequality can be used e.g. to constrain the fluxes of emission lines to lie within prescribed ranges. Equalities can be used e.g. to force the weights for different kinematic components to contain prescribed fractions of the total weights.

EXAMPLES: We are fitting a spectrum using four templates, the first two templates belong to one kinematic component and the rest to the other. NOTE: This 4-templates example is for illustration, but in real applications one will use many more than two templates per component! This implies we have:

component=[0, 0, 1, 1]

then we can set the equality constraint that the sum of the weights of the first kinematic component is a given fraction of the total:

pp.weights[component == 0].sum()/pp.weights.sum() == fraction

as follows [see equation 30 of Cappellari (2017)]:

A_eq = [[fraction - 1, fraction - 1, fraction, fraction]] b_eq = [0] constr_templ = {"A_eq": A_eq, "b_eq": b_eq}

An identical result can be obtained in this case using the legacy fraction keyword, but constr_templ additionally allows for general linear constraints for multiple kinematic components.

Similarly, we can set the inequality constraint that the total weights of each of the two kinematic components is larger than fraction:

fraction <= pp.weights[component == 0].sum()/pp.weights.sum() fraction <= pp.weights[component == 1].sum()/pp.weights.sum()

as follows:

A_ineq = [[fraction - 1, fraction - 1, fraction, fraction], [fraction, fraction, fraction - 1, fraction - 1]] b_ineq = [0, 0] constr_templ = {"A_ineq": A_ineq, "b_ineq": b_ineq}

We can constrain the ratio of the first two templates weights to lie in the interval ratio_min <= w[0]/w[1] <= ratio_max as follows:

A_ineq = [[-1, ratio_min, 0, 0], # -w[0] + ratio_min*w[1] <= 0 [1, -ratio_max, 0, 0]] # +w[0] - ratio_max*w[1] <= 0 b_ineq = [0, 0] constr_templ = {"A_ineq": A_ineq, "b_ineq": b_ineq}

If we have six templates for three kinematics components:

component=[0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2]

we can set the fractions for the first two components to be fraction1 and fraction2 (of the total weights) respectively as follows (the third components will be 1 - fraction1 - fraction2):

A_eq = [[fraction1 - 1, fraction1 - 1, fraction1, fraction1, fraction1, fraction1], [fraction2, fraction2, fraction2 - 1, fraction2 - 1, fraction2, fraction2]] b_eq = [0, 0] constr_templ = {"A_eq": A_eq, "b_eq": b_eq}

- clean: bool, optional
Set this keyword to use the iterative sigma clipping method described in Section 2.1 of Cappellari et al. (2002). This is useful to remove from the fit unmasked bad pixels, residual gas emissions or cosmic rays.

IMPORTANT: This is recommended

*only*if a reliable estimate of the noise spectrum is available. See also note below for .chi2.- degree: int, optional
Degree of the

*additive*Legendre polynomial used to correct the template continuum shape during the fit (default: 4). This uses the standard mathematical definition where e.g. degree=2 is a quadratic polynomial. Set degree=-1 not to include any additive polynomial.- dust: list of dictionaries, optional
Each element of the list is a dictionary specifying the parameters for the attenuation curve to be applied to a given set of templates. Each dictionary can contain the following keys (only "start" and "component" are required). The meaning is similar to the same parameters in the pPXF call, but these are specific to the dust:

dust_1 = {"bounds":..., "component":..., "fixed":..., "func":..., "start":...} dust_2 = {"bounds":..., "component":..., "fixed":..., "func":..., "start":...} ... dust_n = {"bounds":..., "component":..., "fixed":..., "func":..., "start":...} dust = [dust_1, dust_2, ..., dust_n]

bounds: array_like with shape (n_start, 2) - Lower and upper bounds for every dust attenuation parameter of the given dust_j component. For every element of dust_j["start"] one needs to specify a pair of values [lower, upper].

component: array_like with shape (n_templates,) - Boolean vector, of the same size as the kinematic component, set to True for the templates that should be attenuated by the dust_j component.

fixed: array_like with shape (n_start,) - Boolean vector set to True where a dust_j attenuation parameter has to be held fixed with the value given in dust_j["start"]. This is an array, or list, with the same dimensions as dust_j["start"].

func: callable, optional - function specifying the attenuation curve for the dust_j component. It must accept as input the same number of parameters as given in dust_j["start"]. If this is not given, pPXF uses the 4-parameters dust formulas given in Cappellari (2023) implemented in the function attenuation in the file ppxf.py.

start: array_like with shape (n_start,) - Contains the starting values for the attenuation parameters of dust_j.

EXAMPLE: We want to model two dust components, one for the gas emission lines and another for the rest. For the gas we use a 1-parameter Calzetti et al. (2000) attenuation curve, while for the rest we use the default attenuation curve in Cappellari (2023), but we only use the first two parameters (A_V, delta). In this case, the dust keyword would be:

gas_component = component > 0 # assuming stars = 0 and gas = 1 dust_gas = {"start": [0.1], "bounds": [[0, 8]], "component": gas_component} dust_stars = {"start": [0.1, -0.1], "bounds": [[0, 4], [-1, 0.4]], "component": ~gas_component} dust = [dust_gas, dust_stars]

- fixed: optional
Boolean vector set to True where a given kinematic parameter has to be held fixed with the value given in start. This is an array, or list, with the same dimensions as start.

EXAMPLE: We want to fit two kinematic components, with 4 moments for the first component and 2 for the second. In this case:

moments = [4, 2] start = [[V1, sigma1, h3, h4], [V2, sigma2]]

then we can held fixed e.g. the sigma (only) of both components using:

fixed = [[0, 1, 0, 0], [0, 1]]

NOTE: Setting a negative moments for a kinematic component is entirely equivalent to setting fixed = 1 for all parameters of the given kinematic component. In other words:

moments = [-4, 2]

is equivalent to:

moments = [4, 2] fixed = [[1, 1, 1, 1], [0, 0]]

- fraction: float, optional
This keyword allows one to fix the ratio between the first two kinematic components. This is a scalar defined as follows:

fraction = np.sum(weights[component == 0]) / np.sum(weights[component < 2])

This is useful e.g. to try to kinematically decompose bulge and disk.

The remaining kinematic components (component > 1) are left free, and this allows, for example, to still include gas emission line components. More general linear constraints, for multiple kinematic components at the same time, can be specified using the more general and flexible constr_templ keyword.

- ftol: float, optional
Fractional tolerance for stopping the non-linear minimization (default 1e-4).

- gas_component: optional
Boolean vector, of the same size as component, set to True where the given component describes a gas emission line. If given, pPXF provides the pp.gas_flux and pp.gas_flux_error in output.

EXAMPLE: In the common situation where component = 0 are stellar templates and the rest are gas emission lines, one will set:

gas_component = component > 0

This keyword is also used to plot the gas lines with a different color.

- gas_names: optional
String array specifying the names of the emission lines (e.g. gas_names=["Hbeta", "[OIII]",...], one per gas line. The length of this vector must match the number of nonzero elements in gas_component. This vector is only used by pPXF to print the line names on the console.

- gas_reddening: float, optional
Set this keyword to an initial estimate of the gas reddening A_V >= 0 to fit a positive gas reddening together with the kinematics and the templates. This reddening is applied only to the gas templates, namely to the templates with the corresponding element of gas_component=True. The typical use of this keyword is when using a single template for all the Balmer lines, with assumed intrinsic ratios for the lines. In this way the gas fit becomes sensitive to reddening. The fit assumes by default the extinction curve of Calzetti et al. (2000) but any other prescription can be passed via the reddening_func keyword. By default gas_reddening=None and this parameter is not fitted.

NOTE: This keyword is obsolete. I recommend using the more flexible and general dust keyword instead.

- global_search: bool or dictionary, optional
Set to True to perform a global optimization of the nonlinear parameters (kinematics) before starting the usual local optimizer. Alternatively, one can pass via this keyword a dictionary of options for the function scipy.optimize.differential_evolution. Default options are global_search={'tol': 0.1, 'disp': 1}.

The fixed and tied keywords, as well as constr_kinem are properly supported when using global_search and one is encouraged to use them to reduce parameters degeneracies.

NOTE: This option is computationally intensive and completely unnecessary in most situations. It should

*only*be used in special situations where there are obvious multiple local chi2 minima. An example is when fitting multiple stellar or gas kinematic components with well-resolved velocity differences.IMPORTANT: when using this keyword it is recommended

*not*to use multiplicative polynomials but only additive ones to avoid unnecessarily long computation times. After converging to a global solution, if desired one can repeat the pPXF fit with multiplicative polynomials but without setting global_search.- goodpixels: array_like of int with shape (n_pixels,), optional
Integer vector containing the indices of the good pixels in the galaxy spectrum (in increasing order). Only these spectral pixels are included in the fit.

- lam: array_like with shape (n_pixels,), optional
Vector with the

*restframe*wavelength in Angstroms of every pixel in the input galaxy spectrum. This keyword is required when using the keywords reddening, gas_reddening or dust.If one uses my ppxf_util.log_rebin routine to rebin the spectrum before the pPXF fit, the wavelength can be obtained as:

from ppxf.ppxf_util import log_rebin specNew, ln_lam, velscale = log_rebin(lamRange, galaxy) lam = np.exp(ln_lam)

When lam is given, the wavelength is shown in the best-fitting plot, instead of the pixels.

- lam_temp: array_like with shape (n_pixels_temp,), optional
Vector with the

*restframe*wavelength in Angstroms of every pixel in the input templates spectra.When both the wavelength of the templates lam_temp and of the galaxy lam are given, the templates are automatically truncated to the minimal range required, for the adopted input velocity guess. In this case it is unnecessary to use the vsyst keyword.

If phot is also given, the final plot will include a best fitting spectrum estimated using the full template, before truncation, together with the photometric values and the truncated best fit to the galaxy spectrum. This is useful to see the underlying best fitting spectrum, in the wavelength range where only photometry (SED) was fitted.

- linear: bool, optional
Set to True to keep

*all*nonlinear parameters fixed and*only*perform a linear fit for the templates and additive polynomials weights. The output solution is a copy of the input one and the errors are zero.- linear_method: {‘nnls’, ‘lsq_box’, ‘lsq_lin’, ‘cvxopt’} optional
Method used for the solution of the linear least-squares subproblem to fit for the templates weights (default ‘lsq_box’ fast box-constrained).

The computational speed of the four alternative linear methods depends on the size of the problem, with the default ‘lsq_box’ generally being the fastest without linear inequality constraints. Note that ‘lsq_lin’ is included in ppxf, while ‘cvxopt’ is an optional external package. The ‘nnls’ option (the only one before v7.0) is generally slower and for this reason is now deprecated.

The inequality constraints in constr_templ are only supported with linear_method='lsq_lin' or linear_method='cvxopt'.

- mask: array_like of bool with shape (n_pixels,), optional
Boolean vector of length galaxy.size specifying with True the pixels that should be included in the fit. This keyword is just an alternative way of specifying the goodpixels.

- mdegree: int, optional
Degree of the

*multiplicative*Legendre polynomial (with a mean of 1) used to correct the continuum shape during the fit (default: 0). The zero degree multiplicative polynomial (i.e. constant) is always included in the fit as it corresponds to the multiplicative weights assigned to the templates. Note that the computation time is longer with multiplicative polynomials than with the same degree of additive polynomials.- method: {‘capfit’, ‘trf’, ‘dogbox’, ‘lm’}, optional.
Algorithm to perform the non-linear minimization step. The default ‘capfit’ is a novel linearly-constrained non-linear least-squares optimization program, which combines the Sequential Quadratic Programming and the Levenberg-Marquardt methods. For a description of the other methods (‘trf’, ‘dogbox’, ‘lm’), see the documentation of scipy.optimize.least_squares.

The use of linear constraints with constr_kinem is only supported with the default method='capfit'.

- moments: optional
Order of the Gauss-Hermite moments to fit. Set this keyword to 4 to fit [h3, h4] and to 6 to fit [h3, h4, h5, h6]. Note that in all cases the G-H moments are fitted (non-linearly)

*together*with [V, sigma].If moments=2 or moments is not set then only [V, sigma] are fitted.

If moments is negative then the kinematics of the given component are kept fixed to the input values. NOTE: Setting a negative moments for a kinematic component is entirely equivalent to setting fixed = 1 for all parameters of the given kinematic component.

EXAMPLE: We want to keep fixed component = 0, which has a LOSVD described by [V, sigma, h3, h4] and is modelled with 100 spectral templates; At the same time, we fit [V, sigma] for component = 1, which is described by 5 templates (this situation may arise when fitting stellar templates with pre-determined stellar kinematics, while fitting the gas emission). We should give in input to pPXF the following parameters:

component = [0]*100 + [1]*5 # --> [0, 0, ... 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1] moments = [-4, 2] start = [[V, sigma, h3, h4], [V, sigma]]

- phot: dictionary, optional
Dictionary of parameters used to fit photometric data (SED fitting) together with a spectrum. This is defined as follows:

phot = {"templates": phot_templates, "galaxy": phot_galaxy, "noise": phot_noise, "lam": phot_lam}

The keys of this dictionary are analogue to the pPXF parameters galaxy, templates, noise and lam for the spectra. However, the ones in this dictionary contain photometric data instead of spectra and will generally consist just a few values (one per photometric band) instead of thousands of elements like the spectra. Specifically:

phot_templates: array_like with shape (n_phot, n_templates) - Mean flux of the templates in the observed photometric bands. This array has the same number of dimension as the templates input parameter. The same description applies. The only difference is that the first dimension is n_phot instead of n_pixels_temp. This array can have 2-4 dimensions and all dimensions must match those of the spectral templates, except for the first dimension. These templates must have the same units and normalization as the spectral templates. If the spectral templates cover the ranges of the photometric bands, and filter responses resp are available, the mean fluxes for each template can be computed as (e.g. equation A11 of Bessell & Murphy 2012):

phot_template = Integrate[template*resp(lam)*lam, {lam, -inf, inf}] / Integrate[resp(lam)*lam, {lam, -inf, inf}]

One can use the function ppxf_util.photometry_from_spectra as an illustration of how to compute the phot_templates. This function can be easily modified to include any additional filter.

Alternatively, the fluxes may be tabulated by the authors of the SSP models, for the same model parameters as the spectral SSP templates. However, this can only be used for redshift z ~ 0.

phot_galaxy: array_like with shape (n_phot) - Observed photometric measurements for the galaxy in linear flux units. These values must be matched to the same spatial aperture used for the spectra and they must have the same units (e.g. erg/(s cm^2 A)). This means that these values must be like the average fluxes one would measure on the fitted galaxy spectrum if it was sufficiently extended. One can think of these photometric values as some special extra pixels to be added to the spectrum. The difference is that they are not affected by the polynomials nor by the kinematics.

phot_noise: array_like with shape (n_phot) - Vector containing the 1*sigma uncertainty of each photometric measurement in phot_galaxy. One can change the normalization of these uncertainties to vary the relative influence of the photometric measurements versus the spectral fits.

phot_lam: array_like with shape (n_phot) or (n_phot, n_templates) - Mean

*restframe*wavelength for each photometric band in phot_galaxy. This is only used to estimate reddening of each band and to produce the plots. It can be computed from the system response function resp as (e.g. equation A17 of Bessell & Murphy 2012):phot_lam = Integrate[resp(lam)*lam^2, {lam, -inf, inf}] / Integrate[resp(lam)*lam, {lam, -inf, inf}]

If spectral templates are available over the full extent of the photometric bands, then one can compute a more accurate effective wavelength for each template separately. In this case phot_lam must have the same dimensions as phot_templates. For each templates the effective wavelength can be computed as (e.g. equation A21 of Bessell & Murphy 2012):

phot_lam = Integrate[template*resp(lam)*lam^2, {lam, -inf, inf}] / Integrate[template*resp(lam)*lam, {lam, -inf, inf}]

- plot: bool, optional
Set this keyword to plot the best fitting solution and the residuals at the end of the fit.

One can also call separately the class function pp.plot() after the call to pp = ppxf(...).

- quiet: bool, optional
Set this keyword to suppress verbose output of the best fitting parameters at the end of the fit.

- reddening: float, optional
Set this keyword to an initial estimate of the stellar reddening A_V >= 0 to fit a positive stellar reddening together with the kinematics and the templates. This reddening is applied only to the stellar templates (both spectral and photometric ones), namely to the templates with the corresponding element of gas_component=False, or to all templates, if gas_component is not set. The fit assumes by default the extinction curve of Calzetti et al. (2000) but any other prescription can be passed via the reddening_func keyword. By default reddening=None and this parameter is not fitted.

NOTE: This keyword is obsolete. I recommend using the more flexible and general dust keyword instead.

- reg_dim: tuple, optional
When using regularization with more than one kinematic component (using the component keyword), the regularization is only applied to the first one (component=0). This is useful to fit the stellar population and gas emissions together.

In this situation, one has to use the reg_dim keyword, to give pPXF the dimensions of the population parameters (e.g. n_age, n_metal, n_alpha). One should create the initial array of population templates like e.g. templates[n_pixels, n_age, n_metal, n_alpha] and define:

reg_dim = templates.shape[1:] # = [n_age, n_metal, n_alpha]

The array of stellar templates is then reshaped into a 2-dim array as:

templates = templates.reshape(templates.shape[0], -1)

and the gas emission templates are appended as extra columns at the end. An usage example is given in ppxf_example_population_gas_sdss.py.

When using regularization with a single component (the component keyword is not used, or contains identical values), the number of population templates along different dimensions (e.g. n_age, n_metal, n_alpha) is inferred from the dimensions of the templates array and this keyword is not necessary.

- reg_ord: int, optional
Order of the derivative that is minimized by the regularization. The following two rotationally-symmetric estimators are supported:

reg_ord=1: minimizes the integral over the weights of the squared gradient:

Grad[w] @ Grad[w].

reg_ord=2: minimizes the integral over the weights of the squared curvature:

Laplacian[w]**2.

- reg_step: list of arrays, shape (len(reg_dim),), optional
Defines the step sizes for numerical estimation of derivatives during regularization. Each array in the list corresponds to a dimension in reg_dim, specifying the step size for each interval within that dimension. By default, if reg_step is not provided, a step size of one is assumed for all dimensions, equivalent to reg_step = [np.ones(rd - 1) for rd in reg_dim]. To customize, provide reg_step as a list containing arrays, where each array has a length of reg_dim[j] - 1, allowing for variable step sizes across intervals and dimensions.

NOTE 1: Multiplying each element in reg_step by a constant factor k has the same effect as dividing the regularization parameter regul by k**reg_ord.

NOTE 2: The standard approach consists of sampling the SPS template spectra logarithmically in age and adopt a constant unitary step,

**without**using this keyword.- regul: float, optional
If this keyword is nonzero, the program applies first or second-order linear regularization to the weights during the pPXF fit. Regularization is done in one, two or three dimensions depending on whether the array of templates has two, three or four dimensions respectively. Large regul values correspond to smoother weights output. When this keyword is nonzero the solution will be a trade-off between the smoothness of weights and goodness of fit.

Section 3.5 of Cappellari (2017) describes regularization.

When fitting multiple kinematic component the regularization is applied only to the first component = 0, while additional components are not regularized. This is useful when fitting stellar population together with gas emission lines. In that case, the SSP spectral templates must be given first and the gas emission templates are given last. In this situation, one has to use the reg_dim keyword (below), to give pPXF the dimensions of the population parameters (e.g. n_age, n_metal, n_alpha). A usage example is given in the file ppxf_example_population_gas_sdss.py.

The effect of the regularization scheme is the following:

With reg_ord=1 it enforces the numerical first derivatives between neighbouring weights (in the 1-dim case) to be equal to w[j] - w[j+1] = 0 with an error Delta = 1/regul.

With reg_ord=2 it enforces the numerical second derivatives between neighbouring weights (in the 1-dim case) to be equal to w[j-1] - 2*w[j] + w[j+1] = 0 with an error Delta = 1/regul.

It may be helpful to define regul = 1/Delta and think of Delta as the regularization error.

IMPORTANT: Delta needs to be smaller but of the same order of magnitude of the typical weights to play an effect on the regularization. One quick way to achieve this is:

Divide the full templates array by a scalar in such a way that the typical template has a median of one:

templates /= np.median(templates)

Do the same for the input galaxy spectrum:

galaxy /= np.median(galaxy)

In this situation, a sensible guess for Delta will be a few percent (e.g. Delta=0.01 --> regul=100).

Alternatively, for a more rigorous definition of the parameter regul:

Perform an unregularized fit (regul=0) and then rescale the input noise spectrum so that:

Chi^2/DOF = Chi^2/goodPixels.size = 1.

This is achieved by rescaling the input noise spectrum as:

noise = noise*np.sqrt(Chi**2/DOF) = noise*np.sqrt(pp.chi2);

Increase regul and iteratively redo the pPXF fit until the Chi^2 increases from the unregularized value Chi^2 = goodPixels.size by DeltaChi^2 = np.sqrt(2*goodPixels.size).

The derived regularization corresponds to the maximum one still consistent with the observations and the derived star formation history will be the smoothest (minimum curvature or minimum variation) that is still consistent with the observations.

- sigma_diff: float, optional
Quadratic difference in km/s defined as:

sigma_diff**2 = sigma_inst**2 - sigma_temp**2

between the instrumental dispersion of the galaxy spectrum and the instrumental dispersion of the template spectra.

This keyword is useful when the templates have higher resolution than the galaxy and they were not convolved to match the instrumental dispersion of the galaxy spectrum. In this situation, the convolution is done by pPXF with increased accuracy, using an analytic Fourier Transform.

- sky: optional
vector containing the spectrum of the sky to be included in the fit, or array of dimensions sky[n_pixels, nSky] containing different sky spectra to add to the model of the observed galaxy spectrum. The sky has to be log-rebinned as the galaxy spectrum and needs to have the same number of pixels.

The sky is generally subtracted from the data before the pPXF fit. However, for observations very heavily dominated by the sky spectrum, where a very accurate sky subtraction is critical, it may be useful

*not*to subtract the sky from the spectrum, but to include it in the fit using this keyword.- templates_rfft: optional
When calling pPXF many times with an identical set of templates, one can use this keyword to pass the real FFT of the templates, computed in a previous pPXF call, stored in the pp.templates_rfft attribute. This keyword mainly exists to show that there is no need for it…

IMPORTANT: Use this keyword only if you understand what you are doing!

- tied: optional
A list of string expressions. Each expression “ties” the parameter to other free or fixed parameters. Any expression involving constants and the parameter array p[j] are permitted. Since they are totally constrained, tied parameters are considered to be fixed; no errors are computed for them.

This is an array, or list of arrays, with the same dimensions as start. In practice, for every element of start one needs to specify either an empty string '' implying that the parameter is free, or a string expression involving some of the variables p[j], where j represents the index of the flattened list of kinematic parameters.

EXAMPLE: We want to fit three kinematic components, with 4 moments for the first component and 2 moments for the second and third (e.g. stars and two gas components). In this case:

moments = [4, 2, 2] start = [[V1, sigma1, 0, 0], [V2, sigma2], [V3, sigma3]]

then we can force the equality constraint V2 = V3 as follows:

tied = [['', '', '', ''], ['', ''], ['p[4]', '']] # p[6] = p[4]

or we can force the equality constraint sigma2 = sigma3 as follows:

tied = [['', '', '', ''], ['', ''], ['', 'p[5]']] # p[7] = p[5]

One can also use more general formulas. For example one could constrain V3 = (V1 + V2)/2 as well as sigma1 = sigma2 as follows:

# p[5] = p[1] # p[6] = (p[0] + p[4])/2 tied = [['', '', '', ''], ['', 'p[1]'], ['(p[0] + p[4])/2', '']]

NOTE: One could in principle use the tied keyword to completely tie the LOSVD of two kinematic components. However, this same effect is more efficient achieved by assigning them to the same kinematic component using the component keyword.

- trig: optional
Set trig=True to use trigonometric series as an alternative to Legendre polynomials, for both the additive and multiplicative polynomials. When trig=True the fitted series below has N = degree/2 or N = mdegree/2:

poly = A_0 + sum_{n=1}^{N} [A_n*cos(n*th) + B_n*sin(n*th)]

IMPORTANT: The trigonometric series has periodic boundary conditions. This is sometimes a desirable property, but this expansion is not as flexible as the Legendre polynomials.

- velscale_ratio: int, optional
Integer. Gives the integer ratio >= 1 between the velscale of the galaxy and the templates. When this keyword is used, the templates are convolved by the LOSVD at their native resolution, and only subsequently are integrated over the pixels and fitted to galaxy. This keyword is generally unnecessary and mostly useful for testing.

Note that in realistic situations the uncertainty in the knowledge and variations of the intrinsic line-spread function becomes the limiting factor in recovering the LOSVD well below velscale.

- vsyst: float, optional
Reference velocity in km/s (default 0). The input initial guess and the output velocities are measured with respect to this velocity. This keyword can be used to account for the difference in the starting wavelength of the templates and the galaxy spectrum as follows:

vsyst = c*np.log(wave_temp[0]/wave_gal[0])

As alternative to using this keyword, one can pass the wavelengths lam and lam_temp of both the galaxy and templates spectra. In that case vsyst is computed automatically and should not be given.

The value assigned to this keyword is

*crucial*for the two-sided fitting. In this case vsyst can be determined from a previous normal one-sided fit to the galaxy velocity profile. After that initial fit, vsyst can be defined as the measured velocity at the galaxy center. More accurately vsyst is the value which has to be subtracted to obtain a nearly anti-symmetric velocity profile at the two opposite sides of the galaxy nucleus.IMPORTANT: this value is generally

*different*from the systemic velocity one can get from the literature. Do not try to use that!

### Returns

Stored as attributes of the pPXF class:

- .apoly :
Vector with the best fitting additive polynomial.

- .bestfit :
Vector with the best fitting model for the galaxy spectrum. This is a linear combination of the templates, convolved with the best fitting LOSVD, multiplied by the multiplicative polynomials and with subsequently added polynomial continuum terms or sky components.

- .chi2 :
The reduced chi^2 (namely chi^2/DOF) of the fit, where DOF = pp.dof (approximately DOF ~ pp.goodpixels.size).

IMPORTANT: if Chi^2/DOF is not ~1 it means that the errors are not properly estimated, or that the template is bad and it is

*not*safe to set the clean keyword.- .dust :
List of dictionaries, one for each fitted j-th dust component. For each dictionary, dust_j["sol"] contains the best-fitting parameter of the attenuation curve of that dust component. The other field of the dictionary are copied from the input to the keyword dust.

- .error :
This variable contains a vector of

*formal*uncertainty (1*sigma) for the fitted parameters in the output vector sol. They are computed from the estimated covariance matrix of the standard errors in the fitted parameters assuming it is diagonal at the minimum. This option can be used when speed is essential, to obtain an order of magnitude estimate of the uncertainties, but we*strongly*recommend to run bootstrapping simulations to obtain more reliable errors. In fact, these errors can be severely underestimated in the region where the penalty effect is most important (sigma < 2*velscale).These errors are meaningless unless Chi^2/DOF ~ 1. However if one

*assumes*that the fit is good, a corrected estimate of the errors is:error_corr = error*sqrt(chi^2/DOF) = pp.error*sqrt(pp.chi2).

IMPORTANT: when running Monte Carlo simulations to determine the error, the penalty (bias) should be set to zero, or better to a very small value. See Section 3.4 of Cappellari & Emsellem (2004) for an explanation.

- .gas_bestfit :
If gas_component is not None, this attribute returns the best-fitting gas emission-lines spectrum alone. The best-fitting stellar spectrum alone can be computed as stars_bestfit = pp.bestfit - pp.gas_bestfit

- .gas_bestfit_templates :
If gas_component is not None, this attribute returns the individual best-fitting gas emission-lines templates as columns of an array. Note that pp.gas_bestfit = pp.gas_bestfit_templates.sum(1)

- .gas_flux :
Vector with the integrated flux (in counts) of all lines set as True in the input gas_component keyword. This is the flux of individual gas templates, which may include multiple lines. This implies that, if a gas template describes a doublet, the flux is that of both lines. If the Balmer series is input as a single template, this is the flux of the entire series.

The returned fluxes are not corrected in any way and in particular, no reddening correction is applied. In other words, the returned .gas_flux should be unchanged, within the errors, regardless of whether reddening or multiplicative polynomials were fitted by pPXF or not.

IMPORTANT: pPXF makes no assumptions about the input flux units: The returned .gas_flux has the same units and values one would measure (with lower accuracy) by summing the pixels values, within the given gas lines, on the continuum-subtracted input galaxy spectrum. This implies that, if the spectrum is in units of erg/(s cm^2 A), the .gas_flux returned by pPXF should be multiplied by the pixel size in Angstrom at the line wavelength to obtain the integrated line flux in units of erg/(s cm^2).

NOTE: If there is no gas reddening and each input gas template was normalized to sum = 1, then pp.gas_flux = pp.weights[pp.gas_component].

When a gas template is identically zero within the fitted region, then pp.gas_flux = pp.gas_flux_error = np.nan. The corresponding components of pp.gas_zero_template are set to True. These np.nan values are set at the end of the calculation to flag the undefined values. These flags generally indicate that some of the gas templates passed to pPXF consist of gas emission lines that fall outside the fitted wavelength range or within a masked spectral region. These np.nan do

*not*indicate numerical issues with the actual pPXF calculation and the rest of the pPXF output is reliable.- .gas_flux_error :
*Formal*uncertainty (1*sigma) for the quantity pp.gas_flux, in the same units as the gas fluxes.This error is approximate as it ignores the covariance between the gas flux and any non-linear parameter. Bootstrapping can be used for more accurate errors.

These errors are meaningless unless Chi^2/DOF ~ 1. However if one

*assumes*that the fit is good, a corrected estimate of the errors is:gas_flux_error_corr = gas_flux_error*sqrt(chi^2/DOF) = pp.gas_flux_error*sqrt(pp.chi2).

- .gas_mpoly :
vector with the best-fitting gas reddening curve.

- .gas_reddening :
Best fitting A_V value if the gas_reddening keyword is set. This is especially useful when the Balmer series is input as a single template with an assumed theoretically predicted decrement e.g. using emission_lines(..., tie_balmer=True) in ppxf.ppxf_util to compute the gas templates.

- .gas_zero_template :
vector of size gas_component.sum() set to True where the gas template was identically zero within the fitted region. For those gas components pp.gas_flux = pp.gas_flux_error = np.nan. These flags generally indicate that some of the gas templates passed to pPXF consist of gas emission lines that fall outside the fitted wavelength range or within a masked spectral region.

- .goodpixels :
Integer vector containing the indices of the good pixels in the fit. This vector is a copy of the input goodpixels if clean = False otherwise it will be updated by removing the detected outliers.

- .matrix :
Prediction matrix[n_pixels, degree + n_templates + n_sky] of the linear system.

pp.matrix[n_pixels, : degree] contains the additive polynomials if degree >= 0.

pp.matrix[n_pixels, degree : degree + n_templates] contains the stellar/gas templates convolved by the LOSVD, and multiplied by the multiplicative polynomials if mdegree > 0.

- .mpoly :
Best fitting multiplicative polynomial (or reddening curve when reddening is set).

- .mpolyweights :
This is largely superseded by the .mpoly attribute above.

When mdegree > 0 this contains in output the coefficients of the multiplicative Legendre polynomials of order 1, 2,... mdegree. The polynomial can be explicitly evaluated as:

from numpy.polynomial import legendre x = np.linspace(-1, 1, len(galaxy)) mpoly = legendre.legval(x, np.append(1, pp.mpolyweights))

When trig = True the polynomial is evaluated as:

mpoly = pp.trigval(x, np.append(1, pp.mpolyweights))

- .phot_bestfit: array_like with shape (n_phot)
When phot is given, then this attribute contains the best fitting fluxes in the photometric bands given as input in phot_galaxy.

- .plot: function
Call the method function pp.plot() after the call to pp = ppxf(...) to produce a plot of the best fit. This is an alternative to calling pp = ppxf(..., plot=True).

Use the command pp.plot(gas_clip=True) to scale the plot based on the stellar continuum alone, while allowing for the gas emission lines to go outside the plotting region. This is useful to inspect the fit to the stellar continuum, in the presence of strong gas emission lines. This has effect only if gas_component is not None.

Use the command pp.plot(..., spec=True) to include the galaxy spectrum in the plot and pp.plot(..., phot=True) to include the photometric measurements. For example, when fitting spectra and photometry together, one can use pp.plot(phot=True, spec=False) to plot the photometry alone and pp.plot(phot=False, spec=True) to plot the spectrum alone. By default both the spectrum and photometry are included in a single plot.

- .polyweights :
This is largely superseded by the .apoly attribute above.

When degree >= 0 contains the weights of the additive Legendre polynomials of order 0, 1,... degree. The best-fitting additive polynomial can be explicitly evaluated as:

from numpy.polynomial import legendre x = np.linspace(-1, 1, len(galaxy)) apoly = legendre.legval(x, pp.polyweights)

When trig=True the polynomial is evaluated as:

apoly = pp.trigval(x, pp.polyweights)

When doing a two-sided fitting (see help for galaxy parameter), the additive polynomials are allowed to be different for the left and right spectrum. In that case, the output weights of the additive polynomials alternate between the first (left) spectrum and the second (right) spectrum.

- .reddening :
Best fitting A_V value if the reddening keyword is set.

- .sol :
Vector containing in output the parameters of the kinematics.

If moments=2 this contains [Vel, Sigma]

If moments=4 this contains [Vel, Sigma, h3, h4]

If moments=N this contains [Vel, Sigma, h3,... hN]

When fitting multiple kinematic component, pp.sol contains a list with the solution for all different components, one after the other, sorted by component: pp.sol = [sol1, sol2,...].

Vel is the velocity, Sigma is the velocity dispersion, h3 - h6 are the Gauss-Hermite coefficients. The model parameters are fitted simultaneously.

IMPORTANT: The precise relation between the output pPXF velocity and redshift is Vel = c*np.log(1 + z). See Section 2.3 of Cappellari (2017) for a detailed explanation.

These are the default safety limits on the fitting parameters (they can be changed using the bounds keyword):

Vel is constrained to be +/-2000 km/s from the input guess

velscale/100 < Sigma < 1000 km/s

-0.3 < [h3, h4, ...] < 0.3 (extreme value for real galaxies)

In the case of two-sided LOSVD fitting the output values refer to the first input galaxy spectrum, while the second spectrum will have by construction kinematics parameters [-Vel, Sigma, -h3, h4, -h5, h6]. If vsyst is nonzero (as required for two-sided fitting), then the output velocity is measured with respect to vsyst.

- .status :
Contains the output status of the optimization. Positive values generally represent success (the meaning of status is defined as in scipy.optimize.least_squares).

- .weights :
Receives the value of the weights by which each template was multiplied to best fit the galaxy spectrum. The optimal template can be computed with an array-vector multiplication:

bestemp = templates @ weights

These .weights do not include the weights of the additive polynomials which are separately stored in pp.polyweights.

When the sky keyword is used weights[:n_templates] contains the weights for the templates, while weights[n_templates:] gives the ones for the sky. In that case the best-fitting galaxy template and sky are given by:

bestemp = templates @ weights[:n_templates] bestsky = sky @ weights[n_templates:]

When doing a two-sided fitting (see help for galaxy parameter)

*together*with the sky keyword, the sky weights are allowed to be different for the left and right spectrum. In that case the output sky weights alternate between the first (left) spectrum and the second (right) spectrum.

### How to Set the Kinematic Penalty Keyword

The bias keyword is only used if moments > 2, otherwise it is ignored.

The pPXF routine can give sensible quick results with the default bias parameter, however, like in any penalized/filtered/regularized method, the optimal amount of penalization generally depends on the problem under study.

The general rule here is that the penalty should leave the line-of-sight velocity-distribution (LOSVD) virtually unaffected, when it is well sampled and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is sufficiently high.

EXAMPLE: If you expect a LOSVD with up to a high h4 ~ 0.2 and your
adopted penalty (bias) biases the solution towards a much lower
h4 ~ 0.1, even when the measured sigma > 3*velscale and the S/N is
high, then you are *misusing* the pPXF method!

THE RECIPE: The following is a simple practical recipe for a sensible determination of the penalty in pPXF:

Choose a minimum (S/N)_min level for your kinematics extraction and spatially bin your data so that there are no spectra below (S/N)_min;

Perform a fit of your kinematics

*without*penalty (keyword bias=0). The solution will be noisy and may be affected by spurious solutions, however, this step will allow you to check the expected average ranges in the Gauss-Hermite parameters [h3, h4] for the galaxy under study;Perform a Monte Carlo simulation of your spectra, following e.g. the included ppxf_example_montecarlo_simulation.py routine. Adopt as S/N in the simulation the chosen value (S/N)_min and as input [h3, h4] the maximum representative values measured in the non-penalized pPXF fit of the previous step;

Choose as the penalty (bias) the

*largest*value such that, for sigma > 3*velscale, the average difference delta between the output [h3, h4] and the input [h3, h4] is well within (e.g. delta ~ rms/3) the rms scatter of the simulated values (see an example in Fig. 2 of Emsellem et al. 2004).

### Problems with Your First Fit?

Common problems with your first pPXF fit are caused by incorrect wavelength ranges or different velocity scales between galaxy and templates. To quickly detect these problems try to overplot the (log rebinned) galaxy and the template just before calling the pPXF procedure.

You can use something like the following Python lines while adjusting the smoothing window and the pixels shift. If you cannot get a rough match by eye it means something is wrong and it is unlikely that pPXF (or any other program) will find a good match:

```
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from scipy import ndimage
sigma = 2 # Velocity dispersion in pixels
shift = -20 # Velocity shift in pixels
template = np.roll(ndimage.gaussian_filter1d(template, sigma), shift)
plt.plot(galaxy, 'k')
plt.plot(template*np.median(galaxy)/np.median(template), 'r')
```

## License

Other/Proprietary License

Copyright (c) 2001-2024 Michele Cappellari

This software is provided as is with no warranty. You may use it for non-commercial purposes and modify it for personal or internal use, as long as you include this copyright and disclaimer in all copies. You may not redistribute the code.

### Changelog

#### V9.4.1: MC, Oxford, 05 August 2024

Removed capfit from the pPXF package and made it a separate package.

sps_util.sps_lib: Renamed wave_range to lam_range for consistency with other procedures in the pPXF package.

ppxf_util.emission_lines: Allow for FWHM_gal to be a dictionary, to be consistent with sps_util.sps_lib.

Removed the NGC4636 spectrum from the examples and updated the other spectra to the latest SDSS data release, which includes the instrumental dispersion per pixel. Illustrated how to deal with a variable instrumental dispersion in the examples.

#### V9.3.0: MC, Oxford, 28 June 2024

Converted all pPXF Python examples to py:percent format, which allows one to open them as Jupyter Notebooks in most Python IDEs. Also added several of my public Jupyter Notebook examples as py:percent Python files in the ppxf/examples folder.

Updated examples and associated documentation to demonstrate the use of the X-Shooter Stellar Library (XSL) SPS models (Verro+2022) with pPXF. The XSL template spectra can now be automatically retrieved from GitHub by specifying sps_name = 'xsl' within the examples code.

sps_util.synthetic_photometry: Swapped order of input parameters from (spectrum, lam) to (lam, spectrum) for consistency with other pPXF procedures. Updated corresponding examples.

sps_util.sps_lib: Removed the warning regarding the template having a lower resolution than the galaxy. This is because it could lead to false positives, considering that the galaxy’s fitted spectral range is not generally known during template generation.

#### V9.2.2: MC, Oxford, 20 May 2024

ppxf: Fixed an issue where the absence of the reg_dim keyword could halt the program (bug from V9.2.1). Thanks to Jesse van de Sande (unsw.edu.au) and Luiz A. Silva-Lima (Univ. Sao Paulo, Brazil) for the report.

ppxf: Avoid possible program stop when templates are shorter than galaxy (bug from V9.2.1).

ppxf: Avoid truncating templates to goodpixels in the final plot, when both lam and lam_temp parameters are supplied. Instead, show the templates over the full galaxy spectral range.

ppxf: Corrected behaviour to only use the range between the first and last goodpixels for determining the vertical plotting range. Thanks to David Gooding (chch.ox.ac.uk) for illustrating the problem.

ppxf_example_kinematics_sdss.py: Modified the example to de-redshift the spectrum by default, minimizing potential confusion.

#### V9.2.1: MC, Oxford, 18 April 2024

sps_util.synthetic_photometry: Accepts input wavelengths that are not evenly spaced.

ppxf_util.mag_spectrum: A new function to get the apparent magnitude from a spectrum in any photometric band, at any redshift, in either the AB or Vega magnitude system.

ppxf: Now considers the given goodpixels when checking that the templates cover the full galaxy spectrum, if both lam and lam_temp are provided.

ppxf: Allow for variable step size across intervals and dimensions in the numerical derivatives used for regularization, with the new keyword reg_step.

ppxf: Avoids new SyntaxWarning in Matplotlib LaTeX string in the latest Python 3.12.

ppxf: Avoid program stop when passing an input covariance matrix while fitting for gas emission lines. Thanks to Jackson ODonnell (ucsc.edu) for the report.

#### V9.1.1: MC, Oxford, 18 January 2024

sps_util.mass_to_light: Now it can calculate the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M*/L) for any stellar population synthesis (SPS) model, any filter, and any redshift, using the output weights from pPXF. No need for pre-computed tables anymore.

ppxf_util.mag_sun: A new function to get the absolute solar magnitude in any photometric band, at any redshift, in either the AB or Vega magnitude system.

#### V9.0.2: MC, Oxford, 30 November 2023

ppxf: Fixed bug in the automatic truncation of the template wavelength, when using bounds together with lam and lam_temp.

#### V9.0.1: MC, Oxford, 12 November 2023

Replaced miles_util with sps_util, a versatile and flexible function that supports various stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. Currently, I distribute (with permission) the E-MILES (Vazdekis+2016), GALAXEV (Bruzual & Charlot 2003) and fsps (Conroy+2009,2010) stellar population templates. One can now change SPS by just modifying the filename.

IMPORTANT: I no longer include the SPS models in the pPXF package, due to file size constraints. One must download the SPS templates separately after the pPXF installation, as demonstrated in all the pPXF examples.

I adapted all examples included in the package to use the new sps_util.

ppxf.plot: New keyword lam_flam to plot lam*f(lam) = nu*f(nu).

ppxf_util.synthetic_photometry: Converted from a function to a class. Added .lam_piv attribute to compute the pivot wavelength of each filter.

ppxf_util.varsmooth: Specialized faster convolution if sigma is a scalar while using the analytic Fourier transform to deal with undersampling.

ppxf: Raised an error if phot input is not finite.

#### V8.2.6: MC, Oxford, 6 July 2023

capfit: Relaxed tolerance when checking initial guess feasibility.

ppxf_util: Fixed program stop in gaussian_filter1d when sig=0. Thanks to Jesse Van de Sande (sydney.edu.au) for the report.

#### V8.2.4: MC, Oxford, 12 May 2023

ppxf: Fixed incorrectly switching to method='linear' when requesting to fit stellar reddening alone, while all other parameters are fixed. Thanks to Jong Chul Lee (kasi.re.kr) for a clear example of reproducing the bug.

#### V8.2.3: MC, Oxford, 5 January 2023

ppxf: Fixed program stop when fitting both sky spectra and gas emission lines. Many thanks to Adarsh Ranjan (kasi.re.kr) for a clear example of reproducing the problem and for the bug fix.

ppxf: Raise an error if velscale is not a scalar. Updated example procedures. This fixes a program stop due to a change in NumPy 1.24.

ppxf_util: Changed log_rebin to return velscale as a scalar.

New example procedure ppxf_example_gas_sdss_tied.py to illustrate the use of the tied and constr_kinem keywords.

#### V8.2.2: MC, Oxford, 11 October 2022

ppxf: Fixed program stop with tied or fixed keywords and nonlinear variables in addition to the kinematics. Thanks to Tobias Looser (cam.ac.uk) for the report and fix.

#### V8.2.1: MC, Oxford, 3 September 2022

ppxf: New keyword dust which allows one to associate different general attenuation functions to different sets of templates. This is useful for example to apply three different attenuation functions to the young and old stellar templates and to the gas emission lines respectively.

ppxf: Uses A_V instead of E(B-V) to parametrize attenuation, when using the now-obsolete keywords reddening and gas_reddening.

ppxf: New default function attenuation(). However, one can now use general attenuation functions with an arbitrary number of bound or fixed parameters.

ppxf: New internal functions set_lam_input, set_gas_input, set_dust_input, set_phot_input to organize the code.

ppxf: Improved vertical scaling of default plots.

ppxf: New keywords pp.plot(spec=True, phot=True) to plot only the photometric or spectroscopic best fits respectively.

ppxf_util: New function varsmooth for Gaussian convolution with a variable sigma. Unlike the similar gaussian_filter1d, this new function uses FFT and the analytic Fourier Transform of a Gaussian, like ppxf.

ppxf_util: Included additional gas emission lines in emission_lines().

capfit: Use scipy.optimize.linprog(method='highs') to find feasible starting point in lsq_lin. This eliminates possible program stops in certain situations with linearly dependent constraints.

capfit: Set default linear_method='lsq_lin'. This removes the need to install cvxopt when using constr_kinem in pPXF.

#### V8.1.0: MC, Oxford, 10 June 2022

ppxf: More accurate determination of the range for truncating the templates when passing both lam_temp and lam.

ppxf: Check for lam or lam_temp consistency with velscale and return an error if they do not match.

ppxf: Use micrometre units and denser tick labels for the logarithmic wavelength axis.

ppxf_util.synthetic_photometry: moved from miles_util and made it independent of the stellar library. Adopted the same filter file format as EAZY, FAST, HyperZ… for interoperability. Allow passing a file with user-defined filter response functions.

ppxf_util.log_rebin: Support irregularly sampled input wavelength.

ppxf_util.gaussian_filter1d: New keyword mode='constant' or mode='wrap'.

Updated ppxf_example_population_photometry.py

#### V8.0.2: MC, Oxford, 28 March 2022

ppxf: Allow fitting photometric measurements (SED fitting) together with a spectrum. This is implemented via the new keyword phot passing a dictionary of parameters.

ppxf: plot photometric fit together with spectrum when fitting photometry.

ppxf: New keyword lam_temp to input the templates wavelength. When this is given, together with the galaxy wavelength lam, the templates are automatically truncated to an optimal wavelength range, and it becomes unnecessary to use the keyword vsyst.

ppxf: Warning if templates are > 2x longer than galaxy.

ppxf: When fitting photometry one can input extended template spectra to overplot the extrapolated best-fit spectrum together with the photometry.

New demo file on photometric fitting ppxf_example_population_photometry.py.

miles_util.photometry_from_table: New example function to illustrate the generation of the input photometric templates for the phot keyword, using tabulated SSP model magnitudes.

miles_util.photometry_from_spectra: New example function to illustrate the generation of photometric templates from the spectra using filter responses.

Replaced MILES spectral models of Vazdekis et al. (2010) with E-MILES models of Vazdekis et al. (2016). Thanks to Alexandre Vazdekis (iac.es) for the permission.

Adapted all pPXF examples to use the E-MILES templates.

miles_util.miles: changed names of output wavelength .ln_lam_temp to make clear they represent natural logarithms.

miles_util.miles: set FWHM_gal=None to skip templates convolution.

ppxf: Optionally performs global optimization of the non-linear parameters. This is implemented via the new keyword global_search.

ppxf: Allow the use of multiplicative polynomials together with reddening.

ppxf: Plot individual gas emission components in addition to their sum.

ppxf: Updated docstring documentation for the new features.

capfit: Completely removed tied/fixed variables from the optimization and constraints. This improves the conditioning of the Jacobian and further strengthens the robustness of the optimization.

miles_util: fixed flux array mismatch when using age_range or metal_range. Thanks to Davide Bevacqua (inaf.it) for the report.

ppxf: Fixed program stop when fitting gas with a template length that is not a multiple of velscale_ratio.

#### V7.4.5: MC, Oxford, 16 July 2021

ppxf: New keyword pp.plot(clip_gas=True) to ignore the gas emission lines while determining the plotting ranges for the best-fitting model.

miles_util: New attribute .flux to convert between light-weighted and mass-weighted stellar population quantities. Updated the corresponding documentation in the docstring.

ppxf_example_population_gas_sdss: Show how to convert between light-weighted and mass-weighted stellar population using the new miles.flux attribute.

ppxf_util.log_rebin: support fast log rebinning of all columns of 2-dim arrays.

#### V7.4.4: MC, Oxford, 10 February 2021

ppxf: More robust matrix scaling when using linear equality constraints in constr_templ with linear_method='lsq_box'. Thanks to Shravan Shetty (pku.edu.cn) for a detailed report and for testing my fix.

#### V7.4.3: MC, Oxford, 21 December 2020

capfit: New linear_method keyword to select between cvxopt or lsq_lin, when using linear constraints, for cases where the latter stops. The cvxopt package must be installed when setting that option.

ppxf: Adapted to use capfit with linear_method='cvxopt' when enforcing linear constraints on the kinematics with constr_kinem.

ppxf: Included NOTE in the documentation of constr_kinem. All changes above were after detailed reports by Kyle Westfall (ucolick.org).

#### V7.4.2: MC, Oxford, 9 October 2020

ppxf: Corrected typo in example in the documentation of constr_templ.

ppxf: Check that constr_templ and constr_kinem are dictionaries. Thanks to Davide Bevacqua (unibo.it) for the feedback.

#### V7.4.1: MC, Oxford, 11 September 2020

capfit: Fixed possible infinite loop in lsq_box and lsq_lin. Thanks to Shravan Shetty (pku.edu.cn) for the detailed report and to both him and Kyle Westfall (ucolick.org) for testing the fix.

capfit: Use NumPy rather than the SciPy version of linalg.lstsq to avoid a current SciPy bug in the default criterion for rank deficiency.

capfit: Renamed cond keyword to rcond for consistency with NumPy.

capfit: Passed rcond keyword to cov_err function.

ppxf: removed rcond keyword in capfit call. Use default instead.

#### V7.4.0: MC, Oxford, 20 August 2020

capfit: New function lsq_lin implementing a linear least-squares linearly constrained algorithm supporting rank-deficient matrices and allowing for a starting guess.

capfit: Removed the lsqlin procedure which is superseded by lsq_lin.

capfit: Renamed lsqbox to lsq_box and revised its interface.

ppxf: Modified to use the new lsq_lin and the updated lsq_box functions.

ppxf: More examples for the constr_templ and constr_kinem keywords.

Set redshift z = 0 when one uncomments the lines to bring the spectrum to the rest-frame in ppxf_example_kinematics_sdss.py. Thanks to Vaidehi S. Paliya (desy.de) for pointing out the inconsistency in my example.

#### V7.3.0: MC, Oxford, 10 July 2020

capfit: New function lsqbox implementing a fast linear least-squares box-constrained (bounds) algorithm which allows for a starting guess. While testing I also discovered a major mistake in the current implementation of scipy.optimize.lsq_linear (my fix was later included in Scipy 1.6).

ppxf: The new linear_method='lsqbox' and linear_method='cvxopt' now use an initial guess for the solution, which significantly speeds up the kinematic fit with multiple templates. As an example, my procedure ppxf_example_population_gas_sdss is now about 4 times faster with the new linear_method='lsqbox' than with the legacy linear_method='nnls'.

ppxf: Added support for linear equality constraints on the templates constr_templ and for using the keyword fraction with both linear_method='lsqbox' and linear_method='nnls'.

Print degree and mdegree with the final results.

Set linear=True automatically if the fit has no free non-linear parameters, to avoid a program stop. Thanks to Shravan Shetty (pku.edu.cn) for the report.

#### V7.2.1: MC, Oxford, 12 June 2020

capfit: New input keyword cond for Jacobian rank tolerance.

capfit: Use bvls to solve quadratic subproblem with only bounds.

ppxf: Set cond=1e-7 in capfit call, when using linear constraints. The capfit related changes were due to detailed feedback by Kyle Westfall (ucolick.org), to deal with situations with degenerate Jacobians, like when there is no stellar continuum and one uses multiplicative polynomials.

ppxf: Clarified documentation for .gas_zero_template and the corresponding warning message, after feedback by Laura Salo (umn.edu).

#### V7.2.0: MC, Oxford, 4 May 2020

Allow for linear_method='cvxopt' when the optional cvxopt package is installed.

#### V7.1.0: MC, Oxford, 30 April 2020

Introduced new ppxf keyword linear_method, and corresponding changes in the code, to select between the old (‘nnls’) and the new (‘lsqlin’) approach to the solution of the linear least-squares subproblem in ppxf. Thanks to Sam Vaughan (sydney.edu.au) for a convincing minimal example illustrating the usefulness of this keyword.

#### V7.0.1: MC, Oxford, 8 April 2020

Support .gas_zero_template and fraction together with other equality constraints.

Included np.pad(...mode='constant') for backward compatibility with Numpy 1.16. Thanks to Shravan Shetty (KIAA-PKU) for the suggestion.

Fix rebin() not retaining the dimensionality of an input column-vector. This resulted in a program stop with a single gas template and velscale_ratio > 1. Thanks to Zhiyuan Ji (astro.umass.edu) for a clear example reproducing the bug.

capfit: New keyword cond for lsqlin.

capfit: Relaxed assertion for inconsistent inequalities in lsqlin to avoid false positives. Thanks to Kyle Westfall (UCO Lick) for a detailed bug report.

#### V7.0.0: MC, Oxford, 10 January 2020

capfit: New general linear least-squares optimization function lsqlin which is now used to solve the quadratic subproblem.

capfit: Allow for linear inequality/equality constraints A_ineq, b_ineq and A_eq, b_eq.

ppxf: Use (faster) capfit.lsqlin for the linear fit.

ppxf: Use updated capfit.capfit for the non-linear optimization.

ppxf: Allow for linear equalities/inequalities for both the template weights and the kinematic parameters with the constr_templ and constr_kinem optional keywords.

ppxf: New set_linear_constraints function.

ppxf: Updated documentation.

#### V6.7.17: MC, Oxford, 14 November 2019

capfit: Written complete documentation.

capfit: Improved print formatting.

capfit: Return .message attribute.

capfit: Improved xtol convergence test.

capfit: Only accept final move if chi2 decreased.

capfit: Strictly satisfy bounds during Jacobian computation.

#### V6.7.16: MC, Oxford, 12 June 2019

capfit: Use only free parameters for xtol convergence test.

capfit: Describe in words convergence status with nonzero verbose.

capfit: Fixed program stop when abs_step is undefined.

capfit: Fixed ignoring optional max_nfev.

#### V6.7.15: MC, Oxford, 7 February 2019

Removed unused re import.

Removed Scipy’s next_fast_len usage due to an issue with odd padding size. Thanks to Eric Emsellem (ESO) for a clear example illustrating this rare and subtle bug.

#### V6.7.14: MC, Oxford, 27 November 2018

Print the used tied parameters equalities, if any.

Return .ndof attribute.

Do not remove fixed or tied parameters from the DOF calculation. Thanks to Joanna Woo (Univ. of Victoria) for the correction.

Replaced normalize, min_age, max_age and metal keywords with norm_range, age_range and metal_range in ppxf.miles_util.miles.

Fixed clock DeprecationWarning in Python 3.7.

#### V6.7.13: MC, Oxford, 20 September 2018

Expanded documentation of reddening and gas_reddening. Thanks to Nick Boardman (Univ. Utah) for the feedback.

capfit now raises an error if one tries to tie parameters to themselves. Thanks to Kyle Westfall (Univ. Santa Cruz) for the suggestion.

capfit uses Python 3.6 f-strings.

#### V6.7.12: MC, Oxford, 9 July 2018

Allow for velscale and vsyst to be Numpy arrays rather than scalars.

Improved criterion for when the Balmer series is within the fitted wavelength range in ppxf.ppxf_util.emission_lines. Thanks to Sam Vaughan (Univ. of Oxford) for the feedback.

Included width keyword in ppxf.ppxf_util.determine_goodpixels. Thanks to George Privon (Univ. of Florida) for the suggestion.

Expanded .gas_flux documentation.

#### V6.7.11: MC, Oxford, 5 June 2018

Formatted ppxf.py docstring in reStructuredText.

Removed CHANGELOG from the code and placed it in a separate file.

Modified setup.py to show help and CHANGELOG on PyPi page.

Included ppxf.__version__.

#### V6.7.8: MC, Oxford, 21 May 2018

Moved package to the Python Package Index (PyPi).

Dropped legacy Python 2.7 support.

#### V6.7.6: MC, Oxford, 16 April 2018

Changed imports for the conversion of pPXF to a package. Thanks to Joe Burchett (Santa Cruz) for the suggestion.

#### V6.7.5: MC, Oxford, 10 April 2018

Fixed syntax error under Python 2.7.

#### V6.7.4: MC, Oxford, 16 February 2018

Fixed bug in reddening_cal00(). It only affected NIR lam > 1000 nm.

#### V6.7.3: MC, Oxford, 8 February 2018

Plot wavelength in nm instead of Angstrom, following IAU rules.

Ensures each element of start is not longer than its moments.

Removed underscore from internal function names.

Included ftol keyword.

#### V6.7.2: MC, Oxford, 30 January 2018

Included dunder names as suggested by Peter Weilbacher (Potsdam).

Fixed wrong .gas_reddening when mdegree > 0.

Improved formatting of the documentation.

#### V6.7.1: MC, Oxford, 29 November 2017

Removed import of misc.factorial, deprecated in Scipy 1.0.

#### V6.7.0: MC, Oxford, 6 November 2017

Allow users to input identically zero gas templates while still producing a stable NNLS solution. In this case, warn the user and set the .gas_zero_template attribute. This situation can indicate an input bug or a gas line that entirely falls within a masked region.

Corrected gas_flux_error normalization, when input not normalized.

Return .gas_bestfit, .gas_mpoly, .mpoly and .apoly attributes.

Do not multiply gas emission lines by polynomials, instead allow for gas_reddening (useful with tied Balmer emission lines).

Use axvspan to visualize masked regions in the plot.

Fixed program stop with linear keyword.

Introduced reddening_func keyword.

#### V6.6.4: MC, Oxford, 5 October 2017

Check for NaN in galaxy and check all bounds have two elements.

Allow start to be either a list or an array or vectors.

#### V6.6.3: MC, Oxford, 25 September 2017

Reduced bounds on multiplicative polynomials and clipped to positive values. Thanks to Xihan Ji (Tsinghua University) for providing an example of slightly negative gas emission lines, when the spectrum contains essentially just noise.

Improved visualization of masked pixels.

#### V6.6.2: MC, Oxford, 15 September 2017

Fixed program stop with a 2-dim template array and regularization. Thanks to Adriano Poci (Macquarie University) for the clear report and the fix.

#### V6.6.1: MC, Oxford, 4 August 2017

Included note on .gas_flux output units. Thanks to Xihan Ji (Tsinghua University) for the feedback.

#### V6.6.0: MC, Oxford, 27 June 2017

Print and return gas fluxes and errors, if requested, with the new gas_component and gas_names keywords.

#### V6.5.0: MC, Oxford, 23 June 2017

Replaced MPFIT with capfit for a Levenberg-Marquardt method with fixed or tied variables, which rigorously accounts for box constraints.

#### V6.4.2: MC, Oxford, 2 June 2017

Fixed removal of bounds in solution, introduced in V6.4.1. Thanks to Kyle Westfall (Univ. Santa Cruz) for reporting this.

Included method keyword to use Scipy’s least_squares() as an alternative to MPFIT.

Force float division in pixel conversion of start and bounds.

#### V6.4.1: MC, Oxford, 25 May 2017

linear_fit() does not return unused status anymore, for consistency with the corresponding change to cap_mpfit.

#### V6.4.0: MC, Oxford, 12 May 2017

Introduced tied keyword to tie parameters during fitting.

Included discussion of formal errors of .weights.

#### V6.3.2: MC, Oxford, 4 May 2017

Fixed possible program stop introduced in V6.0.7 and consequently removed unnecessary function _templates_rfft(). Many thanks to Jesus Falcon-Barroso for a very clear and useful bug report!

#### V6.3.1: MC, Oxford, 13 April 2017

Fixed program stop when fitting two galaxy spectra with reflection-symmetric LOSVD.

#### V6.3.0: MC, Oxford, 30 March 2017

Included reg_ord keyword to allow for both first and second-order regularization.

#### V6.2.0: MC, Oxford, 27 March 2017

Improved curvature criterion for regularization when dim > 1.

#### V6.1.0: MC, Oxford, 15 March 2017

Introduced trig keyword to use a trigonometric series as alternative to Legendre polynomials.

#### V6.0.7: MC, Oxford, 13 March 2017

Use next_fast_len() for optimal rfft() zero padding.

Included keyword gas_component in the .plot() method, to distinguish gas emission lines in best-fitting plots.

Improved plot of residuals for noisy spectra.

Simplified regularization implementation.

#### V6.0.6: MC, Oxford, 23 February 2017

Added linear_fit() and nonlinear_fit() functions to better clarify the code structure. Included templates_rfft keyword.

Updated documentation. Some code simplifications.

#### V6.0.5: MC, Oxford, 21 February 2017

Consistently use new format_output() function both with/without the linear keyword. Added .status attribute. Changes suggested by Kyle Westfall (Univ. Santa Cruz).

#### V6.0.4: MC, Oxford, 30 January 2017

Re-introduced linear keyword to only perform a linear fit and skip the non-linear optimization.

#### V6.0.3: MC, Oxford, 1 December 2016

Return usual Chi**2/DOF instead of Biweight estimate.

#### V6.0.2: MC, Oxford, 15 August 2016

Improved formatting of printed output.

#### V6.0.1: MC, Oxford, 10 August 2016

Allow moments to be an arbitrary integer.

Allow for scalar moments with multiple kinematic components.

#### V6.0.0: MC, Oxford, 28 July 2016

Compute the Fourier Transform of the LOSVD analytically:

Major improvement in velocity accuracy when sigma < velscale.

Removed oversample keyword, which is now unnecessary.

Removed limit on velocity shift of templates.

Simplified FFT zero padding. Updated documentation.

#### V5.3.3: MC, Oxford 24 May 2016

Fixed Python 2 compatibility. Thanks to Masato Onodera (NAOJ).

#### V5.3.2: MC, Oxford, 22 May 2016

Backward compatibility change: allow start to be smaller than moments. After feedback by Masato Onodera (NAOJ).

Updated documentation of bounds and fixed.

#### V5.3.1: MC, Oxford, 18 May 2016

Use wavelength in the plot when available. Make plot() a class function. Changes suggested and provided by Johann Cohen-Tanugi (LUPM).

#### V5.3.0: MC, Oxford, 9 May 2016

Included velscale_ratio keyword to pass a set of templates with higher resolution than the galaxy spectrum.

Changed oversample keyword to require integers, not Booleans.

#### V5.2.0: MC, Baltimore, 26 April 2016

Included bounds, fixed and fraction keywords.

#### V5.1.18: MC, Oxford, 20 April 2016

Fixed deprecation warning in Numpy 1.11. Changed order from 1 to 3 during oversampling. Warn if sigma is under-sampled.

#### V5.1.17: MC, Oxford, 21 January 2016

Expanded explanation of the relationship between output velocity and redshift.

#### V5.1.16: MC, Oxford, 9 November 2015

Fixed potentially misleading typo in documentation of moments.

#### V5.1.15: MC, Oxford, 22 October 2015

Updated documentation. Thanks to Peter Weilbacher (Potsdam) for corrections.

#### V5.1.14: MC, Oxford, 19 October 2015

Fixed deprecation warning in Numpy 1.10.

#### V5.1.13: MC, Oxford, 24 April 2015

Updated documentation.

#### V5.1.12: MC, Oxford, 25 February 2015

Use color= instead of c= to avoid a new Matplotlib 1.4 bug.

#### V5.1.11: MC, Sydney, 5 February 2015

Reverted change introduced in V5.1.2. Thanks to Nora Lu”tzgendorf for reporting problems with oversample.

#### V5.1.10: MC, Oxford, 14 October 2014

Fixed bug in saving output introduced in the previous version.

#### V5.1.9: MC, Las Vegas Airport, 13 September 2014

Pre-compute FFT and oversampling of templates. This speeds up the calculation for very long or highly oversampled spectra. Thanks to Remco van den Bosch for reporting situations where this optimization may be useful.

#### V5.1.8: MC, Utah, 10 September 2014

Fixed program stop with reddening keyword. Thanks to Masatao Onodera for reporting the problem.

#### V5.1.7: MC, Oxford, 3 September 2014

Relaxed requirement on input maximum velocity shift.

Minor reorganization of the code structure.

#### V5.1.6: MC, Oxford, 6 August 2014

Catch an additional input error. Updated documentation for Python. Included templates matrix in output. Modified plotting colours.

#### V5.1.5: MC, Oxford, 21 June 2014

Fixed deprecation warning.

#### V5.1.4: MC, Oxford, 25 May 2014

Support both Python 2.7 and Python 3.

#### V5.1.3: MC, Oxford, 7 May 2014

Allow for an input covariance matrix instead of an error spectrum.

#### V5.1.2: MC, Oxford, 6 May 2014

Replaced REBIN with INTERPOLATE + /OVERSAMPLE keyword. This is to account for the fact that the Line Spread Function of the observed galaxy spectrum already includes pixel convolution. Thanks to Mike Blanton for the suggestion.

#### V5.1.1: MC, Dallas Airport, 9 February 2014

Fixed typo in the documentation of nnls_flags.

#### V5.1.0: MC, Oxford, 9 January 2014

Allow for a different LOSVD for each template. Templates can be stellar or can be gas emission lines. A pPXF version adapted for multiple kinematic components existed for years. It was updated in JAN/2012 for the paper by Johnston et al. (2013, MNRAS). This version merges those changes with the public pPXF version, making sure that all previous pPXF options are still supported.

#### V5.0.1: MC, Oxford, 12 December 2013

Minor cleaning and corrections.

#### V5.0.0: MC, Oxford, 6 December 2013

Translated from IDL into Python and tested against the original version.

#### V4.6.6: MC, Paranal, 8 November 2013

Uses CAP_RANGE to avoid potential naming conflicts.

#### V4.6.5: MC, Oxford, 15 November 2012

Expanded documentation of REGUL keyword.

#### V4.6.4: MC, Oxford, 9 December 2011

Increased oversampling factor to 30x, when the /OVERSAMPLE keyword is used. Updated corresponding documentation. Thanks to Nora Lu”tzgendorf for test cases illustrating errors in the recovered velocity when the sigma is severely undersampled.

#### V4.6.3: MC, Oxford 25 October 2011

Do not change TEMPLATES array in output when REGUL is nonzero. From the feedback of Richard McDermid.

#### V4.6.2: MC, Oxford, 17 October 2011

Included option for 3D regularization and updated documentation of REGUL keyword.

#### V4.6.1: MC, Oxford, 29 July 2011

Use Coyote Graphics (http://www.idlcoyote.com/) by David W. Fanning. The required routines are now included in NASA IDL Astronomy Library.

#### V4.6.0: MC, Oxford, 12 April 2011

Important fix to /CLEAN procedure: bad pixels are now properly updated during the 3sigma iterations.

#### V4.5.0: MC, Oxford, 13 April 2010

Dramatic speed up in the convolution of long spectra.

#### V4.4.0: MC, Oxford, 18 September 2009

Introduced Calzetti et al. (2000) ppxf_REDDENING_CURVE function to estimate the reddening from the fit.

#### V4.3.0: MC, Oxford, 4 Mach 2009

Introduced REGUL keyword to perform linear regularization of WEIGHTS in one or two dimensions.

#### V4.2.3: MC, Oxford, 27 November 2008

Corrected error message for too big velocity shift.

#### V4.2.2: MC, Windhoek, 3 July 2008

Added keyword POLYWEIGHTS.

#### V4.2.1: MC, Oxford, 17 May 2008

Use LA_LEAST_SQUARES (IDL 5.6) instead of SVDC when fitting a single template. Please let me know if you need to use pPXF with an older IDL version.

#### V4.2.0: MC, Oxford, 15 March 2008

Introduced optional fitting of SKY spectrum. Many thanks to Anne-Marie Weijmans for testing.

#### V4.1.7: MC, Oxford, 6 October 2007

Updated documentation with an important note on penalty determination.

#### V4.1.6: MC, Leiden, 20 January 2006

Print the number of nonzero templates. Do not print outliers in /QUIET mode.

#### V4.1.5: MC, Leiden, 10 February 2005

Verify that GOODPIXELS is monotonic and does not contain duplicated values. After feedback from Richard McDermid.

#### V4.1.4: MC, Leiden, 12 January 2005

Make sure input NOISE is a positive vector.

#### V4.1.3: MC, Vicenza, 30 December 2004

Updated documentation.

#### V4.1.2: MC, Leiden, 11 November 2004

Handle special case where a single template without additive polynomials is fitted to the galaxy.

#### V4.1.1: MC, Leiden, 21 September 2004

Increased maximum number of iterations ITMAX in BVLS. Thanks to Jesus Falcon-Barroso for reporting problems.

Introduced error message when velocity shift is too big.

Corrected output when MOMENTS=0.

#### V4.1.0: MC, Leiden, 3 September 2004

Corrected implementation of two-sided fitting of the LOSVD. Thanks to Stefan van Dongen for reporting problems.

#### V4.0.0: MC, Vicenza, 16 August 2004

Introduced optional two-sided fitting assuming a reflection symmetric LOSVD for two input spectra.

#### V3.7.3: MC, Leiden, 7 August 2004

Corrected bug: keyword ERROR was returned in pixels instead of km/s.

Decreased lower limit on fitted dispersion. Thanks to Igor V. Chilingarian.

#### V3.7.2: MC, Leiden, 28 April 2004

Corrected program stop after fit when MOMENTS=2. The bug was introduced in V3.7.0.

#### V3.7.1: MC, Leiden, 31 March 2004

Updated documentation.

#### V3.7.0: MC, Leiden, 23 March 2004

Revised implementation of MDEGREE option. Nonlinear implementation: straightforward, robust, but slower.

#### V3.6.0: MC, Leiden, 19 March 2004

Added MDEGREE option for multiplicative polynomials. Linear implementation: fast, works well in most cases, but can fail in certain cases.

#### V3.5.0: MC, Leiden, 11 December 2003

Included /OVERSAMPLE option.

#### V3.4.7: MC, Leiden, 8 December 2003

First released version.

#### V1.0.0: Leiden, 10 October 2001

Created by Michele Cappellari.

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