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Library for creating circuits that encode discrete distributions.

Project description

Build Status codecov Updates

PyPI version License: MIT


Library for creating circuits that encode discrete distributions and Markov Decision Processes. The name comes from the random bit model of drawing from discrete distributions using coin flips.

Table of Contents


To install this library run:

$ pip install py-aiger-coins

Note that to actually compute probabilities, one needs to install with the bdd option.

$ pip install py-aiger-coins[bdd]

For developers, note that this project uses the poetry python package/dependency management tool. Please familarize yourself with it and then run:

$ poetry install


Note this tutorial assumes py-aiger-bdd has been installed (see the Install section).

Biased Coins

We start by encoding a biased coin and computing its bias. The primary entrypoint for modeling coins is the coin function.

from fractions import Fraction

import aiger_coins

bias = Fraction(1, 3)
coin1 = aiger_coins.coin(bias)
coin2 = aiger_coins.coin((1, 3))  # or just use a tuple.

assert coin1.prob() == coin2.prob() == prob

Distributions on discrete sets

We now illustrate how to create a set of mutually exclusive coins that represent distribution over a finite set. For example, a biased three sided dice can be 1-hot encoded with:

dice = aiger_coins.dist([1, 3, 2], name='x')
dice = aiger_coins.dist([(1, 6), (3, 6), (2, 6)], name='x')  # equivalent
dice = aiger_coins.dist([Fraction(1, 6), Fraction(3, 6), Fraction(2, 6)], name='x')  # equivalent

# (Fraction(1, 6), Fraction(1, 2), Fraction(1, 3))

Letting, ⚀ = dice[0], ⚁ = dice[1], ⚂ = dice[2],

one, two, three = dice[0], dice[1], dice[2]

We can ask the probability of drawing an element of {⚀, ⚁} with:

assert (one | two).prob() == Fraction(2, 3)
assert (~three).prob() == Fraction(2, 3)

Distributions and Coins

Distributions and Coins are really just wrappers around two aiger_bv.UnsignedBVExpr objects stored in the expr and valid attributes.

The attributes expr and valid encode an expression over fair coin flips and which coin flips are "valid" respectively. Coins is a special type of Distribution where the expression is a predicate (e.g. has one output).

Note that accessing the ith element of a Distribution results in a Coin encoding the probability of drawing that element.

Manipulating Distributions

In general Distributions can me manipulated by manipulating the .expr attribution to reinterpret the coin flips or manipulating .valid to condition on different coin flip outcomes.

Out of the box Distributions support a small number of operations: +, <, <=, >=, >, ==, !=, ~, |, &, ^, .concat, which they inherit from aiger_bv.UnsignedBVExpr. When using the same .valid predicate (same coin flips), these operations only manipulate the .expr attribute.

More generally, one can use the apply method to apply an arbitrary function to the .expr attribute. For example, using the dice from before:

dice2 = dice.apply(lambda expr: ~expr[2])
assert dice2[0].freqs() == Fraction(2, 3)

One can also change the assumptions made on the coin flips by using the condition method, for example, suppose we condition on the coin flips never being all False. This changes the distribution as follows:

coins = dice.coins  #  Bitvector Expression of coin variables.
dice3 = dice.condition(coins != 0)

# [Fraction(0, 5), Fraction(3, 5), Fraction(2, 5)]

Binomial Distributions

As a convenience, py-aiger-coins also supports encoding Binomial distributions.

x = binomial(3)

# (Fraction(1, 8), Fraction(3, 8), Fraction(3, 8), Fraction(1, 8))

Markov Decision Processes and Probablistic Circuits

aiger_coins also supports modeling Probablistic Circuits, Markov Decision Process (MDPs), and Markov Chains (MDPs with no inputs).

Internally, the MDP object is simply an AIGBV bitvector circuit with some inputs annotated with distributions over their inputs.

The primary entropy point to modeling a Markov Decision Process is the circ2mdp function.

from aiger_bv import atom
from aiger_coins import circ2mdp

x = atom(3, 'x', signed=False)
y = atom(3, 'y', signed=False)
expr = (x & y).with_output('x&y')

mdp1 = circ2mdp(expr)
mdp1 = circ2mdp(expr.aigbv)  # equivalent


MDP can be composed using an API analogous to aiger_bv.AIGBV and aiger.AIG sequential circuits. In addition, MDP support being feed actions from a distribution via sequential composition.

# Put a distribution over the y input.
dist = aiger_coins.dist((0, 1, 2), name='y')

mdp2 = dist >> mdp1
mdp2 = mdp1 << dist  # equivalent
mdp2 = circ2mdp(expr, {'y': dist})  # equivalent

assert mdp1.inputs == {'x', 'y'}
assert mdp2.inputs == {'x'}

mdp3 = mdp2 | circ2mdp(aiger_bv.identity_gate(4, 'z'))
assert mdp3.inputs == {'x', 'z'}
assert mdp3.outputs == {'x&y', 'z'}

mdp4 =['z'], outputs=['x&y'], keep_outputs=True)
assert mdp4.inputs == {'x'}
assert mdp4.outputs == {'x&y', 'z'}

Extracting Circuit

One can transform an MDP into an AIG or AIGBV object using .aig and .aigbv attributes. This adds as the coinflips explicitly as inputs and also adds a special output ##valid that monitors if the sequence of inputs and coin flips was valid.

assert mdp.aigbv.outputs == mdp.outputs | {'##valid'}

assert '##valid[0]' in

Encoding and Decoding Traces

Often times, one is interested in analyzing traces, sequences of states and actions, through a Markov Decision Process.

In order to map this to an execution of an MDP object, one needs to find a sequence of coin flip inputs such that feeding the actions and the coin flip inputs into the circuit generated by MDP.aigbv.

This (and its inverse) can be done via the MDP.encode_trc and MDP.decode_trc methods.

For example, consider the simple MDP modeled by:

from aiger_bv import atom
from aiger_coins import circ2mdp

action = atom(1, 'action', signed=False)
x_prev = atom(1, 'x_prev', signed=False)
c = atom(1, 'c', signed=False)

x_next = (x_prev & c & action).with_output('x_next')

sys = circ2mdp(x_next).feedback(
    inputs=['x_prev'], outputs=['x_next'], initials=[(True,)],
sys <<= coin((1, 2), name='c')
assert sys.inputs == {'action'}
assert sys.outputs == {'x_next'}

We can encode and decode traces into this model as follows:

# Encoding and Decoding

sys_actions = 3*[{'action': (True,)}]
states = 3*[{out: (True,)}]

actions = sys.encode_trc(sys_actions, states)
assert not any(v['c'][0] for v in actions)

sys_actions2, states2 = sys.decode_trc(actions)
assert sys_actions2 == sys_actions
assert states2 == states

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