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Python Battery Mathematical Modelling.

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PyBaMM (Python Battery Mathematical Modelling) solves physics-based electrochemical DAE models by using state-of-the-art automatic differentiation and numerical solvers. The Doyle-Fuller-Newman model can be solved in under 0.1 seconds, while the reduced-order Single Particle Model and Single Particle Model with electrolyte can be solved in just a few milliseconds. Additional physics can easily be included such as thermal effects, fast particle diffusion, 3D effects, and more. All models are implemented in a flexible manner, and a wide range of models and parameter sets (NCA, NMC, LiCoO2, ...) are available. There is also functionality to simulate any set of experimental instructions, such as CCCV or GITT, or specify drive cycles.

๐Ÿ’ป Using PyBaMM

The easiest way to use PyBaMM is to run a 1C constant-current discharge with a model of your choice with all the default settings:

import pybamm
model = pybamm.lithium_ion.DFN()  # Doyle-Fuller-Newman model
sim = pybamm.Simulation(model)
sim.solve([0, 3600])  # solve for 1 hour

or simulate an experiment such as CCCV:

import pybamm
experiment = pybamm.Experiment(
        ("Discharge at C/10 for 10 hours or until 3.3 V",
        "Rest for 1 hour",
        "Charge at 1 A until 4.1 V",
        "Hold at 4.1 V until 50 mA",
        "Rest for 1 hour")
    * 3,
model = pybamm.lithium_ion.DFN()
sim = pybamm.Simulation(model, experiment=experiment, solver=pybamm.CasadiSolver())

However, much greater customisation is available. It is possible to change the physics, parameter values, geometry, submesh type, number of submesh points, methods for spatial discretisation and solver for integration (see DFN script or notebook).

For new users we recommend the Getting Started guides. These are intended to be very simple step-by-step guides to show the basic functionality of PyBaMM, and can either be downloaded and used locally, or used online through Google Colab.

Further details can be found in a number of detailed examples, hosted here on github. In addition, there is a full API documentation, hosted on Read The Docs. Additional supporting material can be found here.

Note that the examples on the default develop branch are tested on the latest develop commit. This may sometimes cause errors when running the examples on the pybamm pip package, which is synced to the main branch. You can switch to the main branch on github to see the version of the examples that is compatible with the latest pip release.

๐Ÿš€ Installing PyBaMM

PyBaMM is available on GNU/Linux, MacOS and Windows. We strongly recommend to install PyBaMM within a python virtual environment, in order not to alter any distribution python files. For instructions on how to create a virtual environment for PyBaMM, see the documentation.

Using pip

pypi downloads

pip install pybamm

Using conda

PyBaMM is available as a conda package through the conda-forge channel.

conda_forge downloads

conda install -c conda-forge pybamm

Optional solvers

Following GNU/Linux and macOS solvers are optionally available:

๐Ÿ“– Citing PyBaMM

If you use PyBaMM in your work, please cite our paper

Sulzer, V., Marquis, S. G., Timms, R., Robinson, M., & Chapman, S. J. (2021). Python Battery Mathematical Modelling (PyBaMM). Journal of Open Research Software, 9(1).

You can use the bibtex

  title = {{Python Battery Mathematical Modelling (PyBaMM)}},
  author = {Sulzer, Valentin and Marquis, Scott G. and Timms, Robert and Robinson, Martin and Chapman, S. Jon},
  doi = {10.5334/jors.309},
  journal = {Journal of Open Research Software},
  publisher = {Software Sustainability Institute},
  volume = {9},
  number = {1},
  pages = {14},
  year = {2021}

We would be grateful if you could also cite the relevant papers. These will change depending on what models and solvers you use. To find out which papers you should cite, add the line


to the end of your script. This will print bibtex information to the terminal; passing a filename to print_citations will print the bibtex information to the specified file instead. A list of all citations can also be found in the citations file. In particular, PyBaMM relies heavily on CasADi. See for information on how to add your own citations when you contribute.

๐Ÿ› ๏ธ Contributing to PyBaMM

If you'd like to help us develop PyBaMM by adding new methods, writing documentation, or fixing embarrassing bugs, please have a look at these guidelines first.

๐Ÿ“ซ Get in touch

For any questions, comments, suggestions or bug reports, please see the contact page.

๐Ÿ“ƒ License

PyBaMM is fully open source. For more information about its license, see LICENSE.

โœจ Contributors

Thanks goes to these wonderful people (emoji key):

Valentin Sulzer

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ“– ๐Ÿ’ก ๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿšง ๐Ÿ‘€ โš ๏ธ โœ… ๐Ÿ“

Robert Timms

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ“– ๐Ÿ’ก ๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿšง ๐Ÿ‘€ โš ๏ธ โœ…

Scott Marquis

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ“– ๐Ÿ’ก ๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿšง ๐Ÿ‘€ โš ๏ธ โœ…

Martin Robinson

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ“– ๐Ÿ’ก ๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿ‘€ โš ๏ธ โœ…

Ferran Brosa Planella

๐Ÿ‘€ ๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ“– ๐Ÿ’ก ๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿšง โš ๏ธ โœ… ๐Ÿ“

Tom Tranter

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ“– ๐Ÿ’ก ๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿ‘€ โš ๏ธ โœ…

Thibault Lestang

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ“– ๐Ÿ’ก ๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿ‘€ โš ๏ธ ๐Ÿš‡


๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ‘€ ๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿš‡


๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ


๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ


๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ


๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ

Yannick Kuhn

๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ

Jacqueline Edge

๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿ“‹ ๐Ÿ”

Fergus Cooper

๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ


๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿ”

Colin Please

๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿ”


๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿ”


๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿ”

Faraday Institution


Alexander Bessman

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ก



Anand Mohan Yadav



๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ’ก โš ๏ธ


๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ ๐Ÿ’ก

Priyanshu Agarwal

โš ๏ธ ๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ‘€ ๐Ÿšง โœ…


๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿ’ก ๐Ÿ“– โš ๏ธ โœ…

Saransh Chopra

๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ ๐Ÿ“– โœ… ๐Ÿ‘€ ๐Ÿšง

David Straub

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป



Amarjit Singh Gaba



๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ

Ali Hussain Umar Bhatti

๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ

Leshinka Molel

๐Ÿ’ป ๐Ÿค”


๐Ÿค” ๐Ÿ’ป โš ๏ธ โœ…

Chuck Liu

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป



Gavin Wiggins

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป

Dion Wilde

๐Ÿ› ๐Ÿ’ป

Elias Hohl






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