Retrieve baseball data in Python
Baseball data scraping and analysis tools in python
pybaseball is a Python package for baseball data analysis. This package scrapes Baseball Reference, Baseball Savant, and FanGraphs so you don't have to. The package retrieves statcast data, pitching stats, batting stats, division standings/team records, awards data, and more. Data is available at the individual pitch level, as well as aggregated at the season level and over custom time periods. See the docs for a comprehensive list of data acquisition functions.
Pybaseball can be installed via pip:
pip install pybaseball
or from the repo (which may at times be more up to date):
git clone https://github.com/jldbc/pybaseball cd pybaseball pip install -e .
We will try to publish periodic updates through the 'releases' and PyPI CI, but it may lag at times.
Discussion about pybaseball use and development is hosted on our group Discord, sign up link here. Issues with the codebase should still be raised and addressed on GitHub.
Full documentation on available functions and their arguments along with examples is located docs folder. This section contains a brief overview of the main functionalities of this library.
Statcast: Pull advanced metrics from Major League Baseball's Statcast system
Statcast data include pitch-level information, pulled from baseballsavant.com.
>>> from pybaseball import statcast >>> statcast(start_dt="2019-06-24", end_dt="2019-06-25").columns Index(['pitch_type', 'game_date', 'release_speed', 'release_pos_x', 'release_pos_z', 'player_name', 'batter', 'pitcher', 'events', 'description', 'spin_dir', 'spin_rate_deprecated', 'break_angle_deprecated', 'break_length_deprecated', 'zone', 'des', 'game_type', 'stand', 'p_throws', 'home_team', 'away_team', 'type', 'hit_location', 'bb_type', 'balls', 'strikes', 'game_year', 'pfx_x', 'pfx_z', 'plate_x', 'plate_z', 'on_3b', 'on_2b', 'on_1b', 'outs_when_up', 'inning', 'inning_topbot', 'hc_x', 'hc_y', 'tfs_deprecated', 'tfs_zulu_deprecated', 'fielder_2', 'umpire', 'sv_id', 'vx0', 'vy0', 'vz0', 'ax', 'ay', 'az', 'sz_top', 'sz_bot', 'hit_distance_sc', 'launch_speed', 'launch_angle', 'effective_speed', 'release_spin_rate', 'release_extension', 'game_pk', 'pitcher.1', 'fielder_2.1', 'fielder_3', 'fielder_4', 'fielder_5', 'fielder_6', 'fielder_7', 'fielder_8', 'fielder_9', 'release_pos_y', 'estimated_ba_using_speedangle', 'estimated_woba_using_speedangle', 'woba_value', 'woba_denom', 'babip_value', 'iso_value', 'launch_speed_angle', 'at_bat_number', 'pitch_number', 'pitch_name', 'home_score', 'away_score', 'bat_score', 'fld_score', 'post_away_score', 'post_home_score', 'post_bat_score', 'post_fld_score', 'if_fielding_alignment', 'of_fielding_alignment', 'spin_axis', 'delta_home_win_exp', 'delta_run_exp'], dtype='object')
For documentation on the definitions of these columns, see the Statcast Search CSV Documentation.
end_dt are supplied, it will return all statcast data between those two dates. If not, it will return yesterday's data. The optional argument
verbose will control whether the library updates you on its progress while it pulls the data.
For a player-specific statcast query, pull pitching or batting data using the
statcast_batter functions. These take the same
end_dt arguments as the statcast function, as well as a
player_id argument. This ID comes from MLB Advanced Media, and can be obtained using the function
playerid_lookup. The returned columns match the set above, but filtered to rows for that specific pitcher or batter. A complete example:
# Find Clayton Kershaw's player id from pybaseball import playerid_lookup from pybaseball import statcast_pitcher playerid_lookup('kershaw', 'clayton') name_last name_first key_mlbam key_retro key_bbref key_fangraphs mlb_played_first mlb_played_last 0 kershaw clayton 477132 kersc001 kershcl01 2036 2008.0 2022.0 # His MLBAM ID is 477132, so we feed that as the player_id argument to the following function kershaw_stats = statcast_pitcher('2017-06-01', '2017-07-01', 477132) kershaw_stats.groupby("pitch_type").release_speed.agg("mean") pitch_type CH 86.725000 CU 73.133333 FF 92.844622 SI 94.515385 SL 87.962381 Name: release_speed, dtype: float64
A note on Statcast data
Statcast data is subject to change (even for prior seasons):
Each season has 700,000+ pitches, and is subject to update. You should code accordingly.— Tangotiger (@tangotiger) February 17, 2021
For league-wide season-level pitching data, use the function
pitching_stats(start_season, end_season). This will return one row per player per season, and provide all metrics made available by FanGraphs.
For a fixed range,
pitching_stats_range(start_dt, end_dt) pulls data for a specific time-interval from Baseball Reference. Note that all dates should be in
from pybaseball import pitching_stats data = pitching_stats(2014,2016) data.columns Index(['IDfg', 'Season', 'Name', 'Team', 'Age', 'W', 'L', 'WAR', 'ERA', 'G', ... 'LA', 'Barrels', 'Barrel%', 'maxEV', 'HardHit', 'HardHit%', 'Events', 'CStr%', 'CSW%', 'xERA'], dtype='object', length=334)
Batting stats are obtained similarly. The function call for getting a season-level stats is
batting_stats(start_season, end_season), and for a particular time range it is
batting_stats_range(start_dt, end_dt). The Baseball Reference equivalent for season-level data is
(For season level queries, if you prefer Baseball Reference to FanGraphs, there is a third option,
pitching_stats_bref(season). This works the same as
pitching_stats, but retrieves its data from Baseball Reference instead. This is not recommended, however, because the Baseball Reference query currently can only retrieve one season's worth of data per request.)
Game-by-Game Results and Schedule
schedule_and_record function returns a team's game-by-game results for a given season. The function's only two arguments are
team, where team is the team's abbreviation (i.e. NYY for New York Yankees).
# Example: Say we want to know the 1927 Yankees record on May 16 from pybaseball import schedule_and_record data = schedule_and_record(1927, 'NYY') data.loc[data.Date.str.contains("May 16"), :] Date Tm Home_Away Opp W/L R RA Inn W-L Rank GB Win Loss Save Time D/N Attendance cLI Streak Orig. Scheduled 28 Monday, May 16 NYY @ DET W 6.0 2.0 9.0 19-8 1.0 up 3.0 Ruether Holloway Moore 2:28 D 4000.0 5.15 5 None
Standings: up to date or historical division standings, W/L records
standings(season) function gives division standings for a given season. If the current season is chosen, it will give the most current set of standings. Otherwise, it will give the end-of-season standings for each division for the chosen season. This function returns a list of dataframes. Each dataframe is the standings for one of MLB's six divisions.
>>> from pybaseball import standings >>> data = standings(2016) >>> print(data) Tm W L W-L% GB 1 Chicago Cubs 103 58 .640 -- 2 St. Louis Cardinals 86 76 .531 17.5 3 Pittsburgh Pirates 78 83 .484 25.0 4 Milwaukee Brewers 73 89 .451 30.5 5 Cincinnati Reds 68 94 .420 35.5
To facilitate faster data retrieval for repeated calls, a local data cache may be used to save a local copy of the requested data. By default the cache is disabled so as to respect a user's potential desire to not have their hard drive space used without their permission. However, enabling the cache is simple.
Cache can be turned on by including the pybaseball.cache module and enabling the cache option like so:
from pybaseball import cache cache.enable()
If you call a statcast method for a future date, the cache will log empty datasets for those dates. If you're not getting the results you expect for a given date, first try clearing your cache:
from pybaseball import cache cache.purge()
If you're getting a error with
concurrent.futures.process.BrokenProcessPool, wrap your call in a main function, e.g.
if __name__ == '__main__': stats = statcast()
This may be necessary on systems that use spawn-based processes (often Windows and OSX).
For other problems, please submit an issue.
See contributing.md for a guide to contributing to this library.
This package was developed by James LeDoux and is maintained by Moshe Schorr.
This package was inspired by Bill Petti's excellent R package baseballr, which at the time of this package's development had no Python equivalent. Our hope is to fill that void with this package.
The Lahman data comes from Sean Lahman's baseball database.
All other data comes from FanGraphs, Baseball Reference, the Chadwick Bureau, Retrosheet, and Baseball Savant.
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