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Data validation and settings management using python 3.6 type hinting

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Data validation and settings management using Python type hinting.

Fast and extensible, pydantic plays nicely with your linters/IDE/brain. Define how data should be in pure, canonical Python 3.6+; validate it with pydantic.


See documentation for more details.


Install using pip install -U pydantic or conda install pydantic -c conda-forge. For more installation options to make pydantic even faster, see the Install section in the documentation.

A Simple Example

from datetime import datetime
from typing import List, Optional
from pydantic import BaseModel

class User(BaseModel):
    id: int
    name = 'John Doe'
    signup_ts: Optional[datetime] = None
    friends: List[int] = []

external_data = {'id': '123', 'signup_ts': '2017-06-01 12:22', 'friends': [1, '2', b'3']}
user = User(**external_data)
#> User id=123 name='John Doe' signup_ts=datetime.datetime(2017, 6, 1, 12, 22) friends=[1, 2, 3]
#> 123


For guidance on setting up a development environment and how to make a contribution to pydantic, see Contributing to Pydantic.

Reporting a Security Vulnerability

See our security policy.

v1.8.2 (2021-05-11)

!!! warning A security vulnerability, level "moderate" is fixed in v1.8.2. Please upgrade ASAP. See security advisory CVE-2021-29510

  • Security fix: Fix date and datetime parsing so passing either 'infinity' or float('inf') (or their negative values) does not cause an infinite loop, see security advisory CVE-2021-29510
  • fix schema generation with Enum by generating a valid name, #2575 by @PrettyWood
  • fix JSON schema generation with a Literal of an enum member, #2536 by @PrettyWood
  • Fix bug with configurations declarations that are passed as keyword arguments during class creation, #2532 by @uriyyo
  • Allow passing json_encoders in class kwargs, #2521 by @layday
  • support arbitrary types with custom __eq__, #2483 by @PrettyWood
  • support Annotated in validate_arguments and in generic models with python 3.9, #2483 by @PrettyWood
  • Support user defined generic field types in generic models, #2465 by @daviskirk

v1.8.1 (2021-03-03)

Bug fixes for regressions and new features from v1.8

  • allow elements of Config.field to update elements of a Field, #2461 by @samuelcolvin
  • fix validation with a BaseModel field and a custom root type, #2449 by @PrettyWood
  • expose Pattern encoder to fastapi, #2444 by @PrettyWood
  • enable the Hypothesis plugin to generate a constrained float when the multiple_of argument is specified, #2442 by @tobi-lipede-oodle
  • Avoid RecursionError when using some types like Enum or Literal with generic models, #2436 by @PrettyWood
  • do not overwrite declared __hash__ in subclasses of a model, #2422 by @PrettyWood
  • fix mypy complaints on Path and UUID related custom types, #2418 by @PrettyWood
  • Support properly variable length tuples of compound types, #2416 by @PrettyWood

v1.8 (2021-02-26)

Thank you to pydantic's sponsors: @jorgecarleitao, @BCarley, @chdsbd, @tiangolo, @matin, @linusg, @kevinalh, @koxudaxi, @timdrijvers, @mkeen, @meadsteve, @ginomempin, @primer-io, @and-semakin, @tomthorogood, @AjitZK, @westonsteimel, @Mazyod, @christippett, @CarlosDomingues, @Kludex, @r-m-n for their kind support.



  • Breaking Change, remove old deprecation aliases from v1, #2415 by @samuelcolvin:
    • remove notes on migrating to v1 in docs
    • remove Schema which was replaced by Field
    • remove Config.case_insensitive which was replaced by Config.case_sensitive (default False)
    • remove Config.allow_population_by_alias which was replaced by Config.allow_population_by_field_name
    • remove model.fields which was replaced by model.__fields__
    • remove model.to_string() which was replaced by str(model)
    • remove model.__values__ which was replaced by model.__dict__
  • Breaking Change: always validate only first sublevel items with each_item. There were indeed some edge cases with some compound types where the validated items were the last sublevel ones, #1933 by @PrettyWood
  • Update docs extensions to fix local syntax highlighting, #2400 by @daviskirk
  • fix: allow utils.lenient_issubclass to handle typing.GenericAlias objects like list[str] in python >= 3.9, #2399 by @daviskirk
  • Improve field declaration for pydantic dataclass by allowing the usage of pydantic Field or 'metadata' kwarg of dataclasses.field, #2384 by @PrettyWood
  • Making typing-extensions a required dependency, #2368 by @samuelcolvin
  • Make resolve_annotations more lenient, allowing for missing modules, #2363 by @samuelcolvin
  • Allow configuring models through class kwargs, #2356 by @MrMrRobat
  • Prevent Mapping subclasses from always being coerced to dict, #2325 by @ofek
  • fix: allow None for type Optional[conset / conlist], #2320 by @PrettyWood
  • Support empty tuple type, #2318 by @PrettyWood
  • fix: python_requires metadata to require >=3.6.1, #2306 by @hukkinj1
  • Properly encode Decimal with, or without any decimal places, #2293 by @hultner
  • fix: update __fields_set__ in BaseModel.copy(update=…), #2290 by @PrettyWood
  • fix: keep order of fields with BaseModel.construct(), #2281 by @PrettyWood
  • Support generating schema for Generic fields, #2262 by @maximberg
  • Fix validate_decorator so **kwargs doesn't exclude values when the keyword has the same name as the *args or **kwargs names, #2251 by @cybojenix
  • Prevent overriding positional arguments with keyword arguments in validate_arguments, as per behaviour with native functions, #2249 by @cybojenix
  • add documentation for con* type functions, #2242 by @tayoogunbiyi
  • Support custom root type (aka __root__) when using parse_obj() with nested models, #2238 by @PrettyWood
  • Support custom root type (aka __root__) with from_orm(), #2237 by @PrettyWood
  • ensure cythonized functions are left untouched when creating models, based on #1944 by @kollmats, #2228 by @samuelcolvin
  • Resolve forward refs for stdlib dataclasses converted into pydantic ones, #2220 by @PrettyWood
  • Add support for NamedTuple and TypedDict types. Those two types are now handled and validated when used inside BaseModel or pydantic dataclass. Two utils are also added create_model_from_namedtuple and create_model_from_typeddict, #2216 by @PrettyWood
  • Do not ignore annotated fields when type is Union[Type[...], ...], #2213 by @PrettyWood
  • Raise a user-friendly TypeError when a root_validator does not return a dict (e.g. None), #2209 by @masalim2
  • Add a FrozenSet[str] type annotation to the allowed_schemes argument on the strict_url field type, #2198 by @Midnighter
  • add allow_mutation constraint to Field, #2195 by @sblack-usu
  • Allow Field with a default_factory to be used as an argument to a function decorated with validate_arguments, #2176 by @thomascobb
  • Allow non-existent secrets directory by only issuing a warning, #2175 by @davidolrik
  • fix URL regex to parse fragment without query string, #2168 by @andrewmwhite
  • fix: ensure to always return one of the values in Literal field type, #2166 by @PrettyWood
  • Support typing.Annotated hints on model fields. A Field may now be set in the type hint with Annotated[..., Field(...); all other annotations are ignored but still visible with get_type_hints(..., include_extras=True), #2147 by @JacobHayes
  • Added StrictBytes type as well as strict=False option to ConstrainedBytes, #2136 by @rlizzo
  • added Config.anystr_lower and to_lower kwarg to constr and conbytes, #2134 by @tayoogunbiyi
  • Support plain typing.Tuple type, #2132 by @PrettyWood
  • Add a bound method validate to functions decorated with validate_arguments to validate parameters without actually calling the function, #2127 by @PrettyWood
  • Add the ability to customize settings sources (add / disable / change priority order), #2107 by @kozlek
  • Fix mypy complaints about most custom pydantic types, #2098 by @PrettyWood
  • Add a Hypothesis plugin for easier property-based testing with Pydantic's custom types - usage details here, #2097 by @Zac-HD
  • add validator for None, NoneType or Literal[None], #2095 by @PrettyWood
  • Handle properly fields of type Callable with a default value, #2094 by @PrettyWood
  • Updated create_model return type annotation to return type which inherits from __base__ argument, #2071 by @uriyyo
  • Add merged json_encoders inheritance, #2064 by @art049
  • allow overwriting ClassVars in sub-models without having to re-annotate them, #2061 by @layday
  • add default encoder for Pattern type, #2045 by @PrettyWood
  • Add NonNegativeInt, NonPositiveInt, NonNegativeFloat, NonPositiveFloat, #1975 by @mdavis-xyz
  • Use % for percentage in string format of colors, #1960 by @EdwardBetts
  • Fixed issue causing KeyError to be raised when building schema from multiple BaseModel with the same names declared in separate classes, #1912 by @JSextonn
  • Add rediss (Redis over SSL) protocol to RedisDsn Allow URLs without user part (e.g., rediss://:pass@localhost), #1911 by @TrDex
  • Add a new frozen boolean parameter to Config (default: False). Setting frozen=True does everything that allow_mutation=False does, and also generates a __hash__() method for the model. This makes instances of the model potentially hashable if all the attributes are hashable, #1880 by @rhuille
  • fix schema generation with multiple Enums having the same name, #1857 by @PrettyWood
  • Added support for 13/19 digits VISA credit cards in PaymentCardNumber type, #1416 by @AlexanderSov
  • fix: prevent RecursionError while using recursive GenericModels, #1370 by @xppt
  • use enum for typing.Literal in JSON schema, #1350 by @PrettyWood
  • Fix: some recursive models did not require update_forward_refs and silently behaved incorrectly, #1201 by @PrettyWood
  • Fix bug where generic models with fields where the typevar is nested in another type a: List[T] are considered to be concrete. This allows these models to be subclassed and composed as expected, #947 by @daviskirk
  • Add Config.copy_on_model_validation flag. When set to False, pydantic will keep models used as fields untouched on validation instead of reconstructing (copying) them, #265 by @PrettyWood

v1.7.4 (2021-05-11)

  • Security fix: Fix date and datetime parsing so passing either 'infinity' or float('inf') (or their negative values) does not cause an infinite loop, See security advisory CVE-2021-29510

v1.7.3 (2020-11-30)

Thank you to pydantic's sponsors: @timdrijvers, @BCarley, @chdsbd, @tiangolo, @matin, @linusg, @kevinalh, @jorgecarleitao, @koxudaxi, @primer-api, @mkeen, @meadsteve for their kind support.

  • fix: set right default value for required (optional) fields, #2142 by @PrettyWood
  • fix: support underscore_attrs_are_private with generic models, #2138 by @PrettyWood
  • fix: update all modified field values in root_validator when validate_assignment is on, #2116 by @PrettyWood
  • Allow pickling of pydantic.dataclasses.dataclass dynamically created from a built-in dataclasses.dataclass, #2111 by @aimestereo
  • Fix a regression where Enum fields would not propagate keyword arguments to the schema, #2109 by @bm424
  • Ignore __doc__ as private attribute when Config.underscore_attrs_are_private is set, #2090 by @PrettyWood

v1.7.2 (2020-11-01)

  • fix slow GenericModel concrete model creation, allow GenericModel concrete name reusing in module, #2078 by @MrMrRobat
  • keep the order of the fields when validate_assignment is set, #2073 by @PrettyWood
  • forward all the params of the stdlib dataclass when converted into pydantic dataclass, #2065 by @PrettyWood

v1.7.1 (2020-10-28)

Thank you to pydantic's sponsors: @timdrijvers, @BCarley, @chdsbd, @tiangolo, @matin, @linusg, @kevinalh, @jorgecarleitao, @koxudaxi, @primer-api, @mkeen for their kind support.

  • fix annotation of validate_arguments when passing configuration as argument, #2055 by @layday
  • Fix mypy assignment error when using PrivateAttr, #2048 by @aphedges
  • fix underscore_attrs_are_private causing TypeError when overriding __init__, #2047 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fixed regression introduced in v1.7 involving exception handling in field validators when validate_assignment=True, #2044 by @johnsabath
  • fix: pydantic dataclass can inherit from stdlib dataclass and Config.arbitrary_types_allowed is supported, #2042 by @PrettyWood

v1.7 (2020-10-26)

Thank you to pydantic's sponsors: @timdrijvers, @BCarley, @chdsbd, @tiangolo, @matin, @linusg, @kevinalh, @jorgecarleitao, @koxudaxi, @primer-api for their kind support.



  • Breaking Change: remove __field_defaults__, add default_factory support with BaseModel.construct. Use .get_default() method on fields in __fields__ attribute instead, #1732 by @PrettyWood
  • Rearrange CI to run linting as a separate job, split install recipes for different tasks, #2020 by @samuelcolvin
  • Allows subclasses of generic models to make some, or all, of the superclass's type parameters concrete, while also defining new type parameters in the subclass, #2005 by @choogeboom
  • Call validator with the correct values parameter type in BaseModel.__setattr__, when validate_assignment = True in model config, #1999 by @me-ransh
  • Force fields.Undefined to be a singleton object, fixing inherited generic model schemas, #1981 by @daviskirk
  • Include tests in source distributions, #1976 by @sbraz
  • Add ability to use min_length/max_length constraints with secret types, #1974 by @uriyyo
  • Also check root_validators when validate_assignment is on, #1971 by @PrettyWood
  • Fix const validators not running when custom validators are present, #1957 by @hmvp
  • add deque to field types, #1935 by @wozniakty
  • add basic support for python 3.9, #1832 by @PrettyWood
  • Fix typo in the anchor of and incorrect description, #1821 by @KimMachineGun
  • Added ability for BaseSettings to read "secret files", #1820 by @mdgilene
  • add parse_raw_as utility function, #1812 by @PrettyWood
  • Support home directory relative paths for dotenv files (e.g. ~/.env), #1803 by @PrettyWood
  • Clarify documentation for parse_file to show that the argument should be a file path not a file-like object, #1794 by @mdavis-xyz
  • Fix false positive from mypy plugin when a class nested within a BaseModel is named Model, #1770 by @selimb
  • add basic support of Pattern type in schema generation, #1767 by @PrettyWood
  • Support custom title, description and default in schema of enums, #1748 by @PrettyWood
  • Properly represent Literal Enums when use_enum_values is True, #1747 by @noelevans
  • Allows timezone information to be added to strings to be formatted as time objects. Permitted formats are Z for UTC or an offset for absolute positive or negative time shifts. Or the timezone data can be omitted, #1744 by @noelevans
  • Add stub __init__ with python 3.6 signature for ForwardRef, #1738 by @sirtelemak
  • Fix behaviour with forward refs and optional fields in nested models, #1736 by @PrettyWood
  • add Enum and IntEnum as valid types for fields, #1735 by @PrettyWood
  • Change default value of __module__ argument of create_model from None to 'pydantic.main'. Set reference of created concrete model to it's module to allow pickling (not applied to models created in functions), #1686 by @MrMrRobat
  • Add private attributes support, #1679 by @MrMrRobat
  • add config to @validate_arguments, #1663 by @samuelcolvin
  • Allow descendant Settings models to override env variable names for the fields defined in parent Settings models with env in their Config. Previously only env_prefix configuration option was applicable, #1561 by @ojomio
  • Support ref_template when creating schema $refs, #1479 by @kilo59
  • Add a __call__ stub to PyObject so that mypy will know that it is callable, #1352 by @brianmaissy
  • pydantic.dataclasses.dataclass decorator now supports built-in dataclasses.dataclass. It is hence possible to convert an existing dataclass easily to add pydantic validation. Moreover nested dataclasses are also supported, #744 by @PrettyWood

v1.6.2 (2021-05-11)

  • Security fix: Fix date and datetime parsing so passing either 'infinity' or float('inf') (or their negative values) does not cause an infinite loop, See security advisory CVE-2021-29510

v1.6.1 (2020-07-15)

  • fix validation and parsing of nested models with default_factory, #1710 by @PrettyWood

v1.6 (2020-07-11)

Thank you to pydantic's sponsors: @matin, @tiangolo, @chdsbd, @jorgecarleitao, and 1 anonymous sponsor for their kind support.

  • Modify validators for conlist and conset to not have always=True, #1682 by @samuelcolvin
  • add port check to AnyUrl (can't exceed 65536) ports are 16 insigned bits: 0 <= port <= 2**16-1 src: rfc793 header format, #1654 by @flapili
  • Document default regex anchoring semantics, #1648 by @yurikhan
  • Use chain.from_iterable in This is a faster and more idiomatic way of using itertools.chain. Instead of computing all the items in the iterable and storing them in memory, they are computed one-by-one and never stored as a huge list. This can save on both runtime and memory space, #1642 by @cool-RR
  • Add conset(), analogous to conlist(), #1623 by @patrickkwang
  • make pydantic errors (un)pickable, #1616 by @PrettyWood
  • Allow custom encoding for dotenv files, #1615 by @PrettyWood
  • Ensure SchemaExtraCallable is always defined to get type hints on BaseConfig, #1614 by @PrettyWood
  • Update datetime parser to support negative timestamps, #1600 by @mlbiche
  • Update mypy, remove AnyType alias for Type[Any], #1598 by @samuelcolvin
  • Adjust handling of root validators so that errors are aggregated from all failing root validators, instead of reporting on only the first root validator to fail, #1586 by @beezee
  • Make __modify_schema__ on Enums apply to the enum schema rather than fields that use the enum, #1581 by @therefromhere
  • Fix behavior of __all__ key when used in conjunction with index keys in advanced include/exclude of fields that are sequences, #1579 by @xspirus
  • Subclass validators do not run when referencing a List field defined in a parent class when each_item=True. Added an example to the docs illustrating this, #1566 by @samueldeklund
  • change schema.field_class_to_schema to support frozenset in schema, #1557 by @wangpeibao
  • Call __modify_schema__ only for the field schema, #1552 by @PrettyWood
  • Move the assignment of field.validate_always in so the always parameter of validators work on inheritance, #1545 by @dcHHH
  • Added support for UUID instantiation through 16 byte strings such as b'\x12\x34\x56\x78' * 4. This was done to support BINARY(16) columns in sqlalchemy, #1541 by @shawnwall
  • Add a test assertion that default_factory can return a singleton, #1523 by @therefromhere
  • Add NameEmail.__eq__ so duplicate NameEmail instances are evaluated as equal, #1514 by @stephen-bunn
  • Add datamodel-code-generator link in pydantic document site, #1500 by @koxudaxi
  • Added a "Discussion of Pydantic" section to the documentation, with a link to "Pydantic Introduction" video by Alexander Hultnér, #1499 by @hultner
  • Avoid some side effects of default_factory by calling it only once if possible and by not setting a default value in the schema, #1491 by @PrettyWood
  • Added docs about dumping dataclasses to JSON, #1487 by @mikegrima
  • Make BaseModel.__signature__ class-only, so getting __signature__ from model instance will raise AttributeError, #1466 by @MrMrRobat
  • include 'format': 'password' in the schema for secret types, #1424 by @atheuz
  • Modify schema constraints on ConstrainedFloat so that exclusiveMinimum and minimum are not included in the schema if they are equal to -math.inf and exclusiveMaximum and maximum are not included if they are equal to math.inf, #1417 by @vdwees
  • Squash internal __root__ dicts in .dict() (and, by extension, in .json()), #1414 by @patrickkwang
  • Move const validator to post-validators so it validates the parsed value, #1410 by @selimb
  • Fix model validation to handle nested literals, e.g. Literal['foo', Literal['bar']], #1364 by @DBCerigo
  • Remove user_required = True from RedisDsn, neither user nor password are required, #1275 by @samuelcolvin
  • Remove extra allOf from schema for fields with Union and custom Field, #1209 by @mostaphaRoudsari
  • Updates OpenAPI schema generation to output all enums as separate models. Instead of inlining the enum values in the model schema, models now use a $ref property to point to the enum definition, #1173 by @calvinwyoung

v1.5.1 (2020-04-23)

v1.5 (2020-04-18)

  • Make includes/excludes arguments for .dict(), ._iter(), ..., immutable, #1404 by @AlexECX
  • Always use a field's real name with includes/excludes in model._iter(), regardless of by_alias, #1397 by @AlexECX
  • Update constr regex example to include start and end lines, #1396 by @lmcnearney
  • Confirm that shallow model.copy() does make a shallow copy of attributes, #1383 by @samuelcolvin
  • Renaming model_name argument of main.create_model() to __model_name to allow using model_name as a field name, #1367 by @kittipatv
  • Replace raising of exception to silent passing for non-Var attributes in mypy plugin, #1345 by @b0g3r
  • Remove typing_extensions dependency for python 3.8, #1342 by @prettywood
  • Make SecretStr and SecretBytes initialization idempotent, #1330 by @atheuz
  • document making secret types dumpable using the json method, #1328 by @atheuz
  • Move all testing and build to github actions, add windows and macos binaries, thank you @StephenBrown2 for much help, #1326 by @samuelcolvin
  • fix card number length check in PaymentCardNumber, PaymentCardBrand now inherits from str, #1317 by @samuelcolvin
  • Have BaseModel inherit from Representation to make mypy happy when overriding __str__, #1310 by @FuegoFro
  • Allow None as input to all optional list fields, #1307 by @prettywood
  • Add datetime field to default_factory example, #1301 by @StephenBrown2
  • Allow subclasses of known types to be encoded with superclass encoder, #1291 by @StephenBrown2
  • Exclude exported fields from all elements of a list/tuple of submodels/dicts with '__all__', #1286 by @masalim2
  • Add pydantic.color.Color objects as available input for Color fields, #1258 by @leosussan
  • In examples, type nullable fields as Optional, so that these are valid mypy annotations, #1248 by @kokes
  • Make pattern_validator() accept pre-compiled Pattern objects. Fix str_validator() return type to str, #1237 by @adamgreg
  • Document how to manage Generics and inheritance, #1229 by @esadruhn
  • update_forward_refs() method of BaseModel now copies __dict__ of class module instead of modyfying it, #1228 by @paul-ilyin
  • Support instance methods and class methods with @validate_arguments, #1222 by @samuelcolvin
  • Add default_factory argument to Field to create a dynamic default value by passing a zero-argument callable, #1210 by @prettywood
  • add support for NewType of List, Optional, etc, #1207 by @Kazy
  • fix mypy signature for root_validator, #1192 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fixed parsing of nested 'custom root type' models, #1190 by @Shados
  • Add validate_arguments function decorator which checks the arguments to a function matches type annotations, #1179 by @samuelcolvin
  • Add __signature__ to models, #1034 by @MrMrRobat
  • Refactor ._iter() method, 10x speed boost for dict(model), #1017 by @MrMrRobat

v1.4 (2020-01-24)

  • Breaking Change: alias precedence logic changed so aliases on a field always take priority over an alias from alias_generator to avoid buggy/unexpected behaviour, see here for details, #1178 by @samuelcolvin
  • Add support for unicode and punycode in TLDs, #1182 by @jamescurtin
  • Fix cls argument in validators during assignment, #1172 by @samuelcolvin
  • completing Luhn algorithm for PaymentCardNumber, #1166 by @cuencandres
  • add support for generics that implement __get_validators__ like a custom data type, #1159 by @tiangolo
  • add support for infinite generators with Iterable, #1152 by @tiangolo
  • fix url_regex to accept schemas with +, - and . after the first character, #1142 by @samuelcolvin
  • move version_info() to, suggest its use in issues, #1138 by @samuelcolvin
  • Improve pydantic import time by roughly 50% by deferring some module loading and regex compilation, #1127 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fix EmailStr and NameEmail to accept instances of themselves in cython, #1126 by @koxudaxi
  • Pass model class to the Config.schema_extra callable, #1125 by @therefromhere
  • Fix regex for username and password in URLs, #1115 by @samuelcolvin
  • Add support for nested generic models, #1104 by @dmontagu
  • add __all__ to to prevent "implicit reexport" errors from mypy, #1072 by @samuelcolvin
  • Add support for using "dotenv" files with BaseSettings, #1011 by @acnebs

v1.3 (2019-12-21)

  • Change schema and schema_model to handle dataclasses by using their __pydantic_model__ feature, #792 by @aviramha
  • Added option for root_validator to be skipped if values validation fails using keyword skip_on_failure=True, #1049 by @aviramha
  • Allow Config.schema_extra to be a callable so that the generated schema can be post-processed, #1054 by @selimb
  • Update mypy to version 0.750, #1057 by @dmontagu
  • Trick Cython into allowing str subclassing, #1061 by @skewty
  • Prevent type attributes being added to schema unless the attribute __schema_attributes__ is True, #1064 by @samuelcolvin
  • Change BaseModel.parse_file to use Config.json_loads, #1067 by @kierandarcy
  • Fix for optional Json fields, #1073 by @volker48
  • Change the default number of threads used when compiling with cython to one, allow override via the CYTHON_NTHREADS environment variable, #1074 by @samuelcolvin
  • Run FastAPI tests during Pydantic's CI tests, #1075 by @tiangolo
  • My mypy strictness constraints, and associated tweaks to type annotations, #1077 by @samuelcolvin
  • Add __eq__ to SecretStr and SecretBytes to allow "value equals", #1079 by @sbv-trueenergy
  • Fix schema generation for nested None case, #1088 by @lutostag
  • Consistent checks for sequence like objects, #1090 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fix Config inheritance on BaseSettings when used with env_prefix, #1091 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fix for __modify_schema__ when it conflicted with field_class_to_schema*, #1102 by @samuelcolvin
  • docs: Fix explanation of case sensitive environment variable names when populating BaseSettings subclass attributes, #1105 by @tribals
  • Rename django-rest-framework benchmark in documentation, #1119 by @frankie567

v1.2 (2019-11-28)

  • Possible Breaking Change: Add support for required Optional with name: Optional[AnyType] = Field(...) and refactor ModelField creation to preserve required parameter value, #1031 by @tiangolo; see here for details
  • Add benchmarks for cattrs, #513 by @sebastianmika
  • Add exclude_none option to dict() and friends, #587 by @niknetniko
  • Add benchmarks for valideer, #670 by @gsakkis
  • Add parse_obj_as and parse_file_as functions for ad-hoc parsing of data into arbitrary pydantic-compatible types, #934 by @dmontagu
  • Add allow_reuse argument to validators, thus allowing validator reuse, #940 by @dmontagu
  • Add support for mapping types for custom root models, #958 by @dmontagu
  • Mypy plugin support for dataclasses, #966 by @koxudaxi
  • Add support for dataclasses default factory, #968 by @ahirner
  • Add a ByteSize type for converting byte string (1GB) to plain bytes, #977 by @dgasmith
  • Fix mypy complaint about @root_validator(pre=True), #984 by @samuelcolvin
  • Add manylinux binaries for python 3.8 to pypi, also support manylinux2010, #994 by @samuelcolvin
  • Adds ByteSize conversion to another unit, #995 by @dgasmith
  • Fix __str__ and __repr__ inheritance for models, #1022 by @samuelcolvin
  • add testimonials section to docs, #1025 by @sullivancolin
  • Add support for typing.Literal for Python 3.8, #1026 by @dmontagu

v1.1.1 (2019-11-20)

  • Fix bug where use of complex fields on sub-models could cause fields to be incorrectly configured, #1015 by @samuelcolvin

v1.1 (2019-11-07)

  • Add a mypy plugin for type checking BaseModel.__init__ and more, #722 by @dmontagu
  • Change return type typehint for GenericModel.__class_getitem__ to prevent PyCharm warnings, #936 by @dmontagu
  • Fix usage of Any to allow None, also support TypeVar thus allowing use of un-parameterised collection types e.g. Dict and List, #962 by @samuelcolvin
  • Set FieldInfo on subfields to fix schema generation for complex nested types, #965 by @samuelcolvin

v1.0 (2019-10-23)

  • Breaking Change: deprecate the Model.fields property, use Model.__fields__ instead, #883 by @samuelcolvin
  • Breaking Change: Change the precedence of aliases so child model aliases override parent aliases, including using alias_generator, #904 by @samuelcolvin
  • Breaking change: Rename skip_defaults to exclude_unset, and add ability to exclude actual defaults, #915 by @dmontagu
  • Add **kwargs to pydantic.main.ModelMetaclass.__new__ so __init_subclass__ can take custom parameters on extended BaseModel classes, #867 by @retnikt
  • Fix field of a type that has a default value, #880 by @koxudaxi
  • Use FutureWarning instead of DeprecationWarning when alias instead of env is used for settings models, #881 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fix issue with BaseSettings inheritance and alias getting set to None, #882 by @samuelcolvin
  • Modify __repr__ and __str__ methods to be consistent across all public classes, add __pretty__ to support python-devtools, #884 by @samuelcolvin
  • deprecation warning for case_insensitive on BaseSettings config, #885 by @samuelcolvin
  • For BaseSettings merge environment variables and in-code values recursively, as long as they create a valid object when merged together, to allow splitting init arguments, #888 by @idmitrievsky
  • change secret types example, #890 by @ashears
  • Change the signature of Model.construct() to be more user-friendly, document construct() usage, #898 by @samuelcolvin
  • Add example for the construct() method, #907 by @ashears
  • Improve use of Field constraints on complex types, raise an error if constraints are not enforceable, also support tuples with an ellipsis Tuple[X, ...], Sequence and FrozenSet in schema, #909 by @samuelcolvin
  • update docs for bool missing valid value, #911 by @trim21
  • Better str/repr logic for ModelField, #912 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fix ConstrainedList, update schema generation to reflect min_items and max_items Field() arguments, #917 by @samuelcolvin
  • Allow abstracts sets (eg. dict keys) in the include and exclude arguments of dict(), #921 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fix JSON serialization errors on ValidationError.json() by using pydantic_encoder, #922 by @samuelcolvin
  • Clarify usage of remove_untouched, improve error message for types with no validators, #926 by @retnikt

v1.0b2 (2019-10-07)

  • Mark StrictBool typecheck as bool to allow for default values without mypy errors, #690 by @dmontagu
  • Transfer the documentation build from sphinx to mkdocs, re-write much of the documentation, #856 by @samuelcolvin
  • Add support for custom naming schemes for GenericModel subclasses, #859 by @dmontagu
  • Add if TYPE_CHECKING: to the excluded lines for test coverage, #874 by @dmontagu
  • Rename allow_population_by_alias to allow_population_by_field_name, remove unnecessary warning about it, #875 by @samuelcolvin

v1.0b1 (2019-10-01)

  • Breaking Change: rename Schema to Field, make it a function to placate mypy, #577 by @samuelcolvin
  • Breaking Change: modify parsing behavior for bool, #617 by @dmontagu
  • Breaking Change: get_validators is no longer recognised, use __get_validators__. Config.ignore_extra and Config.allow_extra are no longer recognised, use Config.extra, #720 by @samuelcolvin
  • Breaking Change: modify default config settings for BaseSettings; case_insensitive renamed to case_sensitive, default changed to case_sensitive = False, env_prefix default changed to '' - e.g. no prefix, #721 by @dmontagu
  • Breaking change: Implement root_validator and rename root errors from __obj__ to __root__, #729 by @samuelcolvin
  • Breaking Change: alter the behaviour of dict(model) so that sub-models are nolonger converted to dictionaries, #733 by @samuelcolvin
  • Breaking change: Added initvars support to post_init_post_parse, #748 by @Raphael-C-Almeida
  • Breaking Change: Make BaseModel.json() only serialize the __root__ key for models with custom root, #752 by @dmontagu
  • Breaking Change: complete rewrite of URL parsing logic, #755 by @samuelcolvin
  • Breaking Change: preserve superclass annotations for field-determination when not provided in subclass, #757 by @dmontagu
  • Breaking Change: BaseSettings now uses the special env settings to define which environment variables to read, not aliases, #847 by @samuelcolvin
  • add support for assert statements inside validators, #653 by @abdusco
  • Update documentation to specify the use of pydantic.dataclasses.dataclass and subclassing pydantic.BaseModel, #710 by @maddosaurus
  • Allow custom JSON decoding and encoding via json_loads and json_dumps Config properties, #714 by @samuelcolvin
  • make all annotated fields occur in the order declared, #715 by @dmontagu
  • use pytest to test mypy integration, #735 by @dmontagu
  • add __repr__ method to ErrorWrapper, #738 by @samuelcolvin
  • Added support for FrozenSet members in dataclasses, and a better error when attempting to use types from the typing module that are not supported by Pydantic, #745 by @djpetti
  • add documentation for Pycharm Plugin, #750 by @koxudaxi
  • fix broken examples in the docs, #753 by @dmontagu
  • moving typing related objects into pydantic.typing, #761 by @samuelcolvin
  • Minor performance improvements to ErrorWrapper, ValidationError and datetime parsing, #763 by @samuelcolvin
  • Improvements to datetime/date/time/timedelta types: more descriptive errors, change errors to value_error not type_error, support bytes, #766 by @samuelcolvin
  • fix error messages for Literal types with multiple allowed values, #770 by @dmontagu
  • Improved auto-generated title field in JSON schema by converting underscore to space, #772 by @skewty
  • support mypy --no-implicit-reexport for dataclasses, also respect --no-implicit-reexport in pydantic itself, #783 by @samuelcolvin
  • add the PaymentCardNumber type, #790 by @matin
  • Fix const validations for lists, #794 by @hmvp
  • Set additionalProperties to false in schema for models with extra fields disallowed, #796 by @Code0x58
  • EmailStr validation method now returns local part case-sensitive per RFC 5321, #798 by @henriklindgren
  • Added ability to validate strictness to ConstrainedFloat, ConstrainedInt and ConstrainedStr and added StrictFloat and StrictInt classes, #799 by @DerRidda
  • Improve handling of None and Optional, replace whole with each_item (inverse meaning, default False) on validators, #803 by @samuelcolvin
  • add support for Type[T] type hints, #807 by @timonbimon
  • Performance improvements from removing change_exceptions, change how pydantic error are constructed, #819 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fix the error message arising when a BaseModel-type model field causes a ValidationError during parsing, #820 by @dmontagu
  • allow getter_dict on Config, modify GetterDict to be more like a Mapping object and thus easier to work with, #821 by @samuelcolvin
  • Only check TypeVar param on base GenericModel class, #842 by @zpencerq
  • rename Model._schema_cache -> Model.__schema_cache__, Model._json_encoder -> Model.__json_encoder__, Model._custom_root_type -> Model.__custom_root_type__, #851 by @samuelcolvin

v0.32.2 (2019-08-17)

(Docs are available here)

  • fix __post_init__ usage with dataclass inheritance, fix #739 by @samuelcolvin
  • fix required fields validation on GenericModels classes, #742 by @amitbl
  • fix defining custom Schema on GenericModel fields, #754 by @amitbl

v0.32.1 (2019-08-08)

v0.32 (2019-08-06)

  • add model name to ValidationError error message, #676 by @dmontagu
  • breaking change: remove __getattr__ and rename __values__ to __dict__ on BaseModel, deprecation warning on use __values__ attr, attributes access speed increased up to 14 times, #712 by @MrMrRobat
  • support ForwardRef (without self-referencing annotations) in Python 3.6, #706 by @koxudaxi
  • implement schema_extra in Config sub-class, #663 by @tiangolo

v0.31.1 (2019-07-31)

  • fix json generation for EnumError, #697 by @dmontagu
  • update numerous dependencies

v0.31 (2019-07-24)

v0.30.1 (2019-07-15)

  • fix so nested classes which inherit and change __init__ are correctly processed while still allowing self as a parameter, #644 by @lnaden and @dgasmith

v0.30 (2019-07-07)

v0.29 (2019-06-19)

  • support dataclasses.InitVar, #592 by @pfrederiks
  • Updated documentation to elucidate the usage of Union when defining multiple types under an attribute's annotation and showcase how the type-order can affect marshalling of provided values, #594 by @somada141
  • add conlist type, #583 by @hmvp
  • add support for generics, #595 by @dmontagu

v0.28 (2019-06-06)

v0.27 (2019-05-30)

  • breaking change _pydantic_post_init to execute dataclass' original __post_init__ before validation, #560 by @HeavenVolkoff
  • fix handling of generic types without specified parameters, #550 by @dmontagu
  • breaking change (maybe): this is the first release compiled with cython, see the docs and please submit an issue if you run into problems

v0.27.0a1 (2019-05-26)

  • fix JSON Schema for list, tuple, and set, #540 by @tiangolo
  • compiling with cython, manylinux binaries, some other performance improvements, #548 by @samuelcolvin

v0.26 (2019-05-22)

  • fix to schema generation for IPvAnyAddress, IPvAnyInterface, IPvAnyNetwork #498 by @pilosus
  • fix variable length tuples support, #495 by @pilosus
  • fix return type hint for create_model, #526 by @dmontagu
  • Breaking Change: fix .dict(skip_keys=True) skipping values set via alias (this involves changing validate_model() to always returns Tuple[Dict[str, Any], Set[str], Optional[ValidationError]]), #517 by @sommd
  • fix to schema generation for IPv4Address, IPv6Address, IPv4Interface, IPv6Interface, IPv4Network, IPv6Network #532 by @euri10
  • add Color type, #504 by @pilosus and @samuelcolvin

v0.25 (2019-05-05)

v0.24 (2019-04-23)

v0.23 (2019-04-04)

v0.22 (2019-03-29)

v0.21.0 (2019-03-15)

v0.20.1 (2019-02-26)

v0.20.0 (2019-02-18)

  • fix tests for python 3.8, #396 by @samuelcolvin
  • Adds fields to the dir method for autocompletion in interactive sessions, #398 by @dgasmith
  • support ForwardRef (and therefore from __future__ import annotations) with dataclasses, #397 by @samuelcolvin

v0.20.0a1 (2019-02-13)

  • breaking change (maybe): more sophisticated argument parsing for validators, any subset of values, config and field is now permitted, eg. (cls, value, field), however the variadic key word argument ("**kwargs") must be called kwargs, #388 by @samuelcolvin
  • breaking change: Adds skip_defaults argument to BaseModel.dict() to allow skipping of fields that were not explicitly set, signature of Model.construct() changed, #389 by @dgasmith
  • add py.typed marker file for PEP-561 support, #391 by @je-l
  • Fix extra behaviour for multiple inheritance/mix-ins, #394 by @YaraslauZhylko

v0.19.0 (2019-02-04)

  • Support Callable type hint, fix #279 by @proofit404
  • Fix schema for fields with validator decorator, fix #375 by @tiangolo
  • Add multiple_of constraint to ConstrainedDecimal, ConstrainedFloat, ConstrainedInt and their related types condecimal, confloat, and conint #371, thanks @StephenBrown2
  • Deprecated ignore_extra and allow_extra Config fields in favor of extra, #352 by @liiight
  • Add type annotations to all functions, test fully with mypy, #373 by @samuelcolvin
  • fix for 'missing' error with validate_all or validate_always, #381 by @samuelcolvin
  • Change the second/millisecond watershed for date/datetime parsing to 2e10, #385 by @samuelcolvin

v0.18.2 (2019-01-22)

v0.18.1 (2019-01-17)

  • add ConstrainedBytes and conbytes types, #315 @Gr1N
  • adding to include license in package .tar.gz, #358 by @samuelcolvin

v0.18.0 (2019-01-13)

  • breaking change: don't call validators on keys of dictionaries, #254 by @samuelcolvin
  • Fix validators with always=True when the default is None or the type is optional, also prevent whole validators being called for sub-fields, fix #132 by @samuelcolvin
  • improve documentation for settings priority and allow it to be easily changed, #343 by @samuelcolvin
  • fix ignore_extra=False and allow_population_by_alias=True, fix #257 by @samuelcolvin
  • breaking change: Set BaseConfig attributes min_anystr_length and max_anystr_length to None by default, fix #349 in #350 by @tiangolo
  • add support for postponed annotations, #348 by @samuelcolvin

v0.17.0 (2018-12-27)

  • fix schema for timedelta as number, #325 by @tiangolo
  • prevent validators being called repeatedly after inheritance, #327 by @samuelcolvin
  • prevent duplicate validator check in ipython, fix #312 by @samuelcolvin
  • add "Using Pydantic" section to docs, #323 by @tiangolo & #326 by @samuelcolvin
  • fix schema generation for fields annotated as : dict, : list, : tuple and : set, #330 & #335 by @nkonin
  • add support for constrained strings as dict keys in schema, #332 by @tiangolo
  • support for passing Config class in dataclasses decorator, #276 by @jarekkar (breaking change: this supersedes the validate_assignment argument with config)
  • support for nested dataclasses, #334 by @samuelcolvin
  • better errors when getting an ImportError with PyObject, #309 by @samuelcolvin
  • rename get_validators to __get_validators__, deprecation warning on use of old name, #338 by @samuelcolvin
  • support ClassVar by excluding such attributes from fields, #184 by @samuelcolvin

v0.16.1 (2018-12-10)

  • fix create_model to correctly use the passed __config__, #320 by @hugoduncan

v0.16.0 (2018-12-03)

  • breaking change: refactor schema generation to be compatible with JSON Schema and OpenAPI specs, #308 by @tiangolo
  • add schema to schema module to generate top-level schemas from base models, #308 by @tiangolo
  • add additional fields to Schema class to declare validation for str and numeric values, #311 by @tiangolo
  • rename _schema to schema on fields, #318 by @samuelcolvin
  • add case_insensitive option to BaseSettings Config, #277 by @jasonkuhrt

v0.15.0 (2018-11-18)

v0.14.0 (2018-10-02)

v0.13.1 (2018-09-21)

  • fix issue where int_validator doesn't cast a bool to an int #264 by @nphyatt
  • add deep copy support for BaseModel.copy() #249, @gangefors

v0.13.0 (2018-08-25)

  • raise an exception if a field's name shadows an existing BaseModel attribute #242
  • add UrlStr and urlstr types #236
  • timedelta json encoding ISO8601 and total seconds, custom json encoders #247, by @cfkanesan and @samuelcolvin
  • allow timedelta objects as values for properties of type timedelta (matches datetime etc. behavior) #247

v0.12.1 (2018-07-31)

  • fix schema generation for fields defined using typing.Any #237

v0.12.0 (2018-07-31)

  • add by_alias argument in .dict() and .json() model methods #205
  • add Json type support #214
  • support tuples #227
  • major improvements and changes to schema #213

v0.11.2 (2018-07-05)

  • add NewType support #115
  • fix list, set & tuple validation #225
  • separate out validate_model method, allow errors to be returned along with valid values #221

v0.11.1 (2018-07-02)

v0.11.0 (2018-06-28)

  • make list, tuple and set types stricter #86
  • breaking change: remove msgpack parsing #201
  • add FilePath and DirectoryPath types #10
  • model schema generation #190
  • JSON serialisation of models and schemas #133

v0.10.0 (2018-06-11)

  • add Config.allow_population_by_alias #160, thanks @bendemaree
  • breaking change: new errors format #179, thanks @Gr1N
  • breaking change: removed Config.min_number_size and Config.max_number_size #183, thanks @Gr1N
  • breaking change: correct behaviour of lt and gt arguments to conint etc. #188 for the old behaviour use le and ge #194, thanks @jaheba
  • added error context and ability to redefine error message templates using Config.error_msg_templates #183, thanks @Gr1N
  • fix typo in validator exception #150
  • copy defaults to model values, so different models don't share objects #154

v0.9.1 (2018-05-10)

  • allow custom get_field_config on config classes #159
  • add UUID1, UUID3, UUID4 and UUID5 types #167, thanks @Gr1N
  • modify some inconsistent docstrings and annotations #173, thanks @YannLuo
  • fix type annotations for exotic types #171, thanks @Gr1N
  • re-use type validators in exotic types #171
  • scheduled monthly requirements updates #168
  • add Decimal, ConstrainedDecimal and condecimal types #170, thanks @Gr1N

v0.9.0 (2018-04-28)

  • tweak email-validator import error message #145
  • fix parse error of parse_date() and parse_datetime() when input is 0 #144, thanks @YannLuo
  • add Config.anystr_strip_whitespace and strip_whitespace kwarg to constr, by default values is False #163, thanks @Gr1N
  • add ConstrainedFloat, confloat, PositiveFloat and NegativeFloat types #166, thanks @Gr1N

v0.8.0 (2018-03-25)

  • fix type annotation for inherit_config #139
  • breaking change: check for invalid field names in validators #140
  • validate attributes of parent models #141
  • breaking change: email validation now uses email-validator #142

v0.7.1 (2018-02-07)

  • fix bug with create_model modifying the base class

v0.7.0 (2018-02-06)

  • added compatibility with abstract base classes (ABCs) #123
  • add create_model method #113 #125
  • breaking change: rename .config to .__config__ on a model
  • breaking change: remove deprecated .values() on a model, use .dict() instead
  • remove use of OrderedDict and use simple dict #126
  • add Config.use_enum_values #127
  • add wildcard validators of the form @validate('*') #128

v0.6.4 (2018-02-01)

  • allow python date and times objects #122

v0.6.3 (2017-11-26)

  • fix direct install without README.rst present

v0.6.2 (2017-11-13)

  • errors for invalid validator use
  • safer check for complex models in Settings

v0.6.1 (2017-11-08)

  • prevent duplicate validators, #101
  • add always kwarg to validators, #102

v0.6.0 (2017-11-07)

  • assignment validation #94, thanks petroswork!
  • JSON in environment variables for complex types, #96
  • add validator decorators for complex validation, #97
  • depreciate values(...) and replace with .dict(...), #99

v0.5.0 (2017-10-23)

  • add UUID validation #89
  • remove index and track from error object (json) if they're null #90
  • improve the error text when a list is provided rather than a dict #90
  • add benchmarks table to docs #91

v0.4.0 (2017-07-08)

  • show length in string validation error
  • fix aliases in config during inheritance #55
  • simplify error display
  • use unicode ellipsis in truncate
  • add parse_obj, parse_raw and parse_file helper functions #58
  • switch annotation only fields to come first in fields list not last

v0.3.0 (2017-06-21)

  • immutable models via config.allow_mutation = False, associated cleanup and performance improvement #44
  • immutable helper methods construct() and copy() #53
  • allow pickling of models #53
  • setattr is removed as __setattr__ is now intelligent #44
  • raise_exception removed, Models now always raise exceptions #44
  • instance method validators removed
  • django-restful-framework benchmarks added #47
  • fix inheritance bug #49
  • make str type stricter so list, dict etc are not coerced to strings. #52
  • add StrictStr which only always strings as input #52

v0.2.1 (2017-06-07)

  • pypi and travis together messed up the deploy of v0.2 this should fix it

v0.2.0 (2017-06-07)

  • breaking change: values() on a model is now a method not a property, takes include and exclude arguments
  • allow annotation only fields to support mypy
  • add pretty to_string(pretty=True) method for models

v0.1.0 (2017-06-03)

  • add docs
  • add history

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