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A wrapper library that provides one API to read, manipulate and writedata in different excel formats

Project description

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If your company has embedded pyexcel and its components into a revenue generating product, please support me on patreon or bounty source to maintain the project and develop it further.

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With your financial support, I will be able to invest a little bit more time in coding, documentation and writing interesting posts.

Known constraints

Fonts, colors and charts are not supported.


Feature Highlights

  1. One application programming interface(API) to handle multiple data sources:
    • physical file
    • memory file
    • SQLAlchemy table
    • Django Model
    • Python data structures: dictionary, records and array
  2. One API to read and write data in various excel file formats.
  3. For large data sets, data streaming are supported. A genenerator can be returned to you. Checkout iget_records, iget_array, isave_as and isave_book_as.


You can install pyexcel via pip:

$ pip install pyexcel

or clone it and install it:

$ git clone
$ cd pyexcel
$ python install


Please note that you will have to use ‘.sortable.html’ in order to replicate the example.
>>> # pip install pyexcel-text==
>>> import pyexcel as p
>>> ccs_insight2 = p.Sheet()
>>> = "Worldwide Mobile Phone Shipments (Billions), 2017-2021"
>>> ccs_insight2.ndjson = """
... {"year": ["2017", "2018", "2019", "2020", "2021"]}
... {"smart phones": [1.53, 1.64, 1.74, 1.82, 1.90]}
... {"feature phones": [0.46, 0.38, 0.30, 0.23, 0.17]}
... """.strip()
>>> ccs_insight2
pyexcel sheet:
| year           | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 |
| smart phones   | 1.53 | 1.64 | 1.74 | 1.82 | 1.9  |
| feature phones | 0.46 | 0.38 | 0.3  | 0.23 | 0.17 |

Suppose you have the following data in a dictionary:

Name Age
Adam 28
Beatrice 29
Ceri 30
Dean 26

you can easily save it into an excel file using the following code:

>>> import pyexcel
>>> # make sure you had pyexcel-xls installed
>>> a_list_of_dictionaries = [
...     {
...         "Name": 'Adam',
...         "Age": 28
...     },
...     {
...         "Name": 'Beatrice',
...         "Age": 29
...     },
...     {
...         "Name": 'Ceri',
...         "Age": 30
...     },
...     {
...         "Name": 'Dean',
...         "Age": 26
...     }
... ]
>>> pyexcel.save_as(records=a_list_of_dictionaries, dest_file_name="your_file.xls")

And here’s how to obtain the records:

>>> import pyexcel as p
>>> records = p.iget_records(file_name="your_file.xls")
>>> for record in records:
...     print("%s is aged at %d" % (record['Name'], record['Age']))
Adam is aged at 28
Beatrice is aged at 29
Ceri is aged at 30
Dean is aged at 26
>>> p.free_resources()

Advanced usage :fire:

If you are dealing with big data, please consider these usages:

>>> def increase_everyones_age(generator):
...     for row in generator:
...         row['Age'] += 1
...         yield row
>>> def duplicate_each_record(generator):
...     for row in generator:
...         yield row
...         yield row
>>> records = p.iget_records(file_name="your_file.xls")
>>> io=p.isave_as(records=duplicate_each_record(increase_everyones_age(records)),
...     dest_file_type='csv', dest_lineterminator='\n')
>>> print(io.getvalue())

Two advantages of above method:

  1. Add as many wrapping functions as you want.
  2. Constant memory consumption

Available Plugins

A list of file formats supported by external plugins
Package name Supported file formats Dependencies Python versions
pyexcel-io csv, csvz [1], tsv, tsvz [2]   2.6, 2.7, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6 pypy
pyexcel-xls xls, xlsx(read only), xlsm(read only) xlrd, xlwt same as above
pyexcel-xlsx xlsx openpyxl same as above
pyexcel-ods3 ods pyexcel-ezodf, lxml 2.6, 2.7, 3.3, 3.4 3.5, 3.6
pyexcel-ods ods odfpy same as above
Dedicated file reader and writers
Package name Supported file formats Dependencies Python versions
pyexcel-xlsxw xlsx(write only) XlsxWriter Python 2 and 3
pyexcel-xlsxr xlsx(read only) lxml same as above
pyexcel-xlsbr xlsx(read only) pyxlsb same as above
pyexcel-odsr read only for ods, fods lxml same as above
pyexcel-odsw write only for ods loxun same as above
pyexcel-htmlr html(read only) lxml,html5lib same as above
pyexcel-pdfr pdf(read only) pdftables Python 2 only.
Other data renderers
Package name Supported file formats Dependencies Python versions
pyexcel-text write only:rst, mediawiki, html, latex, grid, pipe, orgtbl, plain simple read only: ndjson r/w: json tabulate 2.6, 2.7, 3.3, 3.4 3.5, 3.6, pypy
pyexcel-handsontable handsontable in html handsontable same as above
pyexcel-pygal svg chart pygal 2.7, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 3.6, pypy
pyexcel-sortable sortable table in html csvtotable same as above
pyexcel-gantt gantt chart in html frappe-gantt except pypy, same as above

In order to manage the list of plugins installed, you need to use pip to add or remove a plugin. When you use virtualenv, you can have different plugins per virtual environment. In the situation where you have multiple plugins that does the same thing in your environment, you need to tell pyexcel which plugin to use per function call. For example, pyexcel-ods and pyexcel-odsr, and you want to get_array to use pyexcel-odsr. You need to append get_array(…, library=’pyexcel-odsr’).


[1]zipped csv file
[2]zipped tsv file


All great work have been done by odf, ezodf, xlrd, xlwt, tabulate and other individual developers. This library unites only the data access code.


New BSD License

Change log

0.5.15 - 07.07.2019


  1. #185: fix a bug with http data source. The real fix lies in pyexcel-io v0.5.19. this release just put the version requirement in.

0.5.14 - 12.06.2019


  1. #182: support dest_force_file_type on save_as and save_book_as

0.5.13 - 12.03.2019


  1. #176: get_sheet {IndexError}list index out of range // XLSX can’t be opened

0.5.12 - 25.02.2019


  1. #174: include examples in tarbar

0.5.11 - 22.02.2019


  1. #169: remove pyexcel-handsontalbe in test
  2. add tests, and docs folder in distribution

0.5.10 - 3.12.2018


  1. #157: Please use scan_plugins_regex, which lml 0.7 complains about
  2. updated dependency on pyexcel-io to 0.5.11 - 30.08.2018


  1. to require pyexcel-io and use lml at least version 0.0.2

0.5.9 - 30.08.2018


  1. support __len__. len(book) returns the number of sheets and len(sheet) returns the number of rows
  2. #144: memory-efficient way to read sheet names.
  3. #148: force_file_type is introduced. When reading a file on a disk, this parameter allows you to choose a reader. i.e. csv reader for a text file. xlsx reader for a xlsx file but with .blob file suffix.
  4. finally, pyexcel got import pyexcel.__version__


  1. Sheet.to_records() returns a generator now, saving memory
  2. #115, Fix set membership test to run faster in python2
  3. #140, Direct writes to cells yield weird results

0.5.8 - unreleased


  1. #125, sort book sheets


  1. #126, dest_sheet_name in save_as will set the sheet name in the output
  2. #115, Fix set membership test to run faster in python2

0.5.7 - 11.01.2018


  1. pyexcel-io#46, expose bulk_save to developer.

0.5.6 - 23.10.2017


  1. #105, remove gease from setup_requires, introduced by 0.5.5.
  2. removed testing against python 2.6
  3. #103, include LICENSE file in, meaning LICENSE file will appear in the released tar ball.

0.5.5 - 20.10.2017


  1. #105, remove gease from setup_requires, introduced by 0.5.5.
  2. removed testing against python 2.6
  3. #103, include LICENSE file in, meaning LICENSE file will appear in the released tar ball.

0.5.4 - 27.09.2017


  1. #100, Sheet.to_dict() gets out of range error because there is only one row.


  1. Updated the baseline of pyexcel-io to 0.5.1.

0.5.3 - 01-08-2017


  1. #95, respect the order of records in iget_records, isave_as and save_as.
  2. #97, new feature to allow intuitive initialization of pyexcel.Book.

0.5.2 - 26-07-2017


  1. embeded the enabler for pyexcel-htmlr. http source does not support text/html as mime type.

0.5.1 - 12.06.2017


  1. support saving SheetStream and BookStream to database targets. This is needed for pyexcel-webio and its downstream projects.

0.5.0 - 19.06.2017


  1. and Sheet.top_left() for data browsing
  2. add html as default rich display in Jupyter notebook when pyexcel-text and pyexcel-chart is installed
  3. add svg as default rich display in Jupyter notebook when pyexcel-chart and one of its implementation plugin(pyexcel-pygal, etc.) are is installed
  4. new dictionary source supported: a dictionary of key value pair could be read into a sheet.
  5. added dynamic external plugin loading. meaning if a pyexcel plugin is installed, it will be loaded implicitly. And this change would remove unnecessary info log for those who do not use pyexcel-text and pyexcel-gal
  6. save_book_as before 0.5.0 becomes isave_book_as and save_book_as in 0.5.0 convert BookStream to Book before saving.
  7. #83, file closing mechanism is enfored. free_resource is added and it should be called when iget_array, iget_records, isave_as and/or isave_book_as are used.


  1. array is passed to pyexcel.Sheet as reference. it means your array data will be modified.


  1. pyexcel.Writer and pyexcel.BookWriter were removed
  2. pyexcel.load_book_from_sql and pyexcel.load_from_sql were removed
  3. pyexcel.deprecated.load_from_query_sets, pyexcel.deprecated.load_book_from_django_models and pyexcel.deprecated.load_from_django_model were removed
  4. Removed plugin loading code and lml is used instead

0.4.5 - 17.03.2017


  1. #80: remove pyexcel-chart import from v0.4.x

0.4.4 - 06.02.2017


  1. #68: regression save_to_memory() should have returned a stream instance which has been reset to zero if possible. The exception is sys.stdout, which cannot be reset.
  2. #74: Not able to handle decimal.Decimal


  1. remove get_{{file_type}}_stream functions from pyexcel.Sheet and pyexcel.Book introduced since 0.4.3.

0.4.3 - 26.01.2017


  1. ‘.stream’ attribute are attached to ~pyexcel.Sheet and ~pyexcel.Book to get direct access the underneath stream in responding to file type attributes, such as sheet.xls. it helps provide a custom stream to external world, for example, gives a text stream that contains csv formatted data. returns a xls format data in a byte stream.


  1. Better error reporting when an unknown parameters or unsupported file types were given to the signature functions.

0.4.2 - 17.01.2017


  1. Raise exception if the incoming sheet does not have column names. In other words, only sheet with column names could be saved to database. sheet with row names cannot be saved. The alternative is to transpose the sheet, then name_columns_by_row and then save.
  2. fix iget_records where a non-uniform content should be given, e.g. [[“x”, “y”], [1, 2], [3]], some record would become non-uniform, e.g. key ‘y’ would be missing from the second record.
  3. skip_empty_rows is applicable when saving a python data structure to another data source. For example, if your array contains a row which is consisted of empty string, such as [‘’, ‘’, ‘’ … ‘’], please specify skip_empty_rows=False in order to preserve it. This becomes subtle when you try save a python dictionary where empty rows is not easy to be spotted.
  4. #69: better documentation for save_book_as.

0.4.1 - 23.12.2016


  1. #68: regression save_to_memory() should have returned a stream instance.

0.4.0 - 22.12.2016


  1. Flask-Excel#19 allow sheet_name parameter
  2. pyexcel-xls#11 case-insensitive for file_type. xls and XLS are treated in the same way


  1. #66: export_columns is ignored
  2. Update dependency on pyexcel-io v0.3.0

0.3.3 - 07.11.2016


  1. #63: cannot display empty sheet(hence book with empty sheet) as texttable

0.3.2 - 02.11.2016


  1. #62: optional module import error become visible.

0.3.0 - 28.10.2016


  1. file type setters for Sheet and Book, and its documentation
  2. iget_records returns a generator for a list of records and should have better memory performance, especially dealing with large csv files.
  3. iget_array returns a generator for a list of two dimensional array and should have better memory performance, especially dealing with large csv files.
  4. Enable pagination support, and custom row renderer via pyexcel-io v0.2.3


  1. Take isave_as out from save_as. Hence two functions are there for save a sheet as
  2. #60: encode ‘utf-8’ if the console is of ascii encoding.
  3. #59: custom row renderer
  4. #56: set cell value does not work
  5. pyexcel.transpose becomes pyexcel.sheets.transpose
  6. iterator functions of pyexcel.Sheet were converted to generator functions
    • pyexcel.Sheet.enumerate()
    • pyexcel.Sheet.reverse()
    • pyexcel.Sheet.vertical()
    • pyexcel.Sheet.rvertical()
    • pyexcel.Sheet.rows()
    • pyexcel.Sheet.rrows()
    • pyexcel.Sheet.columns()
    • pyexcel.Sheet.rcolumns()
    • pyexcel.Sheet.named_rows()
    • pyexcel.Sheet.named_columns()
  7. ~pyexcel.Sheet.save_to_memory and ~pyexcel.Book.save_to_memory return the actual content. No longer they will return a io object hence you cannot call getvalue() on them.


  1. content and out_file as function parameters to the signature functions are no longer supported.
  2. SourceFactory and RendererFactory are removed
  3. The following methods are removed
    • pyexcel.to_array
    • pyexcel.to_dict
    • pyexcel.utils.to_one_dimensional_array
    • pyexcel.dict_to_array
    • pyexcel.from_records
    • pyexcel.to_records
  4. pyexcel.Sheet.filter has been re-implemented and all filters were removed:
    • pyexcel.filters.ColumnIndexFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.ColumnFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.RowFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.EvenColumnFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.OddColumnFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.EvenRowFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.OddRowFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.RowIndexFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.SingleColumnFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.RowValueFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.NamedRowValueFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.ColumnValueFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.NamedColumnValueFilter
    • pyexcel.filters.SingleRowFilter
  5. the following functions have been removed
    • add_formatter
    • remove_formatter
    • clear_formatters
    • freeze_formatters
    • add_filter
    • remove_filter
    • clear_filters
    • freeze_formatters
  6. pyexcel.Sheet.filter has been re-implemented and all filters were removed:
    • pyexcel.formatters.SheetFormatter

0.2.5 - 31.08.2016


  1. #58: texttable should have been made as compulsory requirement

0.2.4 - 14.07.2016


  1. For python 2, writing to sys.stdout by pyexcel-cli raise IOError.

0.2.3 - 11.07.2016


  1. For python 3, do not seek 0 when saving to memory if sys.stdout is passed on. Hence, adding support for sys.stdin and sys.stdout.

0.2.2 - 01.06.2016


  1. Explicit imports, no longer needed
  2. Depends on latest setuptools 18.0.1
  3. NotImplementedError will be raised if parameters to core functions are not supported, e.g. get_sheet(cannot_find_me_option=”will be thrown out as NotImplementedError”)

0.2.1 - 23.04.2016


  1. add pyexcel-text file types as attributes of pyexcel.Sheet and pyexcel.Book, related to #31
  2. auto import pyexcel-text if it is pip installed


  1. code refactoring done for easy addition of sources.
  2. bug fix #29, Even if the format is a string it is displayed as a float
  3. pyexcel-text is no longer a plugin to pyexcel-io but to pyexcel.sources, see pyexcel-text#22


  1. pyexcel.presentation is removed. No longer the internal decorate @outsource is used. related to #31

0.2.0 - 17.01.2016


  1. adopt pyexcel-io yield key word to return generator as content
  2. pyexcel.save_as and pyexcel.save_book_as get performance improvements

0.1.7 - 03.07.2015


  1. Support pyramid-excel which does the database commit on its own.

0.1.6 - 13.06.2015


  1. get excel data from a http url

0.0.13 - 07.02.2015


  1. Support django
  2. texttable as default renderer

0.0.12 - 25.01.2015


  1. Added sqlalchemy support

0.0.10 - 15.12.2015


  1. added csvz and tsvz format

0.0.4 - 12.10.2014


  1. Support python 3

0.0.1 - 14.09.2014


  1. read and write csv, ods, xls, xlsx and xlsm files(which are referred later as excel files)
  2. various iterators for the reader
  3. row and column filters for the reader
  4. utilities to get array and dictionary out from excel files.
  5. cookbok receipes for some common and simple usage of this library.

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