PyFtdi aims at providing a user-space driver for modern FTDI_ devices,
implemented in pure Python language.
Modern FTDI_ devices include:
* FT232R (single port, clock up to 6 MHz, 3Mbps)
* FT2232D (dual port, clock up to 6 MHz)
* FT232H (single port, clock up to 30 MHz)
* FT2232H (dual port, clock up to 30 MHz)
* FT4232H (quad port, clock up to 30 MHz)
* FT230X (single port, clock up to 48 Mhz, 3Mbps)
Other FTDI_ devices could also be supported (including FT232* devices),
although these devices are not a primary goal for PyFtdi, and therefore have
not been tested with PyFtdi.
It should support the following modes:
* UART/Serial USB converter, up to 12Mbps (depending on the FTDI device
* Bitbang/GPIO support
* SPI master
* I2C master
* JTAG master
PyFtdi should provide a pyserial_ compliant API, to be used as a drop-in module
to access USB-serial converters based on FTDI_ devices.
.. _FTDI: http://www.ftdichip.com/
Python_ 3.5 or above is required.
PyFtdi relies on PyUSB_, which itself depends on one of the following native
* libusb-1.0, tested with 1.0.20
may still work, but are fully untested there are nowaways obsolete.
PyFtdi does not depend on any other native library, and only uses standard
Python modules along with PyUSB_
PyFTDI has been tested with PyUSB_ 1.0.0. PyUSB_ 1.0.0b1 or below is no longer
Note about previous releases
If you have no choice but using previous releases of software, such as
* Python_ (2.6+, 3.3+),
* other PyUSB_ backends such as the deprecated libusb-0.1, or openusb,
* PyUSB_ 1.0.0b1 or below,
* pyserial_ 2.6+ (previous versions of pyserial_ will NOT work)
please checkout the latest PyFTDI 0.1x series (0.13.3) which provides support
for these deprecated environmement, but is no longer actively maintained.
.. _PyUSB: http://sourceforge.net/projects/pyusb/
.. _Python: http://python.org/
.. _pyserial: http://pyserial.sourceforge.net/
This project is still in beta development stage.
However, PyFtdi is being forked from a closed-source software implementation
that has been successfully used for over several years - including serial, spi
and jtag protocols. PyFtdi is developed as an open-source solution.
* All FTDI device ports (UART, MPSSE) can be used simultaneously.
* Several FTDI adapters can be accessed simultaneously from the same Python
* Serial port, up to 12 Mbps. PyFtdi includes a pyserial_ emulation layer that
offers transparent access to the FTDI serial ports through a pyserial_-
compliant API. The ``serialext`` directory contains a minimal serial terminal
demonstrating the use of this extension, and a dispatcher automatically
selecting the serial backend (pyserial_, PyFtdi), based on the serial port
* SPI master. For now, SPI Mode 0 (CPOL=0, CPHA=0) is the only supported
mode. It should be easy to extend the SPI master to deal with less common
modes. PyFtdi can be used with pyspiflash_ module that demonstrates how to
use the FTDI SPI master with a pure-Python serial flash device driver for
several common devices.
* I2C master. For now, only 7-bit address are supported.
* JTAG is under development and is not fully supported yet.
.. _libftdi: http://www.intra2net.com/en/developer/libftdi/
.. _pyspiflash: https://github.com/eblot/pyspiflash
* Install native dependency. The actual command to install depends on your OS
and/or your distribution. Examples:
* Debian Linux
apt-get install libusb-1.0
* Homebrew macOS
brew install libusb
* Install Python dependencies
pip3 install pyusb
pip3 install pyserial
pip3 install pyftdi
*"Error: No backend available"*
libusb native library cannot be loaded. Try helping the dynamic loader:
* On Linux: ``export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=<path>``
where ``<path>`` is the directory containing the ``libusb-1.*.so``
* On macOS: ``export DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH=.../lib``
where ``<path>`` is the directory containing the ``libusb-1.*.dylib``
*"Error: Access denied (insufficient permissions)"*
The system may already be using the device.
* On OS X 10.9+: starting with Mavericks, OS X ships with a native FTDI
driver that preempts access to the FTDI device.
The driver can be unloaded this way:
``sudo kextunload [-v] -bundle com.apple.driver.AppleUSBFTDI``
You may want to use an alias or a tiny script such as
Please note that the system automatically reloads the driver, so it may be
useful to move the kernel extension so that the system never loads it.
* This error message may also be triggered whenever the communication port is
already in use.
*"serial.serialutil.SerialException: Unable to open USB port"*
May be caused by a conflict with the FTDI virtual COM port (VCOM). Try
uninstalling the driver. On macOS, refer to this FTDI guide_.
*Slow initialisation on OS X El Capitan*
It may take several seconds to open or enumerate FTDI devices.
If you run libusb <= v1.20.0, be sure to read the
`issue <https: github.com="" libusb="" libusb="" commit="" 5e45e0741daee4fa295c6cc977edfb986c872152="">`_
with OS X 10.11+.
.. _guide: http://www.ftdichip.com/Support/Documents/AppNotes/AN_134_FTDI_Drivers_Installation_Guide_for_MAC_OSX.pdf
PyFtdi is developed on macOS platforms (64-bit kernel), and is validated on a
regular basis on Linux hosts.
As it contains no native code, it should work on any PyUSB_ and libusb_
supported platforms. However, Ms Windows is a seamless source of issues and is
not supported. Your mileage may vary.
.. _libusb: http://www.libusb.org/
See pyftdi/tests directory for GPIO examples.
See pyspiflash_ module for SPI examples.
.. include:: serialext/README.rst
TODO: Brief introduction on what you do with files - including link to relevant help section.