Python bindings for the GLFW library
Python bindings for the GLFW library.
At the moment of development there were already available numerous variants of bindings for the glfw library to python. Besides driving by NIH syndrome these binding were developed with following assumptions in mind:
- Compatibility with GLFW version 3 and higher API.
- Support for both Python2 (2.7) and Python3 (3.3+).
- Provide low-level and pythonic API separately.
- No external dependencies. Thus using ctypes.
During development these bindings were proven to work on all major operating systems environments including Windows, OSX and Linux.
CPython implementations were tested against versions of Python 2.7 and Python 3.3 with no serious issues found.
By the way testing was performed with PyPy. As a result there were revealed issue with ctypes implemenation in PyPy. Issue was fixed and should be available as a part of PyPy 2.2.2.
These bindings are distributed under the terms and conditions of zlib license with the exception to files in examples folder which are provided with no limitations to use. Full text of license with copyright notice is provided in the LICENSE file.
Ensure you’ve installed GLFW shared library binary according to instructions on project’s page related to installed operating system.
Project releases are available from pypi and could be installed using pip or easy_install, i.e.:
# pip install pyglfw
Moreover exe installables for the Windows platform could be found on the project’s home download page
In addition, Ubuntu users are able to install pyglfw using project’s PPA. Archive also provides packages for glfw3 library itself and backported python-opengl.
Latest version could be installed from cloned source with provided setup.py script. Following commands depend on system used:
On Linux and OSX
$ python ./setup.py sdist
# easy_install dist/pyglfw-<ver>.tar.gz
# pip install dist/pyglfw-<ver>.tar.gz
> python.exe setup.py bdist_wininst
then run exe installer from dist folder.
Low-level libapi package serves as thin wrapper above GLFW library. It’s API mostly resemble one of C library except functions that require pass-by-ref parameters. As a rule of thumb all functions that return void and fill several values via pass-by-ref parameters are mapped to functions returning tuple of values. And functions that return pointer to array with number of items set via pass-by-ref parameter are mapped to functions returning list of items. I.e.:
int major, minor, rev; glfwGetVersion(&major, &minor, &rev)
major, minor, rev = glfwGetVersion()
int n_items; GLFWmonitor **monitors = glfwGetMonitors(&n_items)
monitors = glfwGetMonitors()
Special note should be done regarding window pointer functions. glfwSetWindowPointer allows to set any python object as a window private data and retrieve it back with glfwGetWindowPointer. However it’s still required to hold reference to this object in python code. Also this functionality will not work with PyPy implemetation due to lack of py_object support.
The requirement to hold references also spreads to functions that are settings varios callbacks. Please refer to raw_api in examples for usage primer.
Pythonic pyglfw package handles following moments:
- Encapsulation of struct pointers and functions API into objects with properties and methods.
- Transparent usage of strings (either from python 2 or from python 3).
- Raising exceptions in case of errors.
- Eliminates need to use of ctypes structures and ctypes-based callback prototypes.
- Holds references for set to callback functions, so there is no need to hold them outside.
- Provide pythonic types for callback functions.
and following functionality is restricted:
- No get/set window pointers. Due to its ambiquity.
- No set error callback. Error callback is used to raise exeptions.
- Set callback methods doesn’t return previously used callback. It’s unable to certainly map them to python object in every case.
- No check for extensions and proc address query. This should be handled with dedicated frameworks like PyOpenGL.
Here is side-by-side comparison of same operations performed via low-level (libapi) and pythonic (pyglfw) bindings.
from pyglfw.libapi import * glfwInit() glfwGetVersion() glfwTerminate() glfwPollEvents()
import pyglfw.pyglfw as glfw glfw.init() glfw.api_version() glfw.terminate() glfw.poll_events()
monitorp = glfwGetPrimaryMonitor() curmode = glfwGetVideoMode(monitorp) allmodes = glfwGetVideoModes(monitorp) @GLFWmonitorfun def on_monitor_event(monitor, event): if event == GLFW_CONNECTED: print(glfwGetMonitorName(monitor)) glfwSetMonitorCallback(on_monitor_event)
monitor = glfw.get_primary_monitor() curmore = monitor.video_mode allmodes = monitor.video_modes def on_monitor_event(monitor, event): if event == glfw.Monitor.CONNECTED: print(monitor.name) glfw.Monitor.set_callback(on_monitor_event)
glfwDefaultWindowHints() glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CLIENT_API, GLFW_OPENGL_API) w, h = curmode.width, curmode.height windowp = glfwCreateWindow(w, h, b'libapi', None, None) glfwDestroyWindow(windowp)
glfw.Window.hint() glfw.Window.hint(client_api=glfw.Window.OPENGL_API) w, h = curmode.width, curmode.height window = glfw.Window(w, h, 'pyglfw') window.close()
context = glfwGetCurrentContext() glfwMakeContextCurrent(windowp) glfwSwapInterval(0) glfwMakeContextCurrent(context) glfwMakeContextCurrent(windowp) glfwSwapBuffers(windowp)
# makes context current # and restores previous window.swap_interval(0) window.make_current() window.swap_buffers()
if not glfwWindowShouldClose(): glfwSetWindowTitle(b'libapi') size = glfwGetWindowSize() glfwShowWindow() is_visible = glfwGetWindowAttrib(GLFW_VISIBLE) client_api = glfwGetWindowAttrib(GLFW_CLIENT_API) glfwSetWindowAttrib(GLFW_FOCUSED, 1) @GLFWwindowsizefun def on_window_size(windowp, w, h): glfwSetWindowSize(windowp, size, size) glfwSetWindowSizeCallback(windowp, on_window_size)
if not window.should_close: window.set_title('pyglfw') size = window.size window.show() is_visible = window.visible client_api = window.client_api window.has_focus = True def on_window_size(window, w, h): window.size = size window.set_window_size_callback(on_window_size)
mode = glfwGetInputMode(windowp, GLFW_STICKY_KEYS) glfwSetInputMode(windowp, GLFW_STICKY_MOUSE_BUTTONS, mode) is_escape = glfwGetKey(windowp, GLFW_ESCAPE) is_middle = glfwGetMouseButton(windowp, GLFW_MOUSE_BUTTON_MIDDLE) cursor_at = glfwGetCursorPos(windowp) @GLFWkeyfun def on_key(windowp, key, scancode, action, mods): if key == GLFW_ESCAPE: glfwSetWindowShouldClose(1) glfwSetKeyCallback(windowp, on_key) if glfwJoystickPresent(0): joy_name = glfwGetJoystickName(0) joy_axes = glfwGetJoystickAxes(0)
mode = window.sticky_keys window.sticky_mice = mode is_escape = window.keys.escape is_middle = window.mice.middle cursor_at = window.cursor_pos def on_key(window, key, scancode, action, mods): if key == glfw.Keys.ESCAPE: window.should_close = True window.set_key_callback(on_key) js = glfw.Joystick(0) if js: joy_name = js.name joy_axes = js.axes
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