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A Python logging library with super powers

Project description

pygogo: a Python logger with superpowers

travis versions pypi

sample pygogo usage

Index

Introduction | Requirements | Motivation | Usage | Installation | Project Structure | Design Principles | Structured Logging | Formatters | Handlers | Scripts | Contributing | License

Introduction

pygogo is a Python logging library and command-line interface with super powers. pygogo leverages the standard Python logging module under the hood, so there’s no need to learn yet-another logging library. The default implementation sends all messages to stdout, and any messages at level WARNING or above also to stderr.

With pygogo, you can

  • Log via different handlers depending on the event severity

  • Format log messages as plain text, csv, json, and more..

  • Send logs to stdout, stderr, file, email, sockets, and more..

  • Inter-operate with the standard python logging module

  • and much more…

Requirements

pygogo has been tested and is known to work on Python 3.7, 3.8, and 3.9; and PyPy3.7.

Motivation

The standard logging module is great, but requires a ton of boilerplate before you can do anything really interesting with it. I designed pygogo to provide many useful logging use-cases out of the box. A reimplementation of Using LoggerAdapters to impart contextual information is shown below:

import pygogo as gogo

logger = gogo.Gogo(__name__).get_structured_logger(connid='1234')
logger.info('log message')

# Prints the following to stdout

{"message": "log message", "connid": "1234"}

Usage

pygogo is intended to be used either directly as a Python library or from the terminal via the command-line interface.

Library

Examples

Hello World

from pygogo import logger

logger.debug('hello world')
logger.error('hello error')

# Prints the following to `stdout`

hello world
hello error

# Prints the following to `stderr`

hello error

Log based debugging

import pygogo as gogo

def main(verbose=False):
    logger = gogo.Gogo(__name__, verbose=verbose).logger
    logger.debug('I will log to `stdout` only if `verbose` is True')
    logger.info('I will log to `stdout` always')
    logger.warning('I will log to both `stdout` and `stderr` always')

Disabled dual logging

import pygogo as gogo

logger = gogo.Gogo(monolog=True).logger
logger.debug('debug message')
logger.info('info message')
logger.warning('warning message')
logger.error('error message')
logger.critical('critical message')

# Prints the following to `stdout.log` (all messages at level `INFO` or below):

debug message
info message

# Prints the following to `stderr` (messages at level `WARNING` or above):

warning message
error message
critical message

Custom formatter [1]

import logging
import pygogo as gogo

log_format = '%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s'
formatter = logging.Formatter(log_format)

logger = gogo.Gogo(
    'examples.fmt',
    low_hdlr=gogo.handlers.file_hdlr('custom_fmt.log'),
    low_formatter=formatter,
    high_level='error',
    high_formatter=formatter).logger

# Now let's log something!

logger.debug('debug message')
logger.info('info message')
logger.warn('warn message')
logger.error('error message')
logger.critical('critical message')

# Prints the following to `custom_fmt.log` (all messages):

2015-12-18 18:51:30,416 - examples.fmt.base - DEBUG - debug message
2015-12-18 18:51:30,416 - examples.fmt.base - INFO - info message
2015-12-18 18:51:30,416 - examples.fmt.base - WARNING - warn message
2015-12-18 18:51:30,416 - examples.fmt.base - ERROR - error message
2015-12-18 18:51:30,416 - examples.fmt.base - CRITICAL - critical message

# Prints the following to `stderr` (messages at level `ERROR` or above):

2015-12-18 18:51:30,416 - examples.fmt.base - ERROR - error message
2015-12-18 18:51:30,416 - examples.fmt.base - CRITICAL - critical message

Structured logging [2]

import pygogo as gogo

formatter = gogo.formatters.structured_formatter
kwargs = {'low_level': 'info', 'low_formatter': formatter}
logger = gogo.Gogo('examples.structured', **kwargs).logger
extra = {'set_value': set([1, 2, 3]), 'snowman': '☃'}
logger.info('log message', extra=extra)  # doctest: +ELLIPSIS

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

{"snowman": "\u2603", "name": "examples.structured.base", "level": "INFO", "message": "log message", "time": "2015-12-18 18:52:39", "msecs": 58.973073959350586, "set_value": [1, 2, 3]}

Using Filters to impart contextual information [3]

import logging
import pygogo as gogo

levels = ('DEBUG', 'INFO', 'WARNING', 'ERROR', 'CRITICAL')
log_frmt = (
   '%(asctime)-4s %(name)-5s %(levelname)-8s IP: %(ip)-15s User: '
   '%(user)-8s %(message)s')

formatter = logging.Formatter(log_frmt)
going = gogo.Gogo('a', low_formatter=formatter)
a1 = going.get_logger('b.c', ip='123.231.231.123', user='fred')
a2 = going.get_logger('e.f', ip='192.168.0.1', user='sheila')

# Now let's log something!

a1.debug('A debug message')
a1.info('An info %s', 'message')

for level in [getattr(logging, l) for l in levels]:
   name = logging.getLevelName(level)
   a2.log(level, 'A %s msg', name)

# Prints the following to `stdout` (all messages):

2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.b.c DEBUG    IP: 123.231.231.123 User: fred     A debug message
2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.b.c INFO     IP: 123.231.231.123 User: fred     An info message
2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.e.f DEBUG    IP: 192.168.0.1     User: sheila   A DEBUG msg
2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.e.f INFO     IP: 192.168.0.1     User: sheila   AN INFO msg
2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.e.f WARNING  IP: 192.168.0.1     User: sheila   A WARNING msg
2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.e.f ERROR    IP: 192.168.0.1     User: sheila   AN ERROR msg
2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.e.f CRITICAL IP: 192.168.0.1     User: sheila   A CRITICAL msg

# Prints the following to `stderr` (messages at level `WARNING` or above):

2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.e.f WARNING  IP: 192.168.0.1     User: sheila   A WARNING msg
2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.e.f ERROR    IP: 192.168.0.1     User: sheila   AN ERROR msg
2015-12-19 10:12:24,479 a.e.f CRITICAL IP: 192.168.0.1     User: sheila   A CRITICAL msg

Multiple loggers [4]

import pygogo as gogo

going = gogo.Gogo(
    'examples.lggrs',
    low_hdlr=gogo.handlers.file_hdlr('multi_lggrs.log'),
    low_formatter=gogo.formatters.fixed_formatter,
    high_level='info',
    high_formatter=gogo.formatters.console_formatter)

root = going.logger
logger1 = going.get_logger('area1')
logger2 = going.get_logger('area2')

# Now let's log something!

root.info('Jackdaws love my big sphinx.')
logger1.debug('Quick zephyrs blow, daft Jim.')
logger1.info('How daft jumping zebras vex.')
logger2.warning('Jail zesty vixen who grabbed pay.')
logger2.error('The five boxing wizards jump.')

# Prints the following to `multi_lggrs.log` (all messages):

2015-12-18 17:21:37.417 examples.lggrs.base INFO     Jackdaws love my big sphinx.
2015-12-18 17:21:37.417 examples.lggrs.area1 DEBUG    Quick zephyrs blow, daft Jim.
2015-12-18 17:21:37.417 examples.lggrs.area1 INFO     How daft jumping zebras vex.
2015-12-18 17:21:37.417 examples.lggrs.area2 WARNING  Jail zesty vixen who grabbed pay.
2015-12-18 17:21:37.417 examples.lggrs.area2 ERROR    The five boxing wizards jump.

# Prints the following to `stderr` (messages at level `INFO` or above):

examples.lggrs.base: INFO     Jackdaws love my big sphinx.
examples.lggrs.area1: INFO     How daft jumping zebras vex.
examples.lggrs.area2: WARNING  Jail zesty vixen who grabbed pay.
examples.lggrs.area2: ERROR    The five boxing wizards jump.
Notes

Command-line Interface

Examples

Basic Usage

gogo [options] <message>

show help

gogo -h

CLI usage

usage: gogo [options] <message>

description: Logs a given message

positional arguments:

message The message to log (defaults to reading from stdin).

optional arguments:
-h, --help

show this help message and exit

-l LEVEL, --msg-level LEVEL

The level to log the message (default: info). Must be one of: critical, error, warning, info, debug.

-n NAME, --name NAME

The logger name (default: pygogo)

-D HANDLER, --high-hdlr HANDLER

The high pass log handler (default: stderr). Must be one of: buffered, email, file, fileobj, socket, stderr, stdout, syslog, webhook.

-d HANDLER, --low-hdlr HANDLER

The low pass log handler (default: stdout). Must be one of: buffered, email, file, fileobj, socket, stderr, stdout, syslog, webhook.

-L LEVEL, --high-level LEVEL

Min level to log to the high pass handler (default: warning). Must be one of: buffered, email, file, fileobj, socket, stderr, stdout, syslog, webhook.

-e LEVEL, --low-level LEVEL

Min level to log to the low pass handler (default: debug). Must be one of: buffered, email, file, fileobj, socket, stderr, stdout, syslog, webhook.

-F FORMAT, --high-format FORMAT

High pass handler log format (default: basic). Must be one of: basic, bom, console, csv, fixed, json, structured.

-o FORMAT, --low-format FORMAT

Low pass handler log format (default: basic). Must be one of: basic, bom, console, csv, fixed, json, structured.

-m, --monolog

Log high level events only to high pass handler.

-f FILENAME, --filename FILENAME

The filename to log to. Required for the follow handlers: file.

-s SUBJECT, --subject SUBJECT

The log subject (default: You’ve got mail). Used in the follow handlers: email.

-u URL, --url URL

The log url. Required for the follow handlers: webhook.

-H HOST, --host HOST

The host. Used in the follow handlers: socket and syslog.

-p NUM, --port NUM

The port number. Used in the follow handlers: socket and syslog.

-t, --tcp

Use TCP instead of UDP. Used in the follow handlers: socket and syslog.

-g, --get

Use a GET request instead of POST. Used in the follow handlers: webhook.

-v, --version

Show version and exit.

-V, --verbose

Increase output verbosity.

Hello World

gogo 'hello world'

Log based debugging

gogo 'default info level will log to `stdout`'
gogo --level=debug "debug won't log"
gogo --level=debug -V 'verbose will log to `stdout`'
gogo --level=info 'info will log to `stdout`'
gogo --level=warning 'warning will log to both `stdout` and `stderr`'

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

default info level will log to `stdout`
verbose will log to `stdout`
info will log to `stdout`
warning will log to both `stdout` and `stderr`

# Prints the following to `stderr`:

warning will log to both `stdout` and `stderr`

Disable dual logging

gogo --level=debug -V 'debug message'
gogo --level=info 'info message'
gogo --level=warning -m 'warning message'
gogo --level=error -m 'error message'
gogo --level=critical -m 'critical message'

# Prints the following to `stdout.log` (all messages at level `INFO` or below):

debug message
info message

# Prints the following to `stderr` (messages at level `WARNING` or above):

warning message
error message
critical message

Structured logging

gogo --low-format=json 'log message'

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

{"time": "2015-12-19 11:26:53.776", "name": "pygogo.runner", "level": "INFO", "message": "log message"}

Alternate handler

gogo --low-hdlr=file 'log message'

# Prints the following to `pygogo.log` in the current dir (assuming the current dir is named `pygogo`):

{"time": "2015-12-19 11:26:53.776", "name": "pygogo.runner", "level": "INFO", "message": "log message"}

Installation

(You are using a virtualenv, right?)

At the command line, install pygogo using either pip (recommended)

pip install pygogo

or easy_install

easy_install pygogo

Please see the installation doc for more details.

Project Structure

┌── bin
│   └── gogo
├── docs
│   ├── AUTHORS.rst
│   ├── CHANGES.rst
│   ├── INSTALLATION.rst
│   └── TODO.rst
├── helpers
│   ├── check-stage
│   ├── clean
│   ├── pippy
│   ├── srcdist
│   └── wheel
├── pygogo
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── formatters.py
│   ├── handlers.py
│   ├── main.py
│   └── utils.py
├── tests
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── standard.rc
│   ├── test.py
│   └── test_main.py
├── CONTRIBUTING.rst
├── LICENSE
├── MANIFEST.in
├── Makefile
├── README.rst
├── dev-requirements.txt
├── examples.py
├── manage.py
├── py2-requirements.txt
├── setup.cfg
├── setup.py
└── tox.ini

Design Principles

  • the built-in logging module isn’t broken so don’t reinvent the wheel

  • prefer functions over objects

  • keep the API as simple as possible

Structured Logging

There are severals ways to get structured (machine readable) log messages using pygogo. Each method makes a different customization/complexity trade-off which is outlined below:

Setup

The following methods make use of these variables.

import pygogo as gogo

kwargs = {'contextual': True}
extra = {'additional': True}

Methods

basic structured logger

The simplest to use. Useful if you don’t need message metadata, i.e., log level, log name, and log time.

logger = gogo.Gogo('basic').get_structured_logger('base', **kwargs)
logger.debug('message', extra=extra)

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

{"additional": true, "contextual": true, "message": "message"}
structured formatter

Requires an additional step of specifying a formatter. Useful if you need message metadata, i.e., log level, log name, and log time.

formatter = gogo.formatters.structured_formatter
logger = gogo.Gogo('struct', low_formatter=formatter).get_logger(**kwargs)
logger.debug('message', extra=extra)

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

 {"additional": true, "contextual": true, "level": "DEBUG", "message": "message", "msecs": 760.5140209197998, "name": "struct.base", "time": "2015-12-19 14:25:58"}
JSON formatter

Requires an additional step of specifying a formatter. Useful if you require millisecond precision in the date. If you are ok with having the milliseconds in a separate field, consider the structured formatter since it supports the extra keyword and contextual information.

formatter = gogo.formatters.json_formatter
logger = gogo.Gogo('json', low_formatter=formatter).get_logger(**kwargs)
logger.debug('message', extra=extra)

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

{"level": "DEBUG", "message": "message", "name": "json.base", "time": "2015-12-19 14:25:58.760"}

# Note that both `extra` and `kwargs` were ignored
custom logger

The most complex and customizable. Useful if you need a custom log or date format not provided by the above methods. However, even though this method supports the extra keyword when logging, it is static (unlike the structured logger or structured formatter). This is because the log format must be specified at the time of the log’s creation and therefore can’t adapt to log messages with differing extra parameters.

logfmt = (
    '{"time": "%(asctime)s.%(msecs)d", "name": "%(name)s", "level":'
    ' "%(levelname)s", "message": "%(message)s", '
    '"contextual": "%(contextual)s", "additional": "%(additional)s"}')

fmtr = logging.Formatter(logfmt, datefmt=gogo.formatters.DATEFMT)
logger = gogo.Gogo('custom', low_formatter=fmtr).get_logger(**kwargs)
logger.debug('message', extra=extra)

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

{"additional": "True", "contextual": "True", "level": "DEBUG", "message": "message", "name": "custom.logger", "time": "2015-12-19 14:25:58.760"}

Summary

The following table can help make sense of the different methods:

structured logger

structured formatter

json formatter

custom logger

contextual information

extra param support

dynamic extra support

message metadata

available via the command line

msecs field

milliseconds in time field

custom date format

custom log format

Formatters

pygogo has several builtin formatters and also supports any logging.Formatter instance.

Examples

builtin CSV format in python
import pygogo as gogo

formatter = gogo.formatters.csv_formatter
gogo.Gogo('csv', low_formatter=formatter).logger.debug('message')

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

2015-12-19 17:03:48.99,csv.base,DEBUG,"message"
logging.Formatter instance in python
import logging
import pygogo as gogo

datefmt = gogo.formatters.DATEFMT
formatter = logging.Formatter(gogo.formatters.CSV_FORMAT, datefmt=datefmt)
gogo.Gogo('csv', low_formatter=formatter).get_logger('custom').debug('message')

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

2015-12-19 17:03:48.99,csv.custom,DEBUG,"message"
builtin CSV format via CLI
gogo --low-format=csv 'message'

# Prints the following to `stdout`:

2015-12-19 15:51:32.16,pygogo.runner,INFO,"message"

Summary

The following table can help make sense of the different builtin formatters:

name

message

basic

message

bom

message

console

name: INFO message

csv

2015-12-19 15:51:32.16,name,INFO,”message”

fixed

2015-12-19 15:51:32.16 name INFO message

json

{“level”: “INFO”, “message”: “message”, “name”: “name”, “time”: “2015-12-19 15:51:32.16”}

structured

{“level”: “INFO”, “message”: “message”, “msecs”: 16.5140209197998, “name”: “name”, “time”: “2015-12-19 15:51:32”}

Handlers

pygogo has several builtin handlers and also supports any instance from the logging.handlers module.

Examples

builtin stdout handler in python
import pygogo as gogo

hdlr = gogo.handlers.stdout_hdlr()
gogo.Gogo('stdout', low_hdlr=hdlr).logger.debug('message')

# Prints 'message' to `stdout`
logging.StreamHandler instance in python
import logging
import sys
import pygogo as gogo

hdlr = logging.StreamHandler(sys.stdout)
gogo.Gogo('stdout', low_hdlr=hdlr).get_logger('custom').debug('message')

# Prints 'message' to `stdout`
builtin CSV format via CLI
gogo --low-hdlr=stdout 'message'

# Prints 'message' to `stdout`

Summary

The following table can help make sense of the different builtin handlers:

name

description

buffered

Holds log in memory until it reaches its capacity, or it logs a message with a level at or above the flush level

email

Emails log to a given email address

file

Writes log to a given filename

fileobj

Writes log to a given file-like object

socket

Writes log to a given network socket

stderr

Writes log to standard error

stdout

Writes log to standard output

syslog

Writes log to syslog

webhook

POSTs log to a url

Scripts

pygogo comes with a built in task manager manage.py

Setup

pip install -r dev-requirements.txt

Examples

Run python linter and nose tests

manage lint
manage test

Contributing

Please mimic the coding style/conventions used in this repo. If you add new classes or functions, please add the appropriate doc blocks with examples. Also, make sure the python linter and nose tests pass.

Please see the contributing doc for more details.

License

pygogo is distributed under the MIT License.

Changelog

%%version%% (unreleased)

New

  • Add changelog.

  • Add quick logger instantiation.

Bugfixes

  • Don’t parse args unless running as script.

  • Fix CLI usage text.

  • Fix examples.

  • Fix packaging scripts.

  • Update docs, fix requirements, and remove sphinx.

v0.8.13 (2016-01-01)

Bugfixes

  • Fix new year bug.

v0.8.10 (2015-12-30)

Bugfixes

  • Fix capitalization.

  • Fix optional dependency parsing.

  • Fix spacing and remove unneeded marker.

v0.8.9 (2015-12-30)

Bugfixes

  • Fix conditional dependency configuration.

  • Fix requirements.

v0.8.8 (2015-12-29)

Bugfixes

  • Fix project name.

v0.8.7 (2015-12-29)

Bugfixes

  • Add pygogo to script path.

  • Add pygogo to test path.

v0.8.6 (2015-12-29)

Bugfixes

  • Fix doccheck errors.

v0.8.5 (2015-12-29)

Bugfixes

  • Add missing helper script.

v0.8.4 (2015-12-29)

Bugfixes

  • Fix setup.py (again!)

v0.8.3 (2015-12-29)

Bugfixes

  • Fix setup.py.

v0.8.2 (2015-12-29)

Bugfixes

  • Fix travis.

v0.8.1 (2015-12-29)

Bugfixes

  • Fix tox config and tests.

  • Change helper script name.

  • Fix spacing.

  • Fix makefile error.

  • Only clean once.

v0.8.0 (2015-12-25)

Bugfixes

  • Fix sphinx.

  • Fix tox.

  • Fix lint errors.

  • Fix tests.

v0.7.0 (2015-12-23)

Bugfixes

  • Fix lint error.

v0.6.3 (2015-12-22)

Bugfixes

  • Fix pylint errors.

  • Fix pylint and make check optional.

  • Don’t overwrite fmtrs argument.

v0.5.0 (2015-12-20)

Bugfixes

  • Fix duplicate handler/filter bug.

  • Fix tests.

  • Fix assertion arg orders.

v0.4.0 (2015-12-19)

New

  • Add BOM formatter.

Bugfixes

  • Fix spelling and spacing.

  • Fix lint errors.

  • Fix example.

  • Fix lint errors and add msecs to formatter.

  • Remove ‘ascitime’ from StructuredFormatter.

  • Use port if given.

  • Fix docblocks.

v0.2.2 (2015-12-07)

Bugfixes

  • Fix typo.

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