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PYGame Stuff for writing pygame applications

Project description

pygstuff is a Python package to simplify developing with pygame.

Install:

$ pip install pygstuff

Import pygstuff as pygs (pronounced "pigs"):

>>> import pygstuff as pygs

pygstuff is a pygame wrapper under development

pygame is a great low-level tool for interactive applications. Low-level means lots of freedom, but lots of boiler-plate code.

pygstuff makes pygame applications a little bit higher-level. It is where my pygame code goes when I get tired of repeating it.

I am very actively adding to pygstuff. Check for changes:

  • if cloned, do git remote update
  • or if installed, update to the latest with pip install --upgrade pygstuff

Platform compatibility

Developed on Windows using Python3.8 and pygame 1.9.6. Tested on Linux Mint 19.3.

Windows runs pygame with no problem, but Linux Mint and Ubuntu distributions are usually missing SDL build dependencies and are therefore unable to run pygame out of the box. There are two steps to fix this.

Install SDL dependencies on Linux

Configure the source list

First, if you have never built anything from source on your Linux system, you need to configure your package manager source list with deb-src URLs.

The sources.list file usually has both deb URLs and deb-src URLs, but the deb-src ones are commented out. The package manager needs these sources for installing build dependencies.

Open /etc/apt/sources.list and find the lines starting with deb-src that are commented out. Uncomment these lines.

sources.list is a protected file, so you will need to prefix your text editor command with sudo.

For example, my /etc/apt/sources.list has this line:

# deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 Packages

I remove the comment:

deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 Packages

Update the package manager with the new sources

Now do apt update or apt-get update to update the newly configured sources.

sudo apt update

Install SDL dependencies

Now install the SDL build dependencies:

sudo apt-get build-dep python-pygame

Note this does not install the python-pygame package, but installs the dependencies for that package, which is exactly what's needed to pip install pygame.

Build from source

Unrelated to using pygame or pygstuff, your Debian system is now empowered to build other projects from source too:

sudo apt-get build-dep vim # powerful text editor
sudo apt-get build-dep ardour # powerful audio recorder/editor

This only installs the necessary build dependencies. To actually install Vim or Ardour, clone the official repository and follow the instructions to run the configure and build scripts.

Installation

$ pip install pygstuff

This installs the wheel (built distribution).

pygstuff requires pygame. If pygame is not installed, pip install pygstuff takes care of installing pygame as well. If the installation fails on Linux because of missing SDL dependencies, see the previous section.

See AltInstallallation.md for developer installation ('--editable') or simply editing PYTHONPATH (no installation).

Quick example script using pygstuff

This example opens a window and draws a line. Quit by pressing q or by clicking on the usual Window close button to quit.

#!python.exe
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
'''Draw a line with pygame.'''
import pygame
import pygstuff as pygs

if __name__ == '__main__':
    rgb = pygs.RGB()
    win = pygs.Window()
    win.open_window(1200,600)
    print(f"Display window size: {win.width}x{win.height}")
    clock = pygs.Clock(framerate=50)

    '''game loop'''
    quit = False
    while not quit:
        clock.tick()

        '''--- EVENTS ---'''
        for event in pygame.event.get():
            kp = pygame.key.get_pressed()
            km = pygame.key.get_mods()
            quit = pygs.user.quit(event, kp, km)

        '''--- UPDATE SCREEN ---'''
        win.surface.fill(rgb.blackestgravel)
        pygame.draw.aalines(
            win.surface,
            rgb.dress,
            False, # if True, connect first and last points
            [(100,100), (200,200), (200,300), (500,300)]
            )

        # Flip to new surface drawing
        pygame.display.flip()

Libraries

pkg window: Class Window

Wraps pygame.display.set_mode(), pulling several pygame calls into two methods: __init__ and open.

The application only makes one instance of Window. This Window singleton holds:

  • the top-level pygame surface (for drawing everything on)
  • the width and height of the main game window

Usage for Window

Instantiate a Window:

win = pygs.Window()
  • initializes pygame
  • sets window properties:
    • location
    • caption
    • icon

Open the Window:

win.open()
  • sets the window size win.width and win.height
  • opens the main game window win.surface for drawing to
  • the window closes when the application ends
    • this is just pygame's out-of-the-box behavior for closing the game window

pkg clock: Class Clock

This is a very simple wrapper around pygame.time.Clock(). All it does is avoid repeating the framerate value.

Usage for Clock

Set the framerate when Clock() is instantiated:

clock = pygs.Clock(framerate=60)

Then in the game loop, tick the clock:

clock.tick()

pkg colors

Color is a distraction when I first start development on an application. I want nice contrast that is also easy on my eyes and is good enough if I never bother changing it.

This library gives me Steve Losh's Badwolf scheme in RGB and HEX format. This is my default scheme for Vim, so it is a natural default scheme for my applications. It is just what I am used to looking at. I encourage Vim users to do something similar with their favorite color schemes.

Usage for colors namedtuple RGB

Pygame uses RGB. Instantiate an rgb version of the Badwolf palette:

rgb = pygs.RGB()

Use one of the gravels as a background:

win.surface.fill(rgb.blackestgravel)

Draw a tardis-colored plot (reminds me of the C64 blue):

pygame.draw.aalines(
    win.surface,
    rgb.tardis,
    False, # if True, connect first and last points
    meaningful_data # XY plot data [(x0,y0), ... (xn,yn)]
    )

The Badwolf scheme is a small set of colors with easy-to-remember names:

  • the gravels:
    • wide range of brownish-greys from almost white to almost black
    • good for background fills and background line work of varying emphasis: grid lines, box borders, text
    • e.g., if the background is blackestgravel, then:
      • a non-interactive text title is just gravel
      • interactive text is darkgravel to indicate disabled or out-of-focus
      • text is brightgravel or a highlight color to indicate it is in-focus or it it just became active
  • highlight colors:
    • tardis, taffy, saltwatertaffy, dalespale, orange, lime, dress
    • I usually have two or three of these in an application, e.g.:
    • a tardis command line
    • a saltwatertaffy plot

And, of course, there is simple black and white.

Black (0, 0, 0) is coal:

rgb.coal

White (255, 255, 255) is snow:

rgb.snow

pkg plot

plot handles:

  • reading data from file
  • scaling the data values for fitting the plot on screen

Either the application generates 2d data to plot, or there is a file with 2d data. Either way, there are x and y values for plotting.

  • x values are stored as a list of floating point values
  • y values are stored as a list of floating point values

Right now it's up to the application to flip the data as needed, dealing with the pygame convention that y=0 is the top line of the window and y increases moving towards the bottom of the window.

Like user, plot is a work in progress. Right now, plot is only handling conversions from the native data to the window pixel values, scaling data to fit in the plot-window size and rounding values to integers.

Eventually plot will include commands for drawing the plot, managing multiple plot lines, changing plot styles (colors, line-thickness, dot-size, line on/off, dot on/off), and typical user interaction such as changing the plot axes and zooming.

pkg user

Pygame user interaction is detected via key-presses and events. Library user is a collection of functions that check for common user interactions and return a Boolean.

About pygame events, key presses, and key modifications

Typical pygame applications check for user interaction on each iteration of the game loop:

for event in pygame.event.get():
    kp = pygame.key.get_pressed()
    km = pygame.key.get_mods()

This stores user interaction in three variables:

  • events
  • key presses (like a letter or a number)
  • key modifications (like shift or control)

Every function in pygs.user takes all three of these variables. I pass all three to simplify the interface. I don't want to bother thinking about out which ones to pass.

typical example: quit

For example, every application needs a way for the user to quit. The game loop loops until quit is True, and every iteration checks if the user quit. The value of quit is updated by calling pygs.user.quit():

quit = pygs.user.quit(event, kp, km)

In this case, all three variables are actually used:

  • clicking the Window's red X is an event
  • ctrl-q is a keyboard shortcut requiring kp for detecting q and km for detecting if ctrl was held down

More about pygame events

Events are the catch-all for everything else:

  • some events are defined by pygame, such as JOYBUTTONDOWN and JOYAXISMOTION
  • events are also defined by the developer, e.g., a text-entry object might trigger an event when the user presses enter or when the users selects text with the mouse

Future packages

Future goals for pkg user

There is a lot of boilerplate in detecting specific key-presses and events.

The user library is my attempt to simplify this with a higher-level view asking "what did the user do?" in the form of functions that return either True or False.

There are many high-level views. This library just represents the stuff I find most useful.

I intent to redo this library to enable:

  • customization in the application code
  • use of user-specific keyboard shortcuts, like a .rc file

As of now, the library is a mixture of high-level user interaction, such as pygs.user.quit(), and low-level interaction such as checking for specific key presses. I use these when the interpretation of user-intent is application specific. For example, this returns True if the user presses capital x:

pygs.user.pressed_X(event, key_pressed, key_mods)

new pkg lines

The pygame line drawing interfaces specifies line segments with a start x,y and a stop x,y.

I'm working on a lines library that provides a higher-level interface for working with lines:

  • line:
    • specify a point (x,y) the line passes through
    • specify the slope

The library converts lines to the visible line segment that fills the game window.

Building on this line interface, lines provides a Tiles class.

Instantiate Tiles to generate a grid of parallelograms that tile a portion of the game window. This started out of a need to draw grids for axonometric (isometric) projection. With the right parameter values, this simplifies to a rectangular grid for plotting 2d data.

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