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A library for interacting and working the Harmony blockchain and related codebases.

Project description

Pyhmy - Harmony's python utilities

This library only supports Python 3.6+

A Python library for interacting and working the Harmony blockchain and related codebases.

Full documentation is located on Harmony's GitBook (in progress).

Installation

pip install pyhmy

On MacOS: Make sure you have Python3 installed, and use python3 to install pyhmy

sudo pip3 install pathlib
sudo pip3 install pyhmy

Development

Clone the repository and then run the following:

make install

Running tests

Before you can run tests, you need the python dependencies (make install), docker and go installed to quickly run a local blockchain with staking enabled (detailed instructions here):

mkdir -p $(go env GOPATH)/src/github.com/harmony-one
cd $(go env GOPATH)/src/github.com/harmony-one
git clone https://github.com/harmony-one/mcl.git
git clone https://github.com/harmony-one/bls.git
git clone https://github.com/harmony-one/harmony.git
cd harmony
make test-rpc

Once the terminal displays === FINISHED RPC TESTS ===, use another shell to run the following tests

make test

Or directly with pytest (reference here for more info):

py.test tests

Releasing

You can release this library with the following command (assuming you have the credentials to upload):

make release

Usage

test_net = 'https://api.s0.b.hmny.io'				# this is shard 0
test_net_shard_1 = 'https://api.s1.b.hmny.io'
test_address = 'one18t4yj4fuutj83uwqckkvxp9gfa0568uc48ggj7'

main_net = 'https://rpc.s0.t.hmny.io'
main_net_shard_1 = 'https://rpc.s1.t.hmny.io'

accounts

from pyhmy import account
Balance / account related information
balance = account.get_balance(test_address, endpoint=test_net)				# on shard 0, in ATTO
total_balance = account.get_total_balance(test_address, endpoint=test_net)	# on all shards, in ATTO
balance_by_shard = account.get_balance_on_all_shards(test_address, endpoint=test_net)	# list of dictionaries with shard and balance as keys
genesis_balance = account.get_balance_by_block(test_address, block_num=0, endpoint=test_net)
latest_balance = account.get_balance_by_block(test_address, block_num='latest', endpoint=test_net)	# block_num can be a string 'latest', or 'pending', if implemented at the RPC level
account_nonce = account.get_account_nonce(test_address, block_num='latest', endpoint=test_net)
Transaction counts
tx_count = account.get_transactions_count(test_address, tx_type='ALL', endpoint=test_net)
sent_tx_count = account.get_transactions_count(test_address, tx_type='SENT', endpoint=test_net)
received_tx_count = account.get_transactions_count(test_address, tx_type='RECEIVED', endpoint=test_net)
legacy_tx_count = account.get_transaction_count(test_address, block_num='latest', endpoint=test_net)	# API is legacy
legacy_tx_count_pending = account.get_transaction_count(test_address, block_num='pending', endpoint=test_net)
Staking transaction counts
stx_count = account.get_staking_transactions_count(test_address, tx_type='ALL', endpoint=test_net)
sent_stx_count = account.get_staking_transactions_count(test_address, tx_type='SENT', endpoint=test_net)
received_stx_count = account.get_staking_transactions_count(test_address, tx_type='RECEIVED', endpoint=test_net)
Transaction history

To get a list of hashes, use include_full_tx=False

first_100_tx_hashes = account.get_transaction_history(test_address, page=0, page_size=100, include_full_tx=False, endpoint=test_net)

To get the next 100 transactions, change the page

next_100_tx_hashes = account.get_transaction_history(test_address, page=1, page_size=100, include_full_tx=False, endpoint=test_net)

To get a list of full transaction details, use include_full_tx=True (see get_transaction_by_hash for the reply structure

first_3_full_tx = account.get_transaction_history(test_address, page=0, page_size=3, include_full_tx=True, endpoint=test_net)

To get newest transactions, use order='DESC'

last_3_full_tx = account.get_transaction_history(test_address, page=0, page_size=3, include_full_tx=True, order='DESC', endpoint=test_net)

To change the transaction type (SENT / RECEIVED / ALL), pass the tx_type parameter

first_100_received_tx_hashes = account.get_transaction_history(test_address, page=0, page_size=100, include_full_tx=False, tx_type='RECEIVED', endpoint=test_net)
Staking transaction history

To get a list of staking hashes, use include_full_tx=False

first_100_stx_hashes = account.get_staking_transaction_history(test_address, page=0, page_size=100, include_full_tx=False, endpoint=test_net)

To get the next 100 staking transactions, change the page

next_100_stx_hashes = account.get_staking_transaction_history(test_address, page=1, page_size=100, include_full_tx=False, endpoint=test_net)

To get a list of full staking transaction details, use include_full_tx=True (see get_transaction_by_hash for the reply structure

first_3_full_stx = account.get_staking_transaction_history(test_address, page=0, page_size=3, include_full_tx=True, endpoint=test_net)

To get newest staking transactions, use order='DESC'

last_3_full_stx = account.get_staking_transaction_history(test_address, page=0, page_size=3, include_full_tx=True, order='DESC', endpoint=test_net)

To change the staking transaction type (SENT / RECEIVED / ALL), pass the tx_type parameter

first_100_received_stx_hashes = account.get_staking_transaction_history(test_address, page=0, page_size=100, include_full_tx=False, tx_type='RECEIVED', endpoint=test_net)

Blockchain

from pyhmy import blockchain
from decimal import Decimal
Node / network information
chain_id = blockchain.chain_id(test_net)					# chain type, for example, mainnet or testnet
node_metadata = blockchain.get_node_metadata(test_net)		# metadata about the endpoint
peer_info = blockchain.get_peer_info(test_net)				# peers of the endpoint
protocol_version = blockchain.protocol_version(test_net)	# protocol version being used
num_peers = blockchain.get_num_peers(test_net)				# number of peers of the endpoin
version = blockchain.get_version(test_net)					# EVM chain id, https://chainid.network
is_node_in_sync = blockchain.in_sync(test_net)						# whether the node is in sync (not out of sync or not syncing)
is_beacon_in_sync = blockchain.beacon_in_sync(test_net)		# whether the beacon node is in sync
prestaking_epoch_number = blockchain.get_prestaking_epoch(test_net)
staking_epoch_number = blockchain.get_staking_epoch(test_net)
Sharding information
shard_id = blockchain.get_shard(test_net)							# get shard id of the endpoint
sharding_structure = blockchain.get_sharding_structure(test_net)	# list of dictionaries, each representing a shard
last_cross_links = blockchain.get_last_cross_links(test_net)		# list of dictionaries for each shard except test_net
Current network status
leader_address = blockchain.get_leader_address(test_net)
is_last_block = blockchain.is_last_block(block_num=0, test_net)
last_block_of_epoch5 = blockchain.epoch_last_block(block_num=5, test_net)
circulating_supply = Decimal(blockchain.get_circulating_supply(test_net))
premined = blockchain.get_total_supply(test_net)					# should be None?
current_block_num = blockchain.get_block_number(test_net)
current_epoch = blockchain.get_current_epoch(test_net)
gas_price = blockchain.get_gas_price(test_net)						# this returns 1 always
Block headers
latest_header = blockchain.get_latest_header(test_net)						# header contains hash, number, cross links, signature, time, etc (see get_latest_header for a full list)
latest_hash = latest_header['blockHash']
latest_number = latest_header['blockNumber']
previous_header = blockchain.get_header_by_number(latest_number-1, test_net)
chain_headers = blockchain.get_latest_chain_headers(test_net_shard_1)		# chain headers by beacon and shard
Blocks
By block number

Fetch the barebones information about the block as a dictionary

latest_block = blockchain.get_block_by_number(block_num='latest', endpoint=test_net)

Fetch a block with full information (full_tx=True) for each transaction in the block

block = blockchain.get_block_by_number(block_num=9017724, full_tx=True, include_tx=True, include_staking_tx=True, endpoint=test_net)

Fetch a block and only staking transactions (include_tx=False, include_staking_tx=True) for the block

block = blockchain.get_block_by_number(block_num='latest', include_tx=False, include_staking_tx=True, endpoint=test_net)

Fetch block signer addresses (include_signers=True) as a list

signers = blockchain.get_block_by_number(block_num=9017724, include_signers=True, endpoint=test_net)['signers']

Or, alternatively, use the direct get_block_signers method:

signers = blockchain.get_block_signers(block_num=9017724, endpoint=test_net)

Fetch the public keys for signers

signers_keys = blockchain.get_block_signers_keys(block_num=9017724, endpoint=test_net)

Check if an address is a signer for a block

is_block_signer = blockchain.is_block_signer(block_num=9017724, address='one1yc06ghr2p8xnl2380kpfayweguuhxdtupkhqzw', endpoint=test_net)

Fetch the number of blocks signed by a particular validator for the last epoch

number_signed_blocks = blockchain.get_signed_blocks(address='one1yc06ghr2p8xnl2380kpfayweguuhxdtupkhqzw', endpoint=test_net)

Fetch a list of validators and their public keys for specific epoch number

validators = blockchain.get_validators(epoch=12, endpoint=test_net)
validator_keys = blockchain.get_validator_keys(epoch=12, endpoint=test_net)

Fetch number of transactions

tx_count = blockchain.get_block_transaction_count_by_number(block_num='latest', endpoint=test_net)

Fetch number of staking transactactions

stx_count = blockchain.get_block_staking_transaction_count_by_number(block_num='latest', endpoint=test_net)

Fetch a list of blocks using the block numbers

blocks = blockchain.get_blocks(start_block=0, end_block=2, full_tx=False, include_tx=False, include_staking_tx=False, include_signers=False, endpoint=test_net)
By block hash

Most of the functions described above can be applied for fetching information about a block whose hash is known, for example:

block_hash = '0x44fa170c25f262697e5802098cd9eca72889a637ea52feb40c521f2681a6d720'
block = blockchain.get_block_by_hash(block_hash=block_hash, endpoint=test_net)
block_with_full_tx = blockchain.get_block_by_hash(block_hash=block_hash, full_tx=True, include_tx=True, include_staking_tx=True, endpoint=test_net)
block_with_only_staking_tx = blockchain.get_block_by_hash(block_hash=block_hash, include_tx=False, include_staking_tx=True, endpoint=test_net)
signers = blockchain.get_block_by_hash(block_hash=block_hash, include_signers=True, endpoint=test_net)['signers']
tx_count = blockchain.get_block_transaction_count_by_hash(block_hash=block_hash, endpoint=test_net)
stx_count = blockchain.get_block_staking_transaction_count_by_hash(block_hash=block_hash, endpoint=test_net)

Staking

from pyhmy import staking
validator_addr = 'one1xjanr7lgulc0fqyc8dmfp6jfwuje2d94xfnzyd'
delegator_addr = 'one1y2624lg0mpkxkcttaj0c85pp8pfmh2tt5zhdte'
Validation
all_validators = staking.get_all_validator_addresses(endpoint=test_net)							# list of addresses
validator_information = staking.get_validator_information(validator_addr, endpoint=test_net)	# dict with all info
validator_information_100 = staking.get_all_validator_information(page=0, endpoint=test_net)	# for all use page=-1
elected_validators = staking.get_elected_validator_addresses(endpoint=test_net)					# list of addresses
validators_for_epoch = staking.get_validators(epoch=73772, endpoint=test_net)					# dict with list of validators and balance
validators_information_100_for_block = staking.get_all_validator_information_by_block_number(block_num=9017724, page=0, endpoint=test_net)
validator_keys_for_epoch = staking.get_validator_keys(epoch=73772, endpoint=test_net)			# list of public keys
validator_information_at_block = staking.get_validator_information_by_block_number(validator_addr, block_num=9017724, endpoint=test_net)
self_delegation = staking.get_validator_self_delegation(validator_addr, endpoint=test_net)
total_delegation = staking.get_validator_total_delegation(validator_addr, endpoint=test_net)
Delegation
delegation_information = staking.get_all_delegation_information(page=-1, endpoint=test_net)
delegations_by_delegator = staking.get_delegations_by_delegator(delegator_addr, test_net)
delegations_by_delegator_at_block = staking.get_delegations_by_delegator_by_block_number(delegator_addr, block_num=9017724, endpoint=test_net)
delegation_by_delegator_and_validator = staking.get_delegation_by_delegator_and_validator(delegator_addr, validator_addr, test_net)
avail_redelegation_balance = staking.get_available_redelegation_balance(delegator_addr, test_net)
delegations_by_validator = staking.get_delegations_by_validator(validator_addr, test_net)		# list of delegations made to this validator, each a dictionary
Network
utility_metrics = staking.get_current_utility_metrics(test_net)
network_info = staking.get_staking_network_info(test_net)
super_committees = staking.get_super_committees(test_net)
super_committees_current = super_committees['current']		# list of voting committees as a dict
super_committees_previous = super_committees['previous']
total_staking = staking.get_total_staking(endpoint=test_net)	# by all validators, only for beaconchain
median_stake_snapshot = staking.get_raw_median_stake_snapshot(test_net)
Validator class

Instantiate a validator object and load it from the chain

from pyhmy.validator import Validator
validator = Validator(validator_addr)
validator.load_from_blockchain(test_net)

Create a new validator object and load from dictionary

from pyhmy.numbers import convert_one_to_atto
validator = Validator('one1a0x3d6xpmr6f8wsyaxd9v36pytvp48zckswvv9')
info = {
        'name': 'Alice',
        'identity': 'alice',
        'website': 'alice.harmony.one',
        'details': "Don't mess with me!!!",
        'security-contact': 'Bob',
        'min-self-delegation': convert_one_to_atto(10000),
        'amount': convert_one_to_atto(10001),
        'max-rate': '0.9',
        'max-change-rate': '0.05',
        'rate': '0.01',
        'bls-public-keys': ['0xb9486167ab9087ab818dc4ce026edb5bf216863364c32e42df2af03c5ced1ad181e7d12f0e6dd5307a73b62247608611'],
        'max-total-delegation': convert_one_to_atto(40000)
    }
validator.load(info)

Sign a validator creation transaction

signed_create_tx_hash = validator.sign_create_validator_transaction(
            nonce = 2,
            gas_price = 1,
            gas_limit = 100,
            private_key = '4edef2c24995d15b0e25cbd152fb0e2c05d3b79b9c2afd134e6f59f91bf99e48',
            chain_id = None).rawTransaction.hex()

To edit validator, change its parameters using the setter functions, for example, validator.set_details, except the rate, bls_keys_to_add and bls_keys_to_remove which can be passed to the below function:

signed_edit_tx_hash = validator.sign_edit_validator_transaction(
            nonce = 2,
            gas_price = 1,
            gas_limit = 100,
            rate = '0.06',
            bls_keys_to_add = "0xb9486167ab9087ab818dc4ce026edb5bf216863364c32e42df2af03c5ced1ad181e7d12f0e6dd5307a73b62247608611",
            bls_keys_to_remove = '0xb9486167ab9087ab818dc4ce026edb5bf216863364c32e42df2af03c5ced1ad181e7d12f0e6dd5307a73b62247608612',
            private_key = '4edef2c24995d15b0e25cbd152fb0e2c05d3b79b9c2afd134e6f59f91bf99e48',
            chain_id = 2).rawTransaction.hex()

Transactions

from pyhmy import transaction
Pool
pending_tx = transaction.get_pending_transactions(test_net)
pending_stx = transaction.get_pending_staking_transactions(test_net)
tx_error_sink = transaction.get_transaction_error_sink(test_net)
stx_error_sink = transaction.get_staking_transaction_error_sink(test_net)
pool_stats = transaction.get_pool_stats(test_net)
pending_cx_receipts = transaction.get_pending_cx_receipts(test_net)
Fetching transactions
tx_hash = '0x500f7f0ee70f866ba7e80592c06b409fabd7ace018a9b755a7f1f29e725e4423'
block_hash = '0xb94bf6e8a8a970d4d42dfe42f7f231af0ff7fd54e7f410395e3b306f2d4000d4'
tx = transaction.get_transaction_by_hash(tx_hash, test_net)			# dict with tx-level info like from / to / gas
tx_from_block_hash = transaction.get_transaction_by_block_hash_and_index(block_hash, tx_index=0, endpoint=test_net)
tx_from_block_number = transaction.get_transaction_by_block_number_and_index(9017724, tx_index=0, endpoint=test_net)
tx_receipt = transaction.get_transaction_receipt(tx_hash, test_net)
Fetching staking transactions
stx_hash = '0x3f616a8ef34f111f11813630cdcccb8fb6643b2affbfa91d3d8dbd1607e9bc33'
block_hash = '0x294dc88c7b6f3125f229a3cfd8d9b788a0bcfe9409ef431836adcd83839ba9f0'	# block number 9018043
stx = transaction.get_staking_transaction_by_hash(stx_hash, test_net)
stx_from_block_hash = transaction.get_staking_transaction_by_block_hash_and_index(block_hash, tx_index=0, endpoint=test_net)
stx_from_block_number = transaction.get_staking_transaction_by_block_number_and_index(9018043, tx_index=0, endpoint=test_net)
Cross shard transactions
cx_hash = '0xd324cc57280411dfac5a7ec2987d0b83e25e27a3d5bb5d3531262387331d692b'
cx_receipt = transaction.get_cx_receipt_by_hash(cx_hash, main_net_shard_1)	# the shard which receives the tx
tx_resent = transaction.resend_cx_receipt(cx_hash, main_net)				# beacon chain
Sending transactions

Sign it with your private key and use send_raw_transaction

from pyhmy import signing
tx = {
'chainId': 2,
'from': 'one18t4yj4fuutj83uwqckkvxp9gfa0568uc48ggj7',
'gas': 6721900,
'gasPrice': 1000000000,
'nonce': 6055,
'shardID': 0,
'to': 'one1ngt7wj57ruz7kg4ejp7nw8z7z6640288ryckh9',
'toShardID': 0,
'value': 500000000000000000000
}
transaction.send_raw_transaction(signing.sign_transaction(tx, '01F903CE0C960FF3A9E68E80FF5FFC344358D80CE1C221C3F9711AF07F83A3BD').rawTransaction.hex(), test_net)

A similar approach can be followed for staking transactions

from pyhmy import staking_structures, staking_signinge
tx = {
  'chainId': 2,
 'delegatorAddress': 'one18t4yj4fuutj83uwqckkvxp9gfa0568uc48ggj7',
 'directive': staking_structures.Directive.CollectRewards,
 'gasLimit': 6721900,
 'gasPrice': 1,
 'nonce': 6056
}
transaction.send_raw_staking_transaction(staking_signing.sign_staking_transaction(tx, private_key = '01F903CE0C960FF3A9E68E80FF5FFC344358D80CE1C221C3F9711AF07F83A3BD').rawTransaction.hex(), test_net)

Contracts

from pyhmy import contract
from pyhmy.util import convert_one_to_hex
contract_addr = 'one1rcs4yy4kln53ux60qdeuhhvpygn2sutn500dhw'

Call a contract without saving state

from pyhmy import numbers
result = contract.call(convert_one_to_hex(contract_addr), 'latest', value=hex(int(numbers.convert_one_to_atto(5)))
, gas_price=hex(1), gas=hex(100000), endpoint=test_net)

Estimate gas required for a smart contract call

estimated_gas = contract.estimate_gas(convert_one_to_hex(contract_addr), endpoint=test_net)

Fetch the byte code of the contract

byte_code = contract.get_code(convert_one_to_hex(contract_addr), 'latest', endpoint=test_net)

Get storage in the contract at key

storage = contract.get_storage_at(convert_one_to_hex(contract_addr), key='0x0', block_num='latest', endpoint=test_net)

Calling a function on a contract needs the contract ABI. The ABI can be obtained by compiling the contract.

from web3 import Web3
from web3 import providers
from pyhmy.util import convert_one_to_hex
contract_abi = '[{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"manager","outputs":[{"name":"","type":"address"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[],"name":"pickWinner","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"getPlayers","outputs":[{"name":"","type":"address[]"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[],"name":"enter","outputs":[],"payable":true,"stateMutability":"payable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"name":"","type":"uint256"}],"name":"players","outputs":[{"name":"","type":"address"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"constructor"}]'
w3 = Web3(providers.HTTPProvider(test_net))
lottery = w3.eth.contract(abi=contract_abi, address=convert_one_to_hex('one1rcs4yy4kln53ux60qdeuhhvpygn2sutn500dhw'))
lottery.functions.getPlayers().call()

To actually participate in a contract, you can sign a transaction from your account to it.

from pyhmy import signing
contract_addr = 'one1rcs4yy4kln53ux60qdeuhhvpygn2sutn500dhw'
tx = {
 'chainId': 2,
 'from': 'one18t4yj4fuutj83uwqckkvxp9gfa0568uc48ggj7',
 'gas': 6721900,
 'gasPrice': 1000000000,
 'nonce': 6054,
 'shardID': 0,
 'to': contract_addr,
 'toShardID': 0,
 'value': 500000000000000000000
}
tx_hash = transaction.send_raw_transaction(signing.sign_transaction(tx, '01F903CE0C960FF3A9E68E80FF5FFC344358D80CE1C221C3F9711AF07F83A3BD').rawTransaction.hex(), test_net)

To deploy a contract, sign a transaction from your account without a to field and with the byte code as data and send it.

from pyhmy import signing
from pyhmy import transaction
contract_tx = {
 'chainId': 2,	# test net data
 'data': '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', 	# Migrations.sol
 'from': 'one18t4yj4fuutj83uwqckkvxp9gfa0568uc48ggj7',
 'gas': 6721900,
 'gasPrice': 1000000000,
 'nonce': 6049,
 'shardID': 0,
 'toShardID': 0
}
ctx_hash = transaction.send_raw_transaction(signing.sign_transaction(contract_tx, private_key = '01F903CE0C960FF3A9E68E80FF5FFC344358D80CE1C221C3F9711AF07F83A3BD').rawTransaction.hex(), test_net)
# the below may be need a time gap before the transaction reaches the chain
contract_address = transaction.get_transaction_receipt(ctx_hash, test_net)['contractAddress']

Signing transactions

from pyhmy import signing

Create a transaction_dict with the parameters, and supply your private key to sign (but not submit) a transaction. A signed transaction can be submitted using transaction.sendRawTransaction.

transaction_dict = {
        'nonce': 2,
        'gasPrice': 1,
        'gas': 100,             # signing.py uses Ether, which by default calls it gas
        'to': '0x14791697260e4c9a71f18484c9f997b308e59325',
        'value': 5,
        'shardID': 0,
        'toShardID': 1,
        'chainId': 'HmyMainnet'
    }
signed_tx = signing.sign_transaction(transaction_dict, private_key = '4edef2c24995d15b0e25cbd152fb0e2c05d3b79b9c2afd134e6f59f91bf99e48')
signed_hash = signed_tx.rawTransaction.hex()

For a transaction with is Ethereum-like, the shardID and toShardID are optional, which implies that the transaction is not cross-shard.

transaction_dict = {
        'nonce': 2,
        'gasPrice': 1,
        'gas': 100,             # signing.py uses Ether, which by default calls it gas
        'to': '0x14791697260e4c9a71f18484c9f997b308e59325',
        'value': 5,
    }
signed_tx = signing.sign_transaction(transaction_dict, private_key = '4edef2c24995d15b0e25cbd152fb0e2c05d3b79b9c2afd134e6f59f91bf99e48')
signed_hash = signed_tx.rawTransaction.hex()

The chainId parameter is also optional, and according to Ethereum, it should not be passed if "you want a transaction that can be replayed across networks." A full list of the possible values of chainId is provided below. You can pass either the str or the int. The RPC API may, however, reject the transaction, which is why it is recommended to pass either 1 or 2 for mainnet and testnet respectively.

Default = 0,
EthMainnet = 1,
Morden = 2,
Ropsten = 3,
Rinkeby = 4,
RootstockMainnet = 30,
RootstockTestnet = 31,
Kovan = 42,
EtcMainnet = 61,
EtcTestnet = 62,
Geth = 1337,
Ganache = 0,
HmyMainnet = 1,
HmyTestnet = 2,
HmyLocal = 2,
HmyPangaea = 3,

Signing staking transactions

from pyhmy import staking_structures, staking_signing

To sign a transaction to collect rewards, supply the dictionary containing the delegatorAddress and the private key.

transaction_dict = {
    'directive': staking_structures.Directive.CollectRewards,
    'delegatorAddress': 'one1a0x3d6xpmr6f8wsyaxd9v36pytvp48zckswvv9',
    'nonce': 2,
    'gasPrice': 1,
    'gasLimit': 100,
}
signed_tx = staking_signing.sign_staking_transaction(transaction_dict, private_key = '4edef2c24995d15b0e25cbd152fb0e2c05d3b79b9c2afd134e6f59f91bf99e48')

To sign a transaction to delegate or undelegate, supply the dictionary containing the delegatorAddress, the validatorAddress, the amount to delegate or undelegate, and the private key.

transaction_dict = {
        'directive': staking_structures.Directive.Delegate,
        'delegatorAddress': 'one1a0x3d6xpmr6f8wsyaxd9v36pytvp48zckswvv9',
        'validatorAddress': 'one1xjanr7lgulc0fqyc8dmfp6jfwuje2d94xfnzyd',
        'amount': 5,
        'nonce': 2,
        'gasPrice': 1,
        'gasLimit': 100,
    }
signed_tx = staking_signing.sign_staking_transaction(transaction_dict, '4edef2c24995d15b0e25cbd152fb0e2c05d3b79b9c2afd134e6f59f91bf99e48')
transaction_dict = {
        'directive': staking_structures.Directive.Undelegate,
        'delegatorAddress': 'one1a0x3d6xpmr6f8wsyaxd9v36pytvp48zckswvv9',
        'validatorAddress': 'one1xjanr7lgulc0fqyc8dmfp6jfwuje2d94xfnzyd',
        'amount': 5,
        'nonce': 2,
        'gasPrice': 1,
        'gasLimit': 100,
    }
signed_tx = staking_signing.sign_staking_transaction(transaction_dict, '4edef2c24995d15b0e25cbd152fb0e2c05d3b79b9c2afd134e6f59f91bf99e48')

For validator-related transactions, see the section on the Validator class.

Keeping your private key safe

You need eth-keyfile installed

pip install eth-keyfile

In a Python shell, you can save or load the key into / from a key file.

import eth_keyfile
from eth_utils import to_bytes, to_hex
import json
keyfile = eth_keyfile.create_keyfile_json(to_bytes(hexstr='01F903CE0C960FF3A9E68E80FF5FFC344358D80CE1C221C3F9711AF07F83A3BD'), b'password')
with open('keyfile.json', 'w+') as outfile:
    json.dump(keyfile, outfile)

private_key = to_hex(eth_keyfile.extract_key_from_keyfile('keyfile.json', b'password'))[2:].upper()

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