Transpile Python to nuXmv source code

pynuXmv

pynuXmv is a small utility capable of transpiling a subset of Python to nuXmv specification code.

Installation

pynuXmv requires nuXmv 2.0.0 (but should work with any version >= 2.0.0) and python >=3.8.

To install it,

pip install pynuxmv


Execution

From a shell, launch:

pynuXmv <python_fname> <nuxmv_out_fname>


This will transpile python_fname and save the result into nuxmv_out_fname.

Examples

See tests/ folder for examples.

A simple one:

from pynuxmv.main import *

a = 0
b = 0
while (a + b < 2):
if b == 0 and a == 1:
b = 1
else:
if b == 1 and a == 1:
b = 0
if a == 1:
a = 0
else:
a = 1

ltlspec("F (a = 1 & b = 1)")
ltlspec("(a = 0 & b = 0) -> F (a = 1 & b = 0)")
ltlspec("(a = 1 & b = 0) -> F (a = 0 & b = 1)")
ltlspec("(a = 0 & b = 1) -> F (a = 1 & b = 1)")


is converted into:

MODULE main

VAR
a: integer;
b: integer;
line: integer;

ASSIGN
init(a) := 0;
init(b) := 0;
init(line) := 1;

next(line) := case
line = 8 & b = 1 & a = 1: line + 1; -- if(True)
line = 8: 11;                       -- if(False)
line = 5 & b = 0 & a = 1: line + 1; -- if(True)
line = 6: 12; -- end if(True)
line = 5: 8;  -- else
line = 12 & a = 1: line + 1; -- if(True)
line = 13: 17;               -- end if(True)
line = 12: 15;               -- else
line = 4 & a + b < 2: line + 1; -- while(True)
line = 4:  18; -- while(False)
line = 17: 4;  -- loop while
line = 21: 21;
TRUE: line + 1;
esac;

next(a) := case
line = 13: 0;
line = 15: 1;
TRUE: a;
esac;

next(b) := case
line = 6: 1;
line = 9: 0;
TRUE: b;
esac;

LTLSPEC F (a = 1 & b = 1);
LTLSPEC (a = 0 & b = 0) -> F (a = 1 & b = 0);
LTLSPEC (a = 1 & b = 0) -> F (a = 0 & b = 1);
LTLSPEC (a = 0 & b = 1) -> F (a = 1 & b = 1);


This nuXmv file can be run with:

nuXmv -source cmd_ltl <filename>


where cmd_ltl (or, for invariant checking, the equivalent cmd_invar) can be found in this repository.

Limitations

Up to now, this simple script has many limitations:

• Limited support for for construct (only with numeric range()s)
• No support for python types other than int,bool and non-nested list (list support is still very experimental)
• No support for higher structures (i.e. function calls, classes...)
• No support for concurrent execution and/or nuXmv modules

I hope to be able to work on some of these issues in the (near) future.

Also, take a look at the TODO.md file for other thing that can (not) be done up to now.

Basic tutorial

The following assumes that you are examining a portion of "self-contained" code (ie. code that doesn't reference variables and/or functions defined outside of such portion) that is within the limitations listed before.

Let's look at an example:

... (other code) ...
start_nuxmv()

b: bool = False
x = 0

while (x < 10 and not b):
x += 1

ltlspec("F x = 10")
invarspec("!b")

end_nuxmv()
... (other code) ...


Let's notice some things:

• The block of code that we want to isolate and test is enclosed within two functions, start_nuxmv() and end_nuxmv(). These functions do nothing, they are just placeholders. There can be as many of these functions as you like, but they should not be nested.

• b is a boolean; this information needs to be specified in order to distinguish it from an integer, the default type assumed by pynuxmv.

• At the end of the block you specify the conditions you want your program to comply with. These can be of two kinds, LTL formulas (ltlspec) or invariants (invarspec). More informations on LTL can be found on wikipedia.

• Finally: how do you test this portion of code? You simply run pynuXmv with the name of the source .py file to analyze and with the file name of the resulting nuXmv source code. You then launch nuXmv on these latter file, with an appropriate commands file (such as unify, which you can find in this repository).

Another examples: postconditions

Let's look at another example:

from pynuxmv.main import *

x = 0
y = 1
l: list = [1,2,3]
while (y < 10):
x += 1
y += 1
l[2] = l[2] + x

postcondition("y = 10", False)
postcondition("x = 9", False)
postcondition("l[2] = 48", True)

• l is a list, and must be annotated as such. Here is a simple example of basically everything that you can do with lists so far (not much!)

• The postcondition(s: str, strong: bool) function specifies a condition that needs to be satisfied after the last line of code. The function is accompained by the strong flag: basically, nuXmv is not always capable of establishing whether a formula is true or false; if this is the case, enabling the strong flag will build a "stronger" condition in which previous postconditions are taken as premises; this may or may not help nuXmv in its judgments. In this example, the three postconditions will generate the following formulae:

  INVARSPEC line = 7 -> y = 10;
INVARSPEC line = 7 -> x = 9;
INVARSPEC ((line = 7 -> y = 10) & (line = 7 -> x = 9) ) -> (line = 7 -> l[2] = 48);


Of course, bear in mind that if one of the premises is false the strong postcondition will be trivially true!

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