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Creates paradigms from a table of entries with parameters.

Project description


Creates paradigms from a table of entries with parameters.

Getting started

pip install pyradigms


There are two separate methods; create_hash creates a three-dimensional dictionary from a .csv file with a list of forms with parameters, print_paradigms creates human-readable paradigms, also in .csv format, from such a dictionary. Both methods can be used on their own, but dictionaries produced by create_hash will automatically be used by print_paradigms. Example usage:

from pyradigms import Pyradigms
pd = Pyradigms("output.csv")
pd.create_hash("input.csv",x=["X"] ,y=["Y"] ,z=["Z"])


The print_paradigms method takes an argument tables, which is a three-dimensional dictionary, and prints them to the specified .csv output file. If no tables argument is passed, the dictionary created by create_hash will be used. Take the following dictionary of Bernese German verb forms as an example. It has three dimensions, the first being the meaning of the verb, the second being number, and the third being person.

bernese_verbs = {"to go": {
    "SG": {"1": "kɑː",
        "2": "kɛjʃ",
        "3": "kɛjtː"},
    "PL": {"1": "kœː",
}, "to say": {
    "SG": {"1": "sækə",
        "2": "sɛjʃ",
        "3": "sɛjtː"},
    "PL": {"1": "sækə",

With print_paradigms(bernese_verbs), a .csv file with the following content is produced:

to go 1 2 3
SG kɑː kɛjʃ kɛjtː
PL kœː kœːtː kœː
to say 1 2 3
SG sækə sɛjʃ sɛjtː
PL sækə sækətː sækə

In the .csv file, The first layer of the three-dimensional hash is represented in the z dimension, i.e. paradigm tables stacked vertically, the second layer is represented in the y axis of the individual tables, and the third layer is represented in the x axis.


The create_hash method reads entries from a .csv file and produces a dictionary like the one above. The .csv file should have the following format, again illustrated with the Bernese German forms:

Verb Number Person Form
to go SG 1 kɑː
to go SG 2 kɛjʃ
to go SG 3 kɛjtː
to go PL 1 kœː
to go PL 2 kœːtː
to go PL 3 kœː
to say SG 1 sækə
to say SG 2 sɛjʃ
to say SG 3 sɛjtː
to say PL 1 sækə
to say PL 2 sækətː
to say PL 3 sækə

In order to specify what parameter should be projected onto which dimension, the arguments x, y, and z must be passed. They each take a list of strings, the strings being parameters present in the .csv file. z represents the multiple paradigm tables listed vertically. y represents the rows of a single paradigm table. x represents the columns of a single paradigm table. The Form values are what is actually printed in the cells. Thus, with the following command, the example dictionary above is created from the example .csv structure above:

    x = ["Verb"],
    y = ["Number"],
    z = ["Person"]

The resulting dictionary can then be printed to a paradigm table with pyradigms.print_paradigms().

When multiple strings are given for one dimension, the parameters are combined in the resulting paradigm. This is useful when there are more than three parameters one wants to represent. For example, the file examples/latin_verbs.csv has the columns Form Person Number Tense Verb Mood. It would make sense to combine person and number, as well as tense and mood. A separate paradigm should be produced for each verb. This is achieved with the following command:

    x = ["Person", "Number"],
    y = ["Tense", "Mood"],
    z = ["Verb"]

This results in the following paradigm list:

portaːre 1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL
PRS:IND portoː portaːs portat portaːmus portaːtis portant
PST.IPFV:IND portaːbam portaːbaːs portaːbat portaːbaːmus portaːbaːtis portaːbant
FUT:IND portaːboː portaːbis portaːbit portaːbimus portaːbitis portaːbunt
PRS:SUBJ portem porteːs portet porteːmus porteːtis portent
PST.IPFV:SUBJ portaːrem portaːreːs portaːret portaːreːmus portaːreːtis portaːrent
terːeːre 1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL
PRS:IND terːeoː terːeːs terːet terːeːmus terːeːtis terːent
PST.IPFV:IND terːeːbam terːeːbaːs terːeːbat terːeːbaːmus terːeːbaːtis terːeːbant
FUT:IND terːeːboː terːeːbis terːeːbit terːeːbimus terːeːbitis terːeːbunt
PRS:SUBJ terːream terːeaːs terːeat terːeaːmus terːeaːtis terːeant
PST.IPFV:SUBJ terːeːrem terːeːres terːeret terːeːreːmus terːeːreːtis terːeːrent
petere 1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL
PRS:IND petoː petis petit petimus petitis petunt
PST.IPFV:IND peteːbam peteːbas peteːbat peteːbaːmus peteːbaːtis peteːbant
FUT:IND petam peteːs petet peteːmus peteːtis petent
PRS:SUBJ petam petaːs petat petaːmus petaːtis petant
PST.IPFV:SUBJ peteːbar peteːbaːris; peteːbaːre peteːbaːtur peteːbaːmus peteːbaːminiː peteːbaːtur

It is also possible to specify a value for a given parameter, using the filtered_parameters argument, which takes a dictionary. Only forms with that value will then be represented in the resulting paradigm(s). For example, to only print indicative forms of the Latin verbs, the following command would be used:

    x = ["Person", "Number"],
    y = ["Tense"],
    z = ["Verb"],
    filtered_parameters = {"Mood": "IND"}

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