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Official Raygun provider for Python 2.7 and Python 3+

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Official Raygun provider for Python 2.7, Python 3+ and PyPy


The easiest way to install this is as a pip package, as it is available from PyPI. From your command line, run:

$ pip install raygun4py

Then import and instantiate the module:

from raygun4py import raygunprovider

client = raygunprovider.RaygunSender('your_apikey')

Test the installation

From the command line, run:

$ raygun4py test your_apikey

Replace your_apikey with the one listed on your Raygun dashboard. This will cause a test exception to be generated and sent.


Automatically send the current exception like this:

    raise Exception("foo")

See sending functions for more ways to send.

Uncaught exception handler

To automatically pick up unhandled exceptions with custom logic, you can provide a callback function to sys.excepthook:

def handle_exception(exc_type, exc_value, exc_traceback):
    sender = raygunprovider.RaygunSender("your_apikey")
    sender.send_exception(exc_info=(exc_type, exc_value, exc_traceback))

sys.excepthook = handle_exception


You can also send exceptions using a logger:

logger = logging.getLogger("mylogger")
rgHandler = raygunprovider.RaygunHandler("your_apikey")

def log_exception(exc_type, exc_value, exc_traceback):
    logger.error("An exception occurred", exc_info = (exc_type, exc_value, exc_traceback))

sys.excepthook = log_exception

This uses the built-in RaygunHandler. You can provide your own handler implementation based on that class if you need custom sending behavior.

Web frameworks

Raygun4py includes dedicated middleware implementations for Django and Flask, as well as generic WSGI frameworks (Tornado, Bottle, Ginkgo etc). These are available for both Python 2.6/2.7 and Python 3+.


To configure Django to automatically send all exceptions that are raised in views to Raygun:


    'api_key': 'paste_your_api_key_here'

The above configuration is the minimal required setup. The full set of options supported by the provider can be declared in the same way:

    'api_key': 'paste_your_api_key_here',
    'http_timeout': 10.0,
    'proxy': None,
    'before_send_callback': None,
    'grouping_key_callback': None,
    'filtered_keys': [],
    'ignored_exceptions': [],
    'transmit_global_variables': True,
    'transmit_local_variables': True,
    'transmit_environment_variables:': True,
    'userversion': "Not defined",
    'user': None


from flask import Flask, current_app
from raygun4py.middleware import flask

app = Flask(__name__)

flask.Provider(app, 'your_apikey').attach()


An example using Tornado, which will pick up exceptions that occur in the WSGI pipeline:

from raygun4py.middleware import wsgi

class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):

  def initialize(self):
      raise Exception('init')

def main():
  settings = {
      'default_handler_class': MainHandler

  application = tornado.web.Application([
      (r"/", MainHandler),
  ], **settings)

  wsgiapp = tornado.wsgi.WSGIAdapter(application)
  raygun_wrapped_app = wsgi.Provider(wsgiapp, 'your_apikey')
  server = wsgiref.simple_server.make_server('', 8888, raygun_wrapped_app)

Note that many frameworks (tornado, pryramid, gevent et al) will swallow exceptions that occur within their domain.

Let us know if we’re missing middleware for your framework, or feel free to submit a pull request.

Attaching raw HTTP request data

If you are in a web server environment and have HTTP request details available, you can pass these and the headers through in a dictionary (see

Code running on Google App Engine should now be supported - you can test this locally, and has been reported working once deployed (the latter currently requires a paid account due to needed SSL support).


Initialization options

RaygunSender accepts a config dict which is used to set options for the provider (the defaults are shown below):

from raygun4py import raygunprovider

client = raygunprovider.RaygunSender('your_apikey', config={
    'http_timeout': 10.0,
    'proxy': None,
    'before_send_callback': None,
    'grouping_key_callback': None,
    'filtered_keys': [],
    'ignored_exceptions': [],
    'transmit_global_variables': True,
    'transmit_local_variables': True,
    'transmit_environment_variables:': True,
    'userversion': "Not defined",
    'user': None

For the local/global/environment variables, if their options are set to False the corresponding variables will not be sent with exception payloads.

httpTimeout controls the maximum time the HTTP request can take when POSTing to the Raygun API, and is of type ‘float’.

Sending functions

Function Arguments Type
send_exception exception Exception
exc_info 3-tuple
tags List
userCustomData Dict
httpRequest Dict

All parameters are optional.

Call this function from within a catch block to send the current exception to Raygun:

# Automatically gets the current exception
httpResult = client.send_exception()

# Uses the supplied sys.exc_info() tuple
httpResult = client.send_exception(exc_info=sys.exc_info())

# Uses a supplied Exception object
httpResult = client.send_exception(exception=exception)

# Send tags, custom data and an HTTP request object
httpResult = client.send_exception(tags=[], userCustomData={}, request={})

You can pass in either of these two exception params:

  • exception should be a subclass of type Exception. Pass this in if you want to manually transmit an exception object to Raygun.
  • exc_info should be the 3-tuple returned from sys.exc_info(). Pass this tuple in if you wish to use it in other code aside from send_exception().

send_exception also supports the following extra data parameters:

  • tags is a list of tags relating to the current context which you can define.
  • userCustomData is a dict containing custom key-values also of your choosing.
  • httpRequest is HTTP Request data - see for the expected format of the object.

Config and data functions

Function Arguments Type
filter_keys keys List

If you want to filter sensitive data out of the payload that is sent to Raygun, pass in a list of keys here. Any matching keys on the top level Raygun message object, or within dictionaries on the top level Raygun message object (including dictionaries nested within dictionaries) will have their value replaced with <filtered> - useful for passwords, credit card data etc. Supports * at the end of a key to indicate you want to filter any key that contains that key, ie foo_* will filter foo_bar, foo_qux, foo_baz etc

Function Arguments Type
ignore_exceptions exceptions List

Provide a list of exception types to ignore here. Any exceptions that are passed to send_exception that match a type in this list won’t be sent.

Function Arguments Type
on_before_send callback Function

You can mutate the candidate payload by passing in a function that accepts one parameter using this function. This allows you to completely customize what data is sent, immediately before it happens.

Function Arguments Type
on_grouping_key callback Function

Pass a callback function to this method to configure custom grouping logic. The callback should take one parameter, an instance of RaygunMessage, and return a string between 1 and 100 characters in length (see ‘Custom Grouping Logic’ below for more details).

Function Arguments Type
set_proxy host String
port Integer

Call this function if your code is behind a proxy and want Raygun4py to make the HTTP request to the Raygun endpoint through it.

Function Arguments Type
set_version version String

Call this to attach a SemVer version to each message that is sent. This will be visible on the dashboard and can be used to filter exceptions to a particular version, deployment tracking etc.

Function Arguments Type
set_user user_info Dict

Customer data can be passed in which will be displayed in the Raygun web app. The dict you pass in should look this this:

    'firstName': 'Foo',
    'fullName': 'Foo Bar',
    'email': '',
    'isAnonymous': False,
    'identifier': ''

identifier should be whatever unique key you use to identify customers, for instance an email address. This will be used to create the count of affected customers. If you wish to anonymize it, you can generate and store a UUID or hash one or more of their unique login data fields, if available.

Custom grouping logic

You can create custom exception grouping logic that overrides the automatic Raygun grouping by passing in a function that accepts one parameter using this function. The callback’s one parameter is an instance of RaygunMessage (python[2/3]/, and the callback should return a string.

The RaygunMessage instance contains all the error and state data that is about to be sent to the Raygun API. In your callback you can inspect this RaygunMessage, hash together the fields you want to group by, then return a string which is the grouping key.

This string needs to be between 1 and 100 characters long. If the callback is not set or the string isn’t valid, the default automatic grouping will be used.

By example:

class MyClass(object):

    def my_callback(self, raygun_message):
        return raygun_message.get_error().message[:100] # Use naive message-based grouping only

    def create_raygun_and_bind_callback(self):
        sender = raygunprovider.RaygunSender('api_key')

The RaygunSender above will use the my_callback to execute custom grouping logic when an exception is raised. The above logic will use the exception message only - you’ll want to use a more sophisticated approach, usually involving sanitizing or ignoring data.

Chained exceptions

For Python 3, chained exceptions are supported and automatically sent along with their traceback.

This occurs when an exception is raised while handling another exception - see for an example.


To see the HTTP response code from sending the message to raygun, print client.send() (as in line 27 of It will be 403 if an invalid API key was entered, and 202 if successful.

Create a thread in the official support forums at, and we’ll help you out.

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