AWS4 authentication for Requests
Amazon Web Services version 4 authentication for the Python Requests library.
- Requests authentication for all AWS services that support AWS auth v4
- Independent signing key objects
- Automatic regeneration of keys when scope date boundary is passed
- Support for STS temporary credentials
Implements header-based authentication, GET URL parameter and POST parameter authentication are not supported.
This package has been tested as working against:
AppStream, AppSync, Auto-Scaling, CloudFormation, CloudFront, CloudHSM, CloudSearch, CloudTrail, CloudWatch Monitoring, CloudWatch Logs, CodeDeploy, Cognito Identity, Cognito Sync, Config, DataPipeline, Direct Connect, DynamoDB, Elastic Beanstalk, ElastiCache, EC2, EC2 Container Service, Elastic Load Balancing, Elastic MapReduce, ElasticSearch, Elastic Transcoder, Glacier, Identity and Access Management (IAM), Key Management Service (KMS), Kinesis, Lambda, Opsworks, Redshift, Relational Database Service (RDS), Route 53, Simple Storage Service (S3), Simple Notification Service (SNS), Simple Queue Service (SQS), Storage Gateway, Security Token Service (STS)
The following services do not support AWS auth version 4 and are not usable with this package:
Simple Email Service (SES), Simple Workflow Service (SWF), Import/Export, SimpleDB, DevPay, Mechanical Turk
The AWS Support API has not been tested as it requires a premium subscription.
In the 1.x semantic versions, the minimum python support will be gradually raised:
- 1.0.x: Support python2.7 and python3.3+.
- 1.1.x: python2.7 is not supported, is best-effort. Support python3.3+.
- 1.2.x: Requires-Python will be set to python3.3+, explicitly removing earlier versions. python<3.7 is not supported, is best-effort.
- 1.3.x: Requires-Python will be set to python3.7+, explicitly removing earlier versions. (best-effort is TBD)
Install via pip:
$ pip install requests-aws4auth
requests-aws4auth requires the Requests library by Kenneth Reitz.
requests-aws4auth is tested on Python 2.7 and 3.5 and up.
Behaviour changes in 0.8
Version 0.8 introduces request date checking and automatic key regeneration behaviour as default. This has implications for sharing authentication objects between threads, and for storage of secret keys. See the relevant sections below for details. See also the discussion in GitHub issue #10.
>>> import requests >>> from requests_aws4auth import AWS4Auth >>> endpoint = 'http://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com' >>> auth = AWS4Auth('<ACCESS ID>', '<ACCESS KEY>', 'eu-west-1', 's3') >>> response = requests.get(endpoint, auth=auth) >>> response.text <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <ListAllMyBucketsResult xmlns="http://s3.amazonaws.com/doc/2006-03-01"> <Owner> <ID>bcaf1ffd86f461ca5fb16fd081034f</ID> <DisplayName>webfile</DisplayName> ...
This example would list your buckets in the
eu-west-1 region of the
Amazon S3 service.
STS Temporary Credentials
>>> from requests_aws4auth import AWS4Auth >>> auth = AWS4Auth('<ACCESS ID>', '<ACCESS KEY>', 'eu-west-1', 's3', session_token='<SESSION TOKEN>') ...
This example shows how to construct an AWS4Auth object for use with STS
temporary credentials. The
x-amz-security-token header is added with
the session token. Temporary credential timeouts are not managed -- in
case the temporary credentials expire, they need to be re-generated and
the AWS4Auth object re-constructed with the new credentials.
Dynamic STS Credentials using botocore RefreshableCredentials
>>> from requests_aws4auth import AWS4Auth >>> from botocore.session import Session >>> credentials = Session().get_credentials() >>> auth = AWS4Auth(region='eu-west-1', service='es', refreshable_credentials=credentials) ...
This example shows how to construct an AWS4Auth instance with automatically refreshing credentials, suitable for long-running applications using AWS IAM assume-role. The RefreshableCredentials instance is used to generate valid static credentials per-request, eliminating the need to recreate the AWS4Auth instance when temporary credentials expire.
If an HTTP request to be authenticated contains a
header, AWS will only accept the authorised request if the date in the
header matches the scope date of the signing key (see the AWS REST API date
From version 0.8 of requests-aws4auth, if the header date does not match
the scope date, an
AWS4Auth instance will automatically regenerate its
signing key, using the same scope parameters as the previous key except
for the date, which will be changed to match the request date. If a
request does not include a date, the current date is added to the
request in an
X-Amz-Date header, and the signing key is regenerated if
this differs from the scope date.
This means that
AWS4Auth now extracts and parses dates from the values
Date headers. Supported date formats are:
- RFC 7231 (e.g. Mon, 09 Sep 2011 23:36:00 GMT)
- RFC 850 (e.g. Sunday, 06-Nov-94 08:49:37 GMT)
- C time (e.g. Wed Dec 4 00:00:00 2002)
- Amz-Date format (e.g. 20090325T010101Z)
- ISO 8601 / RFC 3339 (e.g. 2009-03-25T10:11:12.13-01:00)
If either header is present but
AWS4Auth cannot extract a date because
all present date headers are in an unrecognisable format,
will delete any
Date headers present and replace with
X-Amz-Date header containing the current date. This behaviour
can be modified using the
raise_invalid_date keyword argument of the
Automatic key regeneration
If you do not want the signing key to be automatically regenerated when
a mismatch between the request date and the scope date is encountered,
use the alternative
StrictAWS4Auth class, which is identical to
AWS4Auth except that upon encountering a date mismatch it just raises
DateMismatchError. You can also use the
which mimics the
AWS4Auth behaviour prior to version 0.8 and just
signs and sends the request, whether the date matches or not. In this
case it is up to the calling code to handle an authentication failure
response from AWS caused by the date mismatch.
Secret key storage
To allow automatic key regeneration, the secret key is stored in the
AWS4Auth instance, in the signing key object. If you do not want this
to occur, instantiate the instance using an
AWS4Signing key which was
created with the
store_secret_key parameter set to False:
>>> sig_key = AWS4SigningKey(secret_key, region, service, date, False) >>> auth = StrictAWS4Auth(access_id, sig_key)
AWS4Auth class will then raise a
NoSecretKeyError when it
attempts to regenerate its key. A slightly more conceptually elegant way
to handle this is to use the alternative
StrictAWS4Auth class, again
instantiating it with an
AWS4SigningKey instance created with
store_secret_key = False.
If you share
AWS4Auth (or even
StrictAWS4Auth) instances between
threads you are likely to encounter problems. Because
instances may unpredictably regenerate their signing key as part of
signing a request, threads using the same instance may find the key
changed by another thread halfway through the signing process, which may
result in undefined behaviour.
It may be possible to rig up a workable instance sharing mechanism using
locking primitives and the
StrictAWS4Auth class, however this poor
author can't think of a scenario which works safely yet doesn't suffer
from at some point blocking all threads for at least the duration of an
HTTP request, which could be several seconds. If several requests come
in in close succession which all require key regenerations then the
system could be forced into serial operation for quite a length of time.
In short, it's probably best to create a thread-local instance of
AWS4Auth for each thread that needs to do authentication.
See the doctrings in
A test suite is included in the test folder.
The package passes all tests in the AWS auth v4
and contains tests against the supported live services. See docstrings
test/requests_aws4auth_test.py for details about running the tests.
Connection parameters are included in the tests for the AWS Support API, should you have access and want to try it. The documentation says it supports auth v4 so it should work if you have a subscription. Do pass on your results!
Unsupported AWS features / todo
- Currently does not support Amazon S3 chunked uploads
- Tests for new AWS services
- Requires Requests library to be present even if only using AWS4SigningKey
- Coherent documentation
Version release notes
- cut a branch on github
python3 -m pip install --user --upgrade setuptools wheel testresources twine
build and release, creds in
rm -f dist/*; \ python3 setup.py sdist bdist_wheel && \ python3 -m twine upload --repository testpypi dist/* && \ python3 -m twine upload --repository pypi dist/*
- secondary fix to query string ordering, documented in #49. It would fail with multiple values for the same key. Thanks @martinamps.
- fix minor deprecation warning in a regex.
- Added tests for #49 secondary fix for string ordering.
- query string ordering has been fixed. Documented in #21, fixed in #23. Thanks @zen4ever.
- test for spaces before calling shlex on them in
amz_norm_whitespace. shlex doesn't like to split whitespace on a string without whitespace, taking several orders of magnitude longer to parse through it. #35, thanks @noamkush.
refreshable_credentials, see #37, thanks @teemuy.
- Removed python2.7 support. Usage of py2.7 is not supported.
Requires-Pythonwill be set to py3.3+ in the next minor release.
- bump to proper X.Y.Z semver syntax
- bump project to stable (#33)
- add flake8 config
- convert docs to markdown
- Removed bundled six.py.
- Taken over ownership via PEP451; pypi issue here, successfully contacted Sam.
- remove sys path hacking from tests.
- Ensure they work now.
- Github Actions are in place for continuous integration.
- Allow longer flake8 line length in tests.
- Support for STS temporary credentials. Thanks to https://github.com/magdalene
- Tests for the STS temporary credentials functionality
AWS4SigningKey.amz_datedeprecation warning test
- Elastic MapReduce live service test no longer using deprecated DescribeJobFlows action
This version introduces some behaviour changes designed to reduce the legwork needed when a signing key goes out of date. This has implications for multithreading and secret key storage. See the README for further details.
- AWS4Auth class now checks request header date against signing key scope date, and automatically regenerates the signing key with the request date if they don't match
- Added exceptions module with new exceptions: RequestsAWS4AuthException, DateMismatchError, NoSecretKeyError, DateFormatError
- Added StrictAWS4Auth and PassiveAWS4Auth classes
regenerate_signing_key()method, to allow regeneration of current signing key with parameter overrides
- Added methods for checking and extracting dates from requests:
__call__()now checks for a date header in the request and attempts to automatically regenerate the signing key with the request date if request date differs from the signing key date
- Can now supply a date to the constructor
- Changed default included sig headers to include
Dateheader if present
- Added new
store_secret_keyinstantiation parameter which allows control of whether the secret key is stored in the instance
- Deprecated the
amz_dateproperty in favour of just
- Spelling typo fix in AWS4AuthSigningKey module docstring. Thanks to jhgorrell
- Dropped support for Python 3.2. Now only supported on Python 2.7 and 3.3 and up, to match versions supported by Requests.
- Many new tests for the new functionality
- Added tests for generating canonical path, including test for fix added in 0.7 for percent encoding of paths
- Added tests for generating canonical querystrings
- Fixed percent encoded characters in URL paths not being encoded again for signature generation, as is expected for all services except S3. This was causing authentication failures whenever these characters appeared in a URL. Thanks to ipartola and cristi23 for the report.
- Two bugfixes for ElasticSearch, thanks to Matthew Thompson for both:
- No longer setting body to
b''during signing if it's None
- Now stripping port from URL netloc for signature generation
- No longer setting body to
- Upgraded the included version of six.py to 1.10
- Fixed a couple of broken Unicode tests on Python 2
- Added a couple more tests for encoding Unicode request bodies
- Included HISTORY.rst in built package to fix pip source install failure. Thanks to Beirdo for the bug report.
- Fixed bug when uploading to S3 with x-amz-acl header which caused
authentication failure - headers used in signature are now: host,
content-type and all
x-amz-*headers (except for x-amz-client-context which breaks Mobile Analytics auth if included)
- Minor docstring and comment updates
- Changed content of LICENSE to vanilla MIT license
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