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Package for wrapping applications inside a tailored interactive shell.

Project description

riposte

Build Status License Version Python Code Style

Riposte allows you to easily wrap your application inside a tailored interactive shell. Common chores regarding building REPLs was factored out and being taken care of so you can really focus on specific domain logic of your application.

The motivation for building Riposte coming from many sleepless nights of handling numerous tricky cases regarding REPLs during routersploit development. Like every other project it began very innocently but after a while, when the project got some real traction and code base was rapidly growing, shell logic started to intertwine with domain logic making things less and less readable and contributor friendly.

Moreover, to our surprise, people started to fork routersploit not because they were interested in the security of embedded devices but simply because they want to leverage our interactive shell logic and build their own tools using similar concept. All these years they must have said: "There must be a better way!" and they were completely right, the better way is called Riposte.

Table of contents

Getting Started

Installing

The package is available on PyPI so please use pip to install it:

pip install riposte

Riposte supports Python 3.6 and newer.

Example usage

from riposte import Riposte

calculator = Riposte(prompt="calc:~$ ")

MEMORY = []


@calculator.command("add")
def add(x: int, y: int):
    result = f"{x} + {y} = {x + y}"
    MEMORY.append(result)
    calculator.success(result)


@calculator.command("multiply")
def multiply(x: int, y: int):
    result = f"{x} * {y} = {x * y}"
    MEMORY.append(result)
    calculator.success(result)


@calculator.command("memory")
def memory():
    for entry in MEMORY:
        calculator.print(entry)


calculator.run()
calc:~$ add 2 2
[+] 2 + 2 = 4
calc:~$ multiply 3 3
[+] 3 * 3 = 9
calc:~$ memory
2 + 2 = 4
3 * 3 = 9
calc:~$ 

Manual

Command

First and foremost you want to register some commands to make your REPL actionable. Adding command and bounding it with handling function is possible through Riposte.command decorator.

from riposte import Riposte

repl = Riposte()

@repl.command("hello")
def hello():
    repl.success("Is it me you looking for?")

repl.run()
riposte:~ $ hello
[+] Is it me you looking for?

Additionally Riposte.command accepts few optional parameters:

  • description few words describing command which you can later use to build meaningful help
  • guides definition of how to interpret passed arguments

Completer

Riposte comes with support for tab-completion for commands. You can register completer function in a similar way you registering commands, just use Riposte.complete decorator and point it to a specific command.

from riposte import Riposte

repl = Riposte()

START_SUBCOMMANDS = ["foo", "bar"]


@repl.command("start")
def start(subcommand: str):
    if subcommand in START_SUBCOMMANDS:
        repl.status(f"{subcommand} started")
    else:
        repl.error("Unknown subcommand.")


@repl.complete("start")
def start_completer(text, line, start_index, end_index):

    return [
        subcommand
        for subcommand in START_SUBCOMMANDS
        if subcommand.startswith(text)
    ]


repl.run()

Completer function is triggered by the TAB key. Every completer function should return list of valid options and should accept the following parameters:

  • text last word in the line
  • line content of the whole line
  • start_index starting index of the last word in the line
  • end_index ending index of the last word in the line

So in the case of our example:

riposte:~ $ start ba<TAB>

text -> "ba"
line -> "start ba"
start_index -> 6
end_index -> 8

Equipped with this information you can build your custom completer functions for every command.

Guides

Guides is a way of saying how command should interpret arguments passed by the user via prompt. Riposte rely on type-hints in order to do that.

from riposte import Riposte

repl = Riposte()

@repl.command("guideme")
def guideme(x: int, y: str):
    repl.print("x:", x, type(x))
    repl.print("y:", y, type(y))

repl.run()
riposte:~ $ guideme 1 1
x: 1 <class 'int'>
y: 1 <class 'str'>

In both cases we've passed value 1 as x and y. Based on parameter's type-hint passed arguments was interpreted as int in case of x and as str in case of y. You can also use this technique for different types.

from riposte import Riposte

repl = Riposte()

@repl.command("guideme")
def guideme(x: dict, y: list):
    x["foo"] = "bar"
    repl.print("x:", x, type(x))

    y.append("foobar")
    repl.print("y:", y, type(y))

repl.run()
riposte:~ $ guideme "{'bar': 'baz'}" "['barbaz']"
x: {'bar': 'baz', 'foo': 'bar'} <class 'dict'>
y: ['barbaz', 'foobar'] <class 'list'>

Another more powerful way of defining guides for handling function parameters is defining it straight fromRiposte.command decorator. In this case guide defined this way take precedence over the type hints.

from riposte import Riposte

repl = Riposte()

@repl.command("guideme", guides={"x": [int]})
def guideme(x):
    repl.print("x:", x, type(x))

repl.run()
riposte:~ $ guideme 1
x: 1 <class 'int'>

Why it is more powerful? Because this way you can chain different guides, where output of one guide is input for another, creating validation or cast input into more complex types.

from collections import namedtuple

from riposte import Riposte
from riposte.exceptions import RiposteException
from riposte.guides import literal

repl = Riposte()


def non_negative(value: int):
    if value < 0:
        raise RiposteException("Value can't be negative")

    return value


Point = namedtuple("Point", ("x", "y"))


def get_point(value: dict):
    return Point(**value)


@repl.command("guideme",
              guides={"x": [int, non_negative], "y": [literal, get_point]})
def guideme(x, y):
    repl.print("x:", x, type(x))
    repl.print("y:", y, type(y))


repl.run()
riposte:~ $ guideme -1 '{"x": 1, "y": 2}'
[-] Value can't be negative
riposte:~ $ guideme 1 '{"x": 1, "y": 2}'
x: 1 <class 'int'>
y: Point(x=1, y=2) <class '__main__.Point'>
riposte:~ $ 

Under the hood, it is a simple function call where the input string is passed to first guide function in the chain. In this case, the call looks like this:

non_negative(int("-1"))  # guide chain for parameter `x`
get_point(literal('{"x": 1, "y": 2}'))  # guide chain for parameter `y`

Printing

Riposte comes with built-in thread safe printing methods:

  • print
  • info
  • error
  • status
  • success

Every method follows the signature of Python's built-in print() function. Besides print all of them provide informative coloring corresponding to its name.

We strongly encourage to stick to our thread safe printing API but if you are feeling frisky, know what you are doing and you are 100% sure, that threaded execution is something that will never come up at some point in the lifecycle of you application feel free to use Python's built-in print() function.

Extending PrinterMixin

If you want to change the styling of existing methods or add custom one, please extend PrinterMixin class.

from riposte import Riposte
from riposte.printer.mixins import PrinterMixin


class ExtendedPrinterMixin(PrinterMixin):
    def success(self, *args, **kwargs):  # overwriting existing method
        self.print(*args, **kwargs)

    def shout(self, *args, **kwargs):  # adding new one
        self.print((*args, "!!!"), **kwargs)

class CustomRiposte(Riposte, ExtendedPrinterMixin):
    pass

repl = CustomRiposte()

@repl.command("foobar")
def foobar(message: str):
    repl.shout(message)

Customizing PrinterMixin

Not happy about existing printing API? No problem, you can also build your own from scratch using PrinterBaseMixin and its thread safe _print method.

from riposte import Riposte
from riposte.printer.mixins import PrinterBaseMixin


class CustomPrinterMixin(PrinterBaseMixin):
    def ask(self, *args, **kwargs):  # adding new one
        self._print((*args, "???"), **kwargs)

    def shout(self, *args, **kwargs):  # adding new one
        self._print((*args, "!!!"), **kwargs)

class CustomRiposte(Riposte, CustomPrinterMixin):
    pass

repl = CustomRiposte()

@repl.command("foobar")
def foobar(message: str):
    repl.shout(message)
    repl.ask(message)
    repl.success(message)  # It'll raise exception as it's no longer available

Coloring output with Pallete

If you feel like adding a few colors to the output you can always use Pallete.

from riposte import Riposte
from riposte.printer import Palette


repl = Riposte()


@repl.command("foo")
def foo(msg: str):
    repl.print(Palette.GREEN.format(msg))  # It will be green

Pallete goes with the following output formattings:

  • GREY
  • RED
  • GREEN
  • YELLOW
  • BLUE
  • MAGENTA
  • CYAN
  • WHITE
  • BOLD

History

Command history is stored in your HOME directory in .riposte file. The default length is 100 lines. Both settings can be changed using history_file and history_length parameters.

from pathlib import Path
from riposte import Riposte


repl = Riposte(
    history_file=Path.home() / ".custom_history_file", 
    history_length=500,
)

Prompt

The default prompt is riposte:~ $ but you can easily customize it:

from riposte import Riposte


repl = Riposte(prompt="custom-prompt >>> ")
repl.run()

You can also dynamically resolve prompt layout based on the state of some object simply by overwriting Riposte.prompt property. In the following example, we'll determine prompt based on MODULE value:

from riposte import Riposte


class Application:
    def __init__(self):
        self.module = None


class CustomRiposte(Riposte):
    @property
    def prompt(self):
        if app.module:
            return f"foo:{app.module} > "
        else:
            return self._prompt  # reference to `prompt` parameter.


app = Application()
repl = CustomRiposte(prompt="foo > ")


@repl.command("set")
def set_module(module_name: str):
    app.module = module_name
    repl.success("Module has been set.")


@repl.command("unset")
def unset_module():
    app.module = None
    repl.success("Module has been unset.")


repl.run()
foo > set bar
[+] Module has been set.
foo:bar > unset
[+] Module has been unset.
foo >

Banner

# banner.py

from riposte import Riposte

BANNER = """ _   _      _ _         _    _            _     _ _ 
| | | |    | | |       | |  | |          | |   | | |
| |_| | ___| | | ___   | |  | | ___  _ __| | __| | |
|  _  |/ _ \ | |/ _ \  | |/\| |/ _ \| '__| |/ _` | |
| | | |  __/ | | (_) | \  /\  / (_) | |  | | (_| |_|
\_| |_/\___|_|_|\___/   \/  \/ \___/|_|  |_|\__,_(_)
Welcome User Hello World v1.2.3
"""

repl = Riposte(banner=BANNER)


@repl.command("hello")
def hello():
    repl.print("Hello World!")


repl.run()
$ python banner.py
 _   _      _ _         _    _            _     _ _ 
| | | |    | | |       | |  | |          | |   | | |
| |_| | ___| | | ___   | |  | | ___  _ __| | __| | |
|  _  |/ _ \ | |/ _ \  | |/\| |/ _ \| '__| |/ _` | |
| | | |  __/ | | (_) | \  /\  / (_) | |  | | (_| |_|
\_| |_/\___|_|_|\___/   \/  \/ \___/|_|  |_|\__,_(_)
Welcome User Hello World v1.2.3

riposte:~ $

If for some reason you don't want to display banner (Maybe you have custom input stream?) you can set Riposte.print_banner attribute to False.

Inline command execution

Similarly to the bash if you delimit commands with semicolon you can trigger execution of multiple commands in one line.

riposte:~ $ hello; hello; hello
[+] Is it me you looking for?
[+] Is it me you looking for?
[+] Is it me you looking for?

Riposte also exposes CLI for your applications which gives you the ability to pass commands using -c switch:

$ python app.py -c "hello; hello; hello;"
[+] Is it me you looking for?
[+] Is it me you looking for?
[+] Is it me you looking for?
$ 

Given all of this, you can also start to treat your application as something that could be turned into automated scripts.

CLI

If you application needs custom CLI arguments Riposte gives you way to implement it by overwriting Riposte.setup_cli() method. Let's say you want to introduce --verbose flag into your application:

# custom_cli_args.py

from riposte import Riposte


class CustomArgsRiposte(Riposte):
    def setup_cli(self):
        super().setup_cli()  # preserve default Riposte CLI

        self.parser.add_argument(
            "-v", "--verbose", action="store_true", help="Verbose mode"
        )


repl = CustomArgsRiposte()


@repl.command("foo")
def foo(bar: str):
    repl.success("Foobar executed.")

    if repl.arguments.verbose:
        repl.success("Argument passed as bar: ", bar)


repl.run()
$ python custom_cli_args.py -v
riposte:~ $ foo 123
[+] Foobar executed.
[+] Argument passed as bar:  123
riposte:~ $ 

Riposte.parser is an instance of Python's builtin argparse.ArgumentParser so for all further instructions regarding adding CLI arguments please follow argparse documentation.

Passed arguments are being parsed in Riposte.run() and stored in Riposte.arguments so you can access it within your application. If you need to access them before entering the main evaluation loop you can overwrite Riposte.parse_cli_arguments()

from riposte import Riposte


class CustomArgsRiposte(Riposte):
    def setup_cli(self):
        super().setup_cli()  # preserve default Riposte CLI

        self.parser.add_argument(
            "-v", "--verbose", action="store_true", help="Verbose mode"
        )

    def parse_cli_arguments(self):
        super().parse_cli_arguments()  # preserve default Riposte CLI

        if self.arguments.verbose:
            do_something_specific()

Input streams

The input stream is an abstraction telling how you feed Riposte with commands. Right now you can use following ones out of the box.

Prompt

Default one which allows you input commands using the traditional prompt.

CLI

Riposte also exposes CLI for your applications which gives you the ability to pass commands using -c switch:

$ python app.py -c "hello; hello; hello;"
[+] Is it me you looking for?
[+] Is it me you looking for?
[+] Is it me you looking for?

File

You can also pass text file containing commands as an argument to your application:

# demo.py

from riposte import Riposte

repl = Riposte()

@repl.command("hello")
def hello():
    repl.print("Is it me you looking for?")

repl.run()

commands.rpst text file containing commands to be executed:

hello
hello
hello
$ python demo.py commands.rpst
[+] Is it me you looking for?
[+] Is it me you looking for?
[+] Is it me you looking for?

Adding custom input stream

If for some reason you need a custom way of feeding Riposte with commands you can always add your custom input stream. The input stream is a generator that yields function which after calling it returns a string (the command) Generator[Callable[[], str], None, None]. Let's say you are an evil genius and want to make your interactive shell application less interactive by feeding it with some kind of messaging system.

import itertools
from typing import Callable, Generator

from riposte import Riposte
from some.messaging.system import Subscriber


def some_messaging_system_input_stream(
    subscriber: Subscriber  # you can parametrize your input streams
) -> Generator[Callable, None, None]:
    # itertools.repeat() make sure that your input stream runs forever
    yield from itertools.repeat(subscriber.poll)  # calling poll() will return command


class CustomInputStreamRiposte(Riposte):
    def setup_cli(self):
        super().setup_cli()  # preserve default Riposte CLI

        self.parser.add_argument(
            "-h", "--host", help="Some messaging system address"
        )

    def parse_cli_arguments(self) -> None:
        super().parse_cli_arguments()  # preserve default Riposte CLI

        if self.arguments.host:
            subscriber = Subscriber(self.arguments.host)
            self.input_stream = some_messaging_system_input_stream(subscriber)
            self.print_banner = False  # I guess you don't want to print banner 

Project status

Riposte is under development. It might be considered to be in beta phase. There might be some breaking changes in the future although a lot of concepts present here was already battle-tested during routersploit development.

Contributing

Please read CONTRIBUTING.md for details on our code of conduct, and the process for submitting pull requests to us.

Versioning

Project uses SemVer versioning. For the versions available, see the releases.

License

Riposte is licensed under the MIT License - see the LICENSE file for details

Acknowledgments

Project details


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