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Salt plugin for interacting with network devices through NAPALM, without running Minions

Project description

# napalm-salt
Modules for Salt, to retrieve, control, enforce and update configuration of network devices

Salt Basics
===========

New to Salt? Check out [this document](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/tutorials/walkthrough.html) for a brief introduction to get up to speed on the basics.

Test Environment
================

Throughout the rest of this document, we'll set up a test environment to run some salt commands against routers. This test environment uses a vagrant VM running Ubuntu 16.04, which acts as a salt-master as well as a proxy-master, which establishes and maintains connections to the routers in order to execute commands on them.

Install Salt
============

The simplest way to install Salt is via [salt bootstrap](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/tutorials/salt_bootstrap.html). Here's an example of an installation:

```bash
wget -O bootstrap-salt.sh https://bootstrap.saltstack.com/develop
sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh
```

This will install the `salt-minion` and `salt-proxy` only, but we also want this box to be the `salt-master`, so we'll install that:

```bash
sudo sh bootstrap-salt.sh -M
```

For more specific installation instructions, see the [platform-specific instructions](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/installation/#platform-specific-installation-instructions) from the official Saltstack documentation.
Be aware to install the master distribution **from the PPA repo**, as on the local server will run as Master, controlling the devices as Proxy minions.

CentOS documentation can be found [here](centos_installation.md).

Install NAPALM
==============

If NAPALM has never been installed on your system it will need to be before napalm-salt can work:
```
sudo apt-get install libffi-dev libssl-dev python-dev python-cffi libxslt1-dev python-pip
sudo pip install --upgrade cffi
sudo pip install napalm-junos napalm-iosxr napalm-ios
```

The easy way: Salt users can install NAPALM through a single command, using the [napalm-install Saltstack formula](https://github.com/saltstack-formulas/napalm-install-formula). A more detailed usage example can be found at: https://mirceaulinic.net/2017-07-06-napalm-install-formula/.

Configure Salt Proxy (and Minion)
=================================

The main configuration file needed to make Salt run as proxy-master is located at `/etc/salt/proxy`. This file should already exist, though you may need to create it.

We need to tell the proxy process that the local machine is the `salt-master`, and to turn off multiprocessing. You can add the following to the top of your `/etc/salt/proxy` file:

```
master: localhost
multiprocessing: false
mine_enabled: true # not required, but nice to have
pki_dir: /etc/salt/pki/proxy # not required - this separates the proxy keys into a different directory
```

Additionally, you may want to edit the `/etc/salt/minion` file to point the master location to itself. This is not necessary, but it allows you to target the VM as a minion, in addition to the routers. Add this to the top of `/etc/salt/minion`:

```
master: localhost
```

Configure the connection with a device
======================================

The `master` config file is expecting pillar to be in `/srv/pillar`, but this directory probably doesn't exist, so create it:
```
mkdir -p /srv/pillar
```

To configure store the pillars in a different directory, see the [`pillar_roots`](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/configuration/master.html#pillar-roots) (and [`file_roots`](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/configuration/master.html#file-roots)) configuration options in the master configuration file (typically `/etc/salt/master` or `/srv/master` - depending on the operating system).

Next, we need to create a `top.sls` file in that directory, which tells the salt-master which minions receive which pillar. Create and edit the `/srv/pillar/top.sls` file and make it look like this:

```yaml
base:
[DEVICE_ID]:
- [DEVICE_SLS_FILENAME]
```

where:

- DEVICE_ID will be the name used to interact with the device, from the CLI of the server
- DEVICE_SLS_FILENAME is the name of the file containing the specifications of the device

Example:

```yaml
base:
router1:
- router1_pillar
```

where:

- router1 is the name used to interact with the device: `salt 'router1' test.ping`
- `/srv/pillar/router1_pillar.sls` is the file containing the specifications of this device

**Pay attention to this structure**: Notice that the `- router1_pillar` portion of the `top.sls` file is missing the `.sls` extension, even though this line is expecting to see a file in the same directory called `router1_pillar.sls`. In addtion, note that there should not be dots used when referencing the `.sls` file, as this will be interpreted as a directory structure. For example, if you had the line configured as `- router1.pillar`, salt would look in the `/srv/pillar` directory for a folder called `router1`, and then for a file in that directory called `pillar.sls`. One last thing - I'm referring to the pillar file as `router1_pillar` in this example to make it explicitly clear that the last line is referencing a pillar file, but it is more common to call the pillar file the name of the device itself, so:

```yaml
base:
router1:
- router1
```
Now that we've referenced this `router1_pillar` file, we need to create it and add the pillar. Create and edit the `/srv/pillar/router1_pillar.sls` file and add the following:

```yaml
proxy:
proxytype: napalm
driver: [DRIVER]
host: [HOSTNAME]
username: [USERNAME]
passwd: [PASSWORD]
```

where:

- DRIVER is the driver to be used when connecting to the device. For the complete list of supported operating systems, please check the [NAPALM readthedocs page](https://napalm.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#supported-network-operating-systems)
- HOSTNAME, USERNAME, PASSWORD are the connection details

Example ```router1_pillar.sls```:

```yaml
proxy:
proxytype: napalm
driver: iosxr
host: 192.168.128.128
username: my_username
passwd: my_password
```

*** NOTE: *** make sure the pillar is a valid YAML file!

Also, double check if you can connect to the device from the server, using the credentials provided in the pillar.

If the errors persist, run the following lines in a Python console and ask in the Slack channel [#saltstack](https://networktocode.slack.com/messages/saltstack/) in [network.toCode()](https://networktocode.herokuapp.com/):

```python
>>> from napalm_base import get_network_driver
>>> d = get_network_driver('DRIVER')
>>> e = d('HOSTNAME', 'USERNAME', 'PASSWORD', optional_args={'config_lock': False})
>>> e.open()
>>> e.get_facts()
>>> e.close()
```

For additional parameters, one can add them inside the `optional_args` field, e.g.:


```yaml
proxy:
proxytype: napalm
driver: ios
host: 192.168.128.128
username: my_username
passwd: ''
optional_args:
secret: sup3rsek3t
ssh_config_file: ~/custom_ssh_config_file
```

See [the list of optional arguments per driver](http://napalm.readthedocs.io/en/develop/support/index.html#list-of-supported-optional-arguments).

When authenticating using SSH key, the field `passwd` (or `password`, `pass`) can be blank, or can be removed from the pillar. However, note that not all drivers use SSH-based authentication. For example, Arista EOS and Cisco Nexus use HTTP-based APIs so the password is mandatory!

For more details regarding the pillar configuration see [the official documentation](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/proxy/all/salt.proxy.napalm.html) and [the network automation reference under Salt docs](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/topics/network_automation/index.html#napalm).


Start the Salt Services
=======================

```bash
systemctl start salt-master
systemctl restart salt-minion
```



Running the proxy minion as a service
=====================================

To configure the minion to run as a service create the file ```/etc/systemd/system/salt-proxy@.service``` with the following:

```
[Unit]
Description=Salt proxy minion
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=simple
ExecStart=/usr/bin/salt-proxy -l debug --proxyid=%i
User=root
Group=root
Restart=always
RestartPreventExitStatus=SIGHUP
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=default.target
```

Depending on how your salt master is installed the location of the ```salt-proxy``` binary may need to be changed. You can look up the location of the binary with the ```which salt-proxy``` command. Also the logging level is set to debug with the ```-l debug``` switch. This is useful for troubleshooting however you may want to remove this.

Once the file is created and populated ```systemd``` will need to be reloaded with a ```systemctl daemon-reload``` to pick up the new unit. Do note that there may be an impact to reloading ```systemd``` so be careful.


Start the proxy minion for your device
======================================

Start with testing proxy minion:
```bash
sudo salt-proxy --proxyid=[DEVICE_ID] -l debug
```

On the first connection attempt you will find the that minion cannot talk and is stuck with the following error message:
```
[ERROR ] The Salt Master has cached the public key for this node, this salt minion will wait for 10 seconds before attempting to re-authenticate
[INFO ] Waiting 10 seconds before retry.
```
This is normal and is due to the salt key from the minion not being accepted by the master. Quit the minion with <kbd>CTRL</kbd>+<kbd>C</kbd> and run ```sudo salt-key```. Under ```Unaccepted Keys:``` you should see your ```[DEVICE_ID]```. Accept the key with ```sudo salt-key -a [DEVICE_ID]```. Now rerun the minion debug and you should see the minion connecting to your device.


Test your configuration
=======================

Once the key has been accepted, restart the proxy in debug mode and start a separate terminal session. In your new terminal, issue the following command:
```
sudo salt 'core01.nrt01' test.ping
```
Substitute your DEVICE_ID for 'core01.nrt01'. Output:
```
core01.nrt01:
True
```
It should return `True` if there are no problems. If everything checks out, hit <kbd>CTRL</kbd>+<kbd>C</kbd> and restart salt-proxy as a daemon.
```
sudo salt-proxy --proxyid=[DEVICE_ID] -d
```
Finally, sync your packages:
```
sudo salt core01.nrt01 saltutil.sync_all
```
As before, where 'core01.nrt01' is your DEVICE_ID.


Start using Salt
================

Everything is setup now, you need just to start issuing commands to retieve/set properties.

Syntax:

```bash
salt [DEVICE_ID] [FUNCTION]
```

For the updated list of functions, check the following resources:
- [net](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.napalm_network.html#module-salt.modules.napalm_network) module
- [ntp](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.napalm_ntp.html#module-salt.modules.napalm_ntp) module
- [bgp](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.napalm_bgp.html#module-salt.modules.napalm_bgp) module
- [snmp](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.napalm_snmp.html#module-salt.modules.napalm_snmp) module
- [route](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.napalm_route.html#module-salt.modules.napalm_route) module
- [users](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.napalm_users.html#module-salt.modules.napalm_users) module
- [probes](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.napalm_probes.html#module-salt.modules.napalm_probes) module

Few examples:

```bash
salt core01.nrt01 net.arp
salt core01.nrt01 net.mac
salt core01.nrt01 net.lldp
salt core01.nrt01 net.ipaddrs
salt core01.nrt01 net.interfaces
salt core01.nrt01 ntp.peers
salt core01.nrt01 ntp.set_peers 192.168.0.1 172.17.17.1 172.17.17.2
salt core01.nrt01 bgp.config # returns the BGP configuration
salt core01.nrt01 bgp.neighbors # provides statistics regarding the BGP sessions
salt core01.nrt01 snmp.config
salt core01.nrt01 route.show 1.2.3.4/24 bgp
salt core01.nrt01 probes.config
salt core01.nrt01 probes.results
salt core01.nrt01 net.commit
salt core01.nrt01 net.rollback
```

Configuration enforcement
=========================

To assure consistency across your network, [states](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/tutorials/starting_states.html) are your friend. To use a state is quite straight forwards when the module is already provided (examples in the next sections, for example [NTP](https://github.com/napalm-automation/napalm-salt#configuration-enforcement-for-ntp-peers-example)).
There are a couple of states already available, for:

- [NTP](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/states/all/salt.states.netntp.html)
- [SNMP](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/states/all/salt.states.netsnmp.html)
- [Users](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/states/all/salt.states.netusers.html)
- [Probes](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/develop/ref/states/all/salt.states.netntp.html)


Configuration enforcement for NTP peers (Example)
=================================================

In the Pillar file of the device append the following lines:

```yaml
ntp.peers:
- [PEER1]
- [PEER2]
- ...
```

Example:

```yaml
ntp.peers:
- 192.168.0.1
- 172.17.17.1
```

Now, when running the command below, Salt will check if on your device the NTP peers are setup as specified in the Pillar file. If not, will add the missing NTP peers and will remove the excess. Thus, at the end of the operation, the list of NTP peers configured on the device will match NTP peers listed in the Pillar.

```bash
salt core01.nrt01 state.sls router.ntp
```

Configuration enforcement for SNMP (Example)
============================================

In the pillar file of the device append the following lines:

```yaml
snmp.config:
contact: <email addr>
location: <location>
community: <community name>
```

Example:

```yaml
snmp.config:
contact: noc@yourcompany.com
location: San Jose, CA, US
community: super-safe
```

Executing the state as following, will update the SNMP configuration on your device:

```bash
salt core01.nrt01 state.sls router.snmp
```

Scheduled states: maintaining configuration updated
===================================================

Using the capabilities of the states and [the schedulers](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/states/all/salt.states.schedule.html#management-of-the-salt-scheduler) you can ensure the configuration on the device is consistent and up-to-date.

Yes, you don't need to jump in a box and manualluy execute a command or add aliases etc. 5 lines of config is all you need to write:

Example:

In the master config file:

```yaml
schedule:
ntp_config:
function: state.sls
args: router.ntp
returner: smtp
days: 1
```

Where:

- ```ntp_config``` is just the name of the scheduled job - can be anything
- ```function``` - this is how tell Salt that a state will be executed
- ```args``` - specify the name of the state
- ```returner``` (optional) - you can forward the output of the state to a different service. In this case SNMP - will send an email to a specific address with the summary of the state. There are [many other returners available](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/returners/#full-list-of-returners)
- ```days``` - how often to check & update the config. Other options are: ```seconds```, ```minutes```, ```hours``` etc...


Other modules:
==============

Salt comes with many flavours of modules - complete reference at [https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/index.html](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/index.html).

There are few other features, such [reactor](https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/reactor/). The reactor system allows you to execute commands after an event happened, based on its output.

Vagrant:
========
One can use the included Vagrantfile and saltstack directory to automatically provision a development/testing environment containing a salt
master/minion/proxy host and a vEOS switch. To utilize, download the vEOS-lab-4.16.9M.box image from [www.arista.com](www.arista.com), import it, and start up:

```bash
vagrant box add --name vEOS-lab.4.16.9M vEOS-lab-4.16.9M.box
vagrant up
```
This will build an Ubuntu trusty image with salt-minion and salt-master built from latest git sources, install napalm and capirca, and configure the
proxy correctly. From there, use `vagrant ssh master` to log into the master and run salt commands. If desired, the Vagrantfile can be edited prior
to running `vagrant up` to change the number of hosts created, or use a custom saltstack git repository to test new salt modules.


Legacy NAPALM Salt Installation
===============================

*** NOTE: ***
This is for versions of salt older than `2016.11.0`. For more details, see: [https://mirceaulinic.net/2016-11-30-salt-carbon-released/](https://mirceaulinic.net/2016-11-30-salt-carbon-released/). If not sure, you can check the Salt version using: ```salt --versions-report```.

Start by git cloning this repository and changing into the directory: ```git clone https://github.com/napalm-automation/napalm-salt.git && cd napalm-salt```.

Extract the SPM archive using the command: ```tar xf napalm-2016.11.spm``` for Salt ```>=2016.3``` or ```tar xf napalm.spm``` for older releases. When unpacking, a directory called ```napalm``` will be created.

Copy all its files and directories to the path specified as ```file_roots``` in the master config file (default is ```/etc/salt/states```), e.g. ```cp -r napalm/* /etc/salt/states```.

At the end, you should have a directory structure similar to the following under the ```file_roots``` directory (e.g.: ```/etc/salt/states```):

```
/etc/salt/states
├── top.sls
├── _proxy
| └── napalm.py
├── _modules
| ├── napalm_network.py
| ├── napalm_ntp.py
| ├── napalm_users.py
| ├── napalm_bgp.py
| ├── napalm_route.py
| ├── napalm_snmp.py
| └── napalm_probes.py
├── _grains
| └── napalm.py
├── _states
| ├── netntp.py
| ├── netusers.py
| ├── netsnmp.py
| └── probes.py
├── _runners
| └── ntp.py
├── router
├── init.sls
├── ntp.sls
├── users.sls
├── snmp.sls
└── probes.sls
```


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