Python utilites for movements in 3d space
scikit-kinematics primarily contains functions for working with 3D kinematics, e.g quaternions and rotation matrices. This includes utilities to read in data from the following IMU-sensors: - polulu - XSens - xio - xio-NGIMU - YEI
Compatible with Python >= 3.5
numpy, scipy, matplotlib, pandas, sympy, easygui
Author: Thomas Haslwanter Date: 14-05-2021 Ver: 0.8.8 Licence: BSD 2-Clause License (http://opensource.org/licenses/BSD-2-Clause) Copyright (c) 2021, Thomas Haslwanter All rights reserved.
You can install scikit-kinematics with
pip install scikit-kinematics
and upgrade to a new version with
pip install --upgrade --no-deps scikit-kinematics
Analysis of signals from IMUs (intertial-measurement-units). Read in data, calculate orientation (with one of the algorithms below)
get_data ... This method must be taken from one of the existing sensors, or from your own sensor. Currenlty the following sensors types are available:
- xio (original, and NGIMU)
- imus.analytical ... Calculate orientation and position, from angular velocity and linear acceleration
- imus.kalman ... Calculate orientation from IMU-data using an Extended Kalman Filter.
imus.IMU ... Class for working with data from IMUs : - imus.IMU.calc\_position ... calculate position - imus.IMU.setData ... set the properties of an IMU-object - imus.IMU.set\_qtype ... sets q\_type, and automatically performs the relevant calculations.
- imus.Madgwick ... Class for calculating the 3D orientation with the Madgwick-algorithm
- imus.Mahony ... Class for calculating the 3D orientation with the Mahony-algorithm
Analysis of signals from video-based marker-recordings of 3D movements
- markers.analyze_3Dmarkers ... Kinematic analysis of video-basedrecordings of 3D markers
- markers.find_trajectory ... Calculation of joint-movements from 3D marker positions
Note that all these functions work with single quaternions and quaternion vectors, as well as with arrays containing these.
quat.Quaternion ... class, including overloading for multiplication and : division (e.g. "quatCombined = quat1 \* quat2"), import and export
Functions for working with quaternions
- quat.q_conj ... Conjugate quaternion
- quat.q_inv ... Quaternion inversion
- quat.q_mult ... Quaternion multiplication
- quat.q_scalar ... Extract the scalar part from a quaternion
- quat.q_vector ... Extract the vector part from a quaternion
- quat.unit_q ... Extend a quaternion vector to a unit quaternion.
Conversion routines - quaternions --------------------------------=
- quat.calc_angvel ... Calculates the velocity in space from quaternions
- quat.calc_quat ... Calculate orientation from a starting orientation and angular velocity.
- quat.convert ... Convert quaternion to corresponding rotation matrix or Gibbs vector
- quat.deg2quat ... Convert number or axis angles to quaternion vectors
- quat.quat2seq ... Convert quaternions to sequention rotations ("nautical" angles, etc)
- quat.scale2deg ... Convert quaternion to corresponding axis angle
Definition of rotation matrices ------------------------------=
- rotmat.R ... 3D rotation matrix for rotation about a coordinate axis
Conversion Routines - rotation matrices --------------------------------------=
- rotmat.convert ... Convert a rotation matrix to the corresponding quaternion
- rotmat.seq2quat ... Convert nautical angles etc. to quaternions
- rotmat.sequence ... Calculation of Euler, Fick, Helmholtz, ... angles
- rotmat.R_s() ... symbolix matrix for rotation about a coordinate axis
For example, you can e.g. generate a Fick-matrix, with
>>> R_Fick = R_s(2, 'theta') * R_s(1, 'phi') * R_s(0, 'psi')
Spatial Transformation Matrices
- rotmat.stm ... spatial transformation matrix, for combined rotations/translations
- rotmat.stm_s() ... symbolix spatial transformation matrix
- rotmat.dh ... Denavit-Hartenberg transformation matrix
- rotmat.dh_s ... symbolic Denavit-Hartenberg transformation matrix
Routines for working with vectors These routines can be used with vectors, as well as with matrices containing a vector in each row.
- vector.normalize ... Vector normalization
- vector.project ... Projection of one vector onto another one
- vector.GramSchmidt ... Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of three points
- vector.q_shortest_rotation ... Quaternion indicating the shortest rotation from one vector into another.
- vector.rotate_vector ... Rotation of a vector
- vector.target2orient ... Convert target location into orientation angles
Interactive Data Analysis ========================-
- viewer.ts ... interactive viewer for time series data
- view.orientation ... visualize and animate orientations, expressed as quaternions.
- simulate_movements ... calculated ideal IMU-signals for combined rotations/translations
The file Errata.pdf contains the a list of mistakes in the manuscript, and the corresponding corrections.
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