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Sentence Embeddings using BERT / XLNet

Project description

Sentence Transformers: Sentence Embeddings using BERT / RoBERTa / XLNet with PyTorch

BERT / XLNet produces out-of-the-box rather bad sentence embeddings. This repository fine-tunes BERT / XLNet with a siamese or triplet network structure to produce semantically meaningful sentence embeddings that can be used in unsupervised scenarios: Semantic textual similarity via cosine-similarity, clustering, semantic search.

We provide an increasing number of state-of-the-art pretrained models that can be used to derive sentence embeddings. See Pretrained Models.

You can use this code to easily train your own sentence embeddings, that are tuned for your specific task. We provide various dataset readers and you can tune sentence embeddings with different loss function, depending on the structure of your dataset. For further details, see Train your own Sentence Embeddings.

Setup

We recommend Python 3.6 or higher. The model is implemented with PyTorch (at least 1.0.1) using pytorch-transformers v1.1.0. The code does not work with Python 2.7.

With pip

Install the model with pip:

pip install -U sentence-transformers

From source

Clone this repository and install it with pip:

pip install -e .

Getting Started

Sentences Embedding with a Pretrained Model

This example shows you how to use an already trained Sentence Transformer model to embed sentences for another task.

First download a pretrained model.

from sentence_transformers import SentenceTransformer
model = SentenceTransformer('bert-base-nli-mean-tokens')

Then provide some sentences to the model.

sentences = ['This framework generates embeddings for each input sentence',
    'Sentences are passed as a list of string.', 
    'The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.']
sentence_embeddings = model.encode(sentences)

And that's it already. We now have a list of numpy arrays with the embeddings.

for sentence, embedding in zip(sentences, sentence_embeddings):
    print("Sentence:", sentence)
    print("Embedding:", embedding)
    print("")

Training

This framework allows you to fine-tune your own sentence embedding methods, so that you get task-specific sentence embeddings. You have various options to choose from in order to get perfect sentence embeddings for your specific task.

Dataset Download

First, you should download some datasets. For this run the examples/datasets/get_data.py:

python examples/datasets/get_data.py

It will download some datasets and store it on your disk.

Model Training from Scratch

examples/training_nli_bert.py fine-tunes BERT from the pre-trained model as provided by Google. It tunes the model on Natural Language Inference (NLI) data. Given two sentences, the model should classify if these two sentence entail, contradict, or are neutral to each other. For this, the two sentences are passed to a transformer model to generate fixed-sized sentence embeddings. These sentence embeddings are then passed to a softmax classifier to derive the final label (entail, contradict, neutral). This generates sentence embeddings that are useful also for other tasks like clustering or semantic textual similarity.

First, we define a sequential model how a sentence is mapped to a fixed size sentence embedding:

# Use BERT for mapping tokens to embeddings
word_embedding_model = models.BERT('bert-base-uncased')

# Apply mean pooling to get one fixed sized sentence vector
pooling_model = models.Pooling(word_embedding_model.word_embedding_dimension(),
                               pooling_mode_mean_tokens=True,
                               pooling_mode_cls_token=False,
                               pooling_mode_max_tokens=False)

model = SentenceTransformer(modules=[word_embedding_model, pooling_model])

First, we use the BERT model (instantiated from bert-base-uncased) to map tokens in a sentence to the output embeddings from BERT. The next layer in our model is a Pooling model: In that case, we perform mean-pooling. You can also perform max-pooling or use the embedding from the CLS token. You can also combine multiple poolings together.

These two modules (word_embedding_model and pooling_model) form our SentenceTransformer. Each sentence is now passed first through the word_embedding_model and then through the pooling_model to give fixed sized sentence vectors.

Next, we specify a train dataloader:

nli_reader = NLIDataReader('datasets/AllNLI')

train_data = SentencesDataset(nli_reader.get_examples('train.gz'), model=model)
train_dataloader = DataLoader(train_data, shuffle=True, batch_size=batch_size)
train_loss = losses.SoftmaxLoss(model=model, sentence_embedding_dimension=model.get_sentence_embedding_dimension(), num_labels=train_num_labels)

The NLIDataReader reads the AllNLI dataset and we generate a dataload that is suitable for training the Sentence Transformer model. As training loss, we use a Softmax Classifier.

Next, we also specify a dev-set. The dev-set is used, to evaluate the sentence embeddings model on some unseen data. Note, the dev-set can be any data, in this case, we evaluate on the dev-set of the STS benchmark dataset. The evaluator computes the performance metric, in this case, the cosine-similarity between sentence embeddings are computed and the Spearman-correlation to the gold scores is computed.

sts_reader = STSDataReader('datasets/stsbenchmark')
dev_data = SentencesDataset(examples=sts_reader.get_examples('sts-dev.csv'), model=model)
dev_dataloader = DataLoader(dev_data, shuffle=False, batch_size=train_batch_size)
evaluator = EmbeddingSimilarityEvaluator(dev_dataloader)

The training then looks like this:

model.fit(train_objectives=[(train_dataloader, train_loss)],
         evaluator=evaluator,
         epochs=num_epochs,
         evaluation_steps=1000,
         warmup_steps=warmup_steps,
         output_path=model_save_path
         )

Continue Training on Other Data

examples/training_stsbenchmark.py shows an example, where training on a fine-tuned model is continued. In that example, we use a sentence transformer model that was first fine-tuned on the NLI dataset, and then continue training on the training data from the STS benchmark.

First, we load a pre-trained model from the server:

model = SentenceTransformer('bert-base-nli-mean-tokens')

The next steps are as before. We specify training and dev data:

sts_reader = STSDataReader('datasets/stsbenchmark', normalize_scores=True)
train_data = SentencesDataset(sts_reader.get_examples('sts-train.csv'), model)
train_dataloader = DataLoader(train_data, shuffle=True, batch_size=train_batch_size)
train_loss = losses.CosineSimilarityLoss(model=model)

dev_data = SentencesDataset(examples=sts_reader.get_examples('sts-dev.csv'), model=model)
dev_dataloader = DataLoader(dev_data, shuffle=False, batch_size=train_batch_size)
evaluator = EmbeddingSimilarityEvaluator(dev_dataloader)

In that example, we use CosineSimilarityLoss, which computes the cosine similarity between two sentences and compares this score with a provided gold similarity score.

Then we can train as before:

model.fit(train_objectives=[(train_dataloader, train_loss)],
          evaluator=evaluator,
          epochs=num_epochs,
          evaluation_steps=1000,
          warmup_steps=warmup_steps,
          output_path=model_save_path)

Load Models

Loading trained models is easy. You can specify a path:

model = SentenceTransformer('./my/path/to/model/')

Note: It is important that a / or \ is the path, otherwise, it is not recognize as a path.

You can also host the training output on a server and download it:

model = SentenceTransformer('http://www.server.com/path/to/model/my_model.zip')

With the first call, the model is downloaded and stored in the local torch cache-folder (~/.cache/torch/sentence_transformers). In order to work, you must zip all files and subfolders of your model.

We also provide several pre-trained models, that can be loaded by just passing a name:

model = SentenceTransformer('bert-base-nli-mean-tokens')

This downloads the bert-base-nli-mean-tokens from our server and stores it locally.

Pretrained Models

We provide the following models. You can use them in the following way:

model = SentenceTransformer('name_of_model')

The list is increasing as soon was new models increasing.

Sentence Embeddings using BERT

BERT Sentence Embeddings have been extensively tested and tuned. We released the following pre-trained model for your usage:

Trained on NLI data

These models were trained on SNLI and MultiNLI dataset to create universal sentence embeddings. For more details, see: nli-models.md.

  • bert-base-nli-mean-tokens: This model fine-tuned BERT-base on the AllNLI dataset. As pooling strategy, mean-tokens was used. Performance: STSbenchmark: 77.12
  • bert-base-nli-max-tokens: This model fine-tuned BERT-base on the AllNLI dataset. As pooling strategy, max-tokens was used. Performance: STSbenchmark: 77.18
  • bert-base-nli-cls-token: This model fine-tuned BERT-base on the AllNLI dataset. As pooling strategy, the CLS token was used. Performance: STSbenchmark: 76.30
  • bert-large-nli-mean-tokens: This model fine-tuned BERT-large on the AllNLI dataset. As pooling strategy, mean-tokens was used. Performance: STSbenchmark: 79.19
  • bert-large-nli-max-tokens: This model fine-tuned BERT-large on the AllNLI dataset. As pooling strategy, max-tokens was used. Performance: STSbenchmark: 78.32
  • bert-large-nli-cls-token: This model fine-tuned BERT-large on the AllNLI dataset. As pooling strategy, the CLS token was used. Performance: STSbenchmark: 78.29

Trained on STS data

These models were fine-tuned on the training set of the STS benchmark. They are specifically well suited for semantic textual similarity. For more details, see: sts-models.md.

  • bert-base-nli-stsb-mean-tokens: First fine-tuned on AllNLI, then on STS benchmark training set. Performance: STSbenchmark: 85.14
  • bert-large-nli-stsb-mean-tokens: First fine-tuned on AllNLI, then on STS benchmark training set. Performance: STSbenchmark: 85.29

Trained on Wikipedia Sections Triplets

These models were fine-tuned on triplets generated from Wikipedia sections. These models work well if fine-grained clustering of sentences on a similar topic are required. For more details, see: wikipedia-sections-models.md.

  • bert-base-wikipedia-sections-mean-tokens: 80.42% accuracy on Wikipedia sections test set.

Sentence Embeddings using RoBERTa

RoBERTa is ready to be used for training sentence embeddings. See training_nli_roberta.py and training_stsbenchmark_roberta.py for examples how to train RoBERTa to yield sentence embeddings.

Pre-trained models are currently trained and will be uploaded soon.

Sentence Embeddings using XLNet

Currently the XLNet model is under development. Currently, it produces worse results than the BERT models, hence, we not yet release pre-trained models for XLNet.

As soon we have fine-tuned the hyperparameters of XLNet to generate well working sentence embeddings, new pre-trained models will be released.

Performance

Extensive evaluation is currently undergoing, but here we provide some preliminary results.

Model STS benchmark SentEval
Avg. GloVe embeddings 58.02 81.52
BERT-as-a-service avg. embeddings 46.35 84.04
BERT-as-a-service CLS-vector 16.50 84.66
InferSent - GloVe 68.03 85.59
Universal Sentence Encoder 74.92 85.10
Sentence Transformer Models
bert-base-nli-mean-tokens 77.12 86.37
bert-large-nli-mean-tokens 79.19 87.78
bert-base-nli-stsb-mean-tokens 85.14 86.07
bert-large-nli-stsb-mean-tokens 85.29 86.66

Loss Functions

We implemented various loss-functions, that allow training of sentence embeddings from various datasets. These loss-functions are in the package sentence_transformers.losses.

Models

This framework implements various modules, that can be used sequentially to map a sentence to a sentence embedding. The different modules can be found in the package sentence_transformers.models. Each pipeline consists of the following modules.

Word Embeddings: These models map tokens to token embeddings.

Embedding Transformations: These model transform token embeddings in some way

Sentence Embeddings Models: These models map a sentence directly to a fixed size sentence embedding:

  • BoW: Computes a fixed size bag-of-words (BoW) representation of the input text. Can be initialized with IDF-values to create a tf-idf vector. Note, that this model is not trainable. Example

Sentence Embeddings Transformations: These models can be added once we have a fixed size sentence embedding.

Multitask Training

This code allows multi-task learning with training data from different datasets and with different loss-functions. More documentation will follow soon.

Application Examples

We present some examples, how the generated sentence embeddings can be used for downstream applications.

Semantic Search

Semantic search is the task of finding similar sentences to a given sentence. See examples/application_semantic_search.py.

We first generate an embedding for all sentences in a corpus:

embedder = SentenceTransformer('bert-base-nli-mean-tokens')

# Corpus with example sentences
corpus = ['A man is eating a food.',
          'A man is eating a piece of bread.',
          'The girl is carrying a baby.',
          'A man is riding a horse.',
          'A woman is playing violin.',
          'Two men pushed carts through the woods.',
          'A man is riding a white horse on an enclosed ground.',
          'A monkey is playing drums.',
          'A cheetah is running behind its prey.']

corpus_embeddings = embedder.encode(corpus)

Then, we generate the embeddings for different query sentences:

queries = ['A man is eating pasta.', 'Someone in a gorilla costume is playing a set of drums.', 'A cheetah chases prey on across a field.']
query_embeddings = embedder.encode(queries)

We then use scipy to find the most-similar embeddings for queries in the corpus:

for query, query_embedding in zip(queries, query_embeddings):
    distances = scipy.spatial.distance.cdist([query_embedding], corpus_embeddings, "cosine")[0]

The output looks like this:

Query: A man is eating pasta.
Top 5 most similar sentences in corpus:
A man is eating a piece of bread. (Score: 0.8518)
A man is eating a food. (Score: 0.8020)
A monkey is playing drums. (Score: 0.4167)
A man is riding a horse. (Score: 0.2621)
A man is riding a white horse on an enclosed ground. (Score: 0.2379)


Query: Someone in a gorilla costume is playing a set of drums.
Top 5 most similar sentences in corpus:
A monkey is playing drums. (Score: 0.8514)
A man is eating a piece of bread. (Score: 0.3671)
A man is eating a food. (Score: 0.3559)
A man is riding a horse. (Score: 0.3153)
The girl is carrying a baby. (Score: 0.2589)


Query: A cheetah chases prey on across a field.
Top 5 most similar sentences in corpus:
A cheetah is running behind its prey. (Score: 0.9073)
Two men pushed carts through the woods. (Score: 0.3896)
A man is riding a horse. (Score: 0.3789)
A man is riding a white horse on an enclosed ground. (Score: 0.3544)
A monkey is playing drums. (Score: 0.3435)

Clustering

examples/application_clustering.py depicts an example to cluster similar sentences based on their sentence embedding similarity.

As before, we first compute an embedding for each sentence:

embedder = SentenceTransformer('bert-base-nli-mean-tokens')

# Corpus with example sentences
corpus = ['A man is eating a food.',
          'A man is eating a piece of bread.',
          'A man is eating pasta.',
          'The girl is carrying a baby.',
          'The baby is carried by the woman',
          'A man is riding a horse.',
          'A man is riding a white horse on an enclosed ground.',
          'A monkey is playing drums.',
          'Someone in a gorilla costume is playing a set of drums.',
          'A cheetah is running behind its prey.',
          'A cheetah chases prey on across a field.']

corpus_embeddings = embedder.encode(corpus)

Then, we perform k-means clustering using scipy:

# Perform kmean clustering
num_clusters = 5
whitened_corpus = scipy.cluster.vq.whiten(corpus_embeddings)
code_book, _ = scipy.cluster.vq.kmeans(whitened_corpus, num_clusters)
cluster_assignment, _ = scipy.cluster.vq.vq(whitened_corpus, code_book)

The output looks like this:

Cluster  1
['A man is riding a horse.', 'A man is riding a white horse on an enclosed ground.']

Cluster  2
['A man is eating a food.', 'A man is eating a piece of bread.', 'A man is eating pasta.']

Cluster  3
['A monkey is playing drums.', 'Someone in a gorilla costume is playing a set of drums.']

Cluster  4
['The girl is carrying a baby.', 'The baby is carried by the woman']

Cluster  5
['A cheetah is running behind its prey.', 'A cheetah chases prey on across a field.']

Citing & Authors

A publication describing this framework will be released soon at EMNLP 2019.

The main contributors of this repository are:

Contact person: Nils Reimers, Rnils@web.de

https://www.ukp.tu-darmstadt.de/

Don't hesitate to send us an e-mail or report an issue, if something is broken (and it shouldn't be) or if you have further questions.

This repository contains experimental software and is published for the sole purpose of giving additional background details on the respective publication.

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