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A custom pipeline component for spaCy that can convert any parsed Doc and its sentences into CoNLL-U format. Also provides a command line entry point.

Project description

Parsing to CoNLL with spaCy or spacy-stanfordnlp

This module allows you to parse text into CoNLL-U format. You can use it as a command line tool, or embed it in your own scripts by adding it as a custom component to a spaCy, spacy-stanfordnlp, spacy-stanza, or spacy-udpipe pipeline.

Note that the module simply takes a parser’s output and puts it in a formatted string adhering to the linked ConLL-U format. The output tags depend on the spaCy model used. If you want Universal Depencies tags as output, I advise you to use this library in combination with spacy-stanza, which is a spaCy interface using stanza and its models behind the scenes. Those models use the Universal Dependencies formalism and yield state-of-the-art performance. stanza is a new and improved version of stanfordnlp. The spaCy wrapper for stanfordnlp, spacy-stanfordnlp is also supported in this library but its development has been superseded by the stanza wrapper. Its use is not recommended. As an alternative to the Stanford models, you can use the spaCy wrapper for UDPipe, spacy-udpipe, which is slightly less accurate than stanza but much faster.


By default, this package automatically installs only spaCy and the packaging package as dependencies.

Because spaCy’s models are not necessarily trained on Universal Dependencies conventions, their output labels are not UD either. By using spacy-stanza or spacy-udpipe, we get the easy-to-use interface of spaCy as a wrapper around stanza and UDPipe respectively, including their models that are trained on UD data.

NOTE: spacy-stanfordnlp, spacy-stanza and spacy-udpipe are not installed automatically as a dependency for this library, because it might be too much overhead for those who don’t need UD. If you wish to use their functionality (e.g. better performance, real UD output), you have to install them manually.

If you want to retrieve CoNLL info as a pandas DataFrame, this library will automatically export it if it detects that pandas is installed. See the Usage section for more.

To install the library, simply use pip.

pip install spacy_conll


When the ConllFormatter is added to a spaCy pipeline, it adds CoNLL properties for Token, sentence Span and Doc. Note that arbitrary Span’s are not included and do not receive these properties.

On all three of these levels, two custom properties are exposed by default, ._.conll and its string representation ._.conll_str. However, if you have pandas installed, then ._.conll_pd will be added automatically, too!

  • ._.conll: raw CoNLL format
    • in Token: a dictionary containing all the expected CoNLL fields as keys and the parsed properties as values.
    • in sentence Span: a list of its tokens’ ._.conll dictionaries (list of dictionaries).
    • in a Doc: a list of its sentences’ ._.conll lists (list of list of dictionaries).
  • ._.conll_str: string representation of the CoNLL format
    • in Token: tab-separated representation of the contents of the CoNLL fields ending with a newline.
    • in sentence Span: the expected CoNLL format where each row represents a token. When ConllFormatter(include_headers=True) is used, two header lines are included as well, as per the CoNLL format.
    • in Doc: all its sentences’ ._.conll_str combined and separated by new lines.
  • ._.conll_pd: pandas representation of the CoNLL format
    • in Token: a Series representation of this token’s CoNLL properties.
    • in sentence Span: a DataFrame representation of this sentence, with the CoNLL names as column headers.
    • in Doc: a concatenation of its sentences’ DataFrame’s, leading to a new a DataFrame whose index is reset.

You can use spacy_conll in your own Python code as a custom pipeline component, or you can use the built-in command-line script which offers typically needed functionality. See the following section for more.

In Python

This library offers the ConllFormatter class which serves as a custom spaCy pipeline component. It can be instantiated as follows.

nlp = <initialise parser>
conllformatter = ConllFormatter(nlp)
nlp.add_pipe(conllformatter, last=True)

Because this library supports different spaCy wrappers (spacy, stanfordnlp, stanza, and udpipe), a convenience function is available as well. With utils.init_parser you can easily instantiate a parser with a single line. You can find the function’s signature below. Have a look at the source code to read more about all the possible arguments or try out the examples.

NOTE: is_tokenized does not work for spacy-udpipe and disable_sbd only works for spacy.

def init_parser(parser: str = 'spacy',
                model_or_lang: str = 'en',
                is_tokenized: bool = False,
                disable_sbd: bool = False,
                parser_opts: Optional[Dict] = None,
                **kwargs) -> Language:

For instance, if you want to load a Dutch stanza model in silent mode with the CoNLL formatter already attached, you can simply use the following snippet. parser_opts is passed to the stanza pipeline initialisation automatically. Any other keyword arguments (kwargs), on the other hand, are passed to the ConllFormatter initialisation.

from spacy_conll import init_parser

nlp = init_parser('stanza', 'nl', parser_opts={'verbose': False})

The ConllFormatter allows you to customize the extension names and you can also specify conversion maps for the output properties.

To illustrate, here is an advanced example, showing the more complex options:

  • ext_names: changes the attribute names to a custom key by using a dictionary.
  • conversion_maps: a two-level dictionary that looks like {field_name: {tag_name: replacement}}. In other words, you can specify in which field a certain value should be replaced by another. This is especially useful when you are not satisfied with the tagset of a model and wish to change some tags to an alternative

The example below

  • shows how to manually add the component;
  • changes the custom attribute conll_pd to pandas (conll_pd only availabe if pandas is installed);
  • converts any -PRON- lemma to PRON.
import spacy
from spacy_conll import ConllFormatter

nlp = spacy.load('en')
conllformatter = ConllFormatter(nlp,
                                ext_names={'conll_pd': 'pandas'},
                                conversion_maps={'lemma': {'-PRON-': 'PRON'}})
nlp.add_pipe(conllformatter, after='parser')
doc = nlp('I like cookies.')

This is the same as:

from spacy_conll import init_parser

nlp = init_parser(ext_names={'conll_pd': 'pandas'},
                  conversion_maps={'lemma': {'-PRON-': 'PRON'}})
doc = nlp('I like cookies.')

The snippets above will output a pandas DataFrame by using ._.pandas rather than the standard ._.conll_pd, and all occurrences of “-PRON-” in the lemma field are replaced by “PRON”.

   id     form word_lemma upostag  ... head deprel  deps misc
0   1        I       PRON    PRON  ...    2  nsubj     _    _
1   2     like       like    VERB  ...    0   ROOT     _    _
2   3  cookies     cookie    NOUN  ...    2   dobj     _    _
3   4        .          .   PUNCT  ...    2  punct     _    _

[4 rows x 10 columns]

Command line

Upon installation, a command-line script is added under tha alias parse-as-conll. You can use it to parse a string or file into CoNLL format given a number of options.

> parse-as-conll  -h
usage: parse-as-conll [-h] [-f INPUT_FILE] [-a INPUT_ENCODING] [-b INPUT_STR]
                      [-o OUTPUT_FILE] [-c OUTPUT_ENCODING] [-m MODEL_OR_LANG]
                      [-s] [-t] [-d] [-e] [-j N_PROCESS]
                      [-p {spacy,stanfordnlp,stanza,udpipe}] [-v]

Parse an input string or input file to CoNLL-U format using a spaCy-wrapped

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -f INPUT_FILE, --input_file INPUT_FILE
                        Path to file with sentences to parse. Has precedence
                        over 'input_str'. (default: None)
  -a INPUT_ENCODING, --input_encoding INPUT_ENCODING
                        Encoding of the input file. Default value is system
                        default. (default: cp1252)
  -b INPUT_STR, --input_str INPUT_STR
                        Input string to parse. (default: None)
  -o OUTPUT_FILE, --output_file OUTPUT_FILE
                        Path to output file. If not specified, the output will
                        be printed on standard output. (default: None)
                        Encoding of the output file. Default value is system
                        default. (default: cp1252)
  -m MODEL_OR_LANG, --model_or_lang MODEL_OR_LANG
                        language model to use (must be installed). Defaults to
                        an English model (default: en)
  -s, --disable_sbd     Whether to disable spaCy automatic sentence boundary
                        detection. In practice, disabling means that every
                        line will be parsed as one sentence, regardless of its
                        actual content. Only works when using 'spacy' as
                        'parser'. (default: False)
  -t, --is_tokenized    Whether your text has already been tokenized (space-
                        seperated). Setting this option has difference
                        consequences for different parsers: SpaCy will simply
                        not do any further tokenisation: we simply split the
                        tokens on whitespace; Stanfordnlp and Stanza will not
                        tokenize but in addition, will also only do sentence
                        splitting on newlines. No additional sentence
                        segmentation is done; For UDpipe we also simply
                        disable tokenisation and use white-spaced tokens
                        (works from 0.3.0 upwards). No further sentence
                        segmentation is done. (default: False)
  -d, --include_headers
                        Whether to include headers before the output of every
                        sentence. These headers include the sentence text and
                        the sentence ID as per the CoNLL format. (default:
  -e, --no_force_counting
                        Whether to disable force counting the 'sent_id',
                        starting from 1 and increasing for each sentence.
                        Instead, 'sent_id' will depend on how spaCy returns
                        the sentences. Must have 'include_headers' enabled.
                        (default: False)
  -j N_PROCESS, --n_process N_PROCESS
                        Number of processes to use in nlp.pipe(). -1 will use
                        as many cores as available. Requires spaCy v2.2.2.
                        Might not work for a 'parser' other than 'spacy'.
                        (default: 1)
  -p {spacy,stanfordnlp,stanza,udpipe}, --parser {spacy,stanfordnlp,stanza,udpipe}
                        Which parser to use. Parsers other than 'spacy' need
                        to be installed separately. So if you wish to use
                        'stanfordnlp' models, 'spacy-stanfordnlp' needs to be
                        installed. For 'stanza' you need 'spacy-stanza', and
                        for 'udpipe' the 'spacy-udpipe' library is required.
                        (default: spacy)
  -v, --verbose         Whether to always print the output to stdout,
                        regardless of 'output_file'. (default: False)

For example, parsing a single line, multi-sentence string:

>  parse-as-conll --input_str "I like cookies . What about you ?" --is_tokenized --include_headers
# sent_id = 1
# text = I like cookies .
1       I       -PRON-  PRON    PRP     PronType=prs    2       nsubj   _       _
2       like    like    VERB    VBP     VerbForm=fin|Tense=pres 0       ROOT    _       _
3       cookies cookie  NOUN    NNS     Number=plur     2       dobj    _       _
4       .       .       PUNCT   .       PunctType=peri  2       punct   _       _

# sent_id = 2
# text = What about you ?
1       What    what    PRON    WP      _       2       dep     _       _
2       about   about   ADP     IN      _       0       ROOT    _       _
3       you     -PRON-  PRON    PRP     PronType=prs    2       pobj    _       _
4       ?       ?       PUNCT   .       PunctType=peri  2       punct   _       _

For example, parsing a large input file and writing output to a given output file, using four processes (multiprocessing might be only supported in spacy):

> parse-as-conll --input_file large-input.txt --output_file large-conll-output.txt --include_headers --disable_sbd -j 4


Based on the initial work by rgalhama.

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