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generate OpenAPI document and validate request&response with Python annotations.

Project description

Spectree

GitHub Actions pypi versions Language grade: Python Python document

Yet another library to generate OpenAPI document and validate request & response with Python annotations.

Features

  • Less boilerplate code, only annotations, no need for YAML :sparkles:
  • Generate API document with Redoc UI or Swagger UI :yum:
  • Validate query, JSON data, response data with pydantic :wink:
  • Current support:

Quick Start

install with pip: pip install spectree

Examples

Check the examples folder.

Step by Step

  1. Define your data structure used in (query, json, headers, cookies, resp) with pydantic.BaseModel
  2. create spectree.SpecTree instance with the web framework name you are using, like api = SpecTree('flask')
  3. api.validate decorate the route with
    • query
    • json
    • headers
    • cookies
    • resp
    • tags
  4. access these data with context(query, json, headers, cookies) (of course, you can access these from the original place where the framework offered)
    • flask: request.context
    • falcon: req.context
    • starlette: request.context
  5. register to the web application api.register(app)
  6. check the document at URL location /apidoc/redoc or /apidoc/swagger

If the request doesn't pass the validation, it will return a 422 with JSON error message(ctx, loc, msg, type).

Opt-in type annotation feature

This library also supports injection of validated fields into view function arguments along with parameter annotation based type declaration. This works well with linters that can take advantage of typing features like mypy. See examples section below.

How To

How to add summary and description to endpoints?

Just add docs to the endpoint function. The 1st line is the summary, and the rest is the description for this endpoint.

How to add description to parameters?

Check the pydantic document about description in Field.

Any config I can change?

Of course. Check the config document.

You can update the config when init the spectree like:

SpecTree('flask', title='Demo API', version='v1.0', path='doc')

What is Response and how to use it?

To build a response for the endpoint, you need to declare the status code with format HTTP_{code} and corresponding data (optional).

Response(HTTP_200=None, HTTP_403=ForbidModel)
Response('HTTP_200') # equals to Response(HTTP_200=None)

What should I return when I'm using the library?

No need to change anything. Just return what the framework required.

How to logging when the validation failed?

Validation errors are logged with INFO level. Details are passed into extra. Check the falcon example for details.

How can I write a customized plugin for another backend framework?

Inherit spectree.plugins.base.BasePlugin and implement the functions you need. After that, init like api = SpecTree(backend=MyCustomizedPlugin).

How can I change the response when there is a validation error? Can I record some metrics?

This library provides before and after hooks to do these. Check the doc or the test case. You can change the handlers for SpecTree or for a specific endpoint validation.

Demo

Try it with http post :8000/api/user name=alice age=18. (if you are using httpie)

Flask

from flask import Flask, request, jsonify
from pydantic import BaseModel, Field, constr
from spectree import SpecTree, Response


class Profile(BaseModel):
    name: constr(min_length=2, max_length=40) # Constrained Str
    age: int = Field(
        ...,
        gt=0,
        lt=150,
        description='user age(Human)'
    )

    class Config:
        schema_extra = {
            # provide an example
            'example': {
                'name': 'very_important_user',
                'age': 42,
            }
        }


class Message(BaseModel):
    text: str


app = Flask(__name__)
api = SpecTree('flask')


@app.route('/api/user', methods=['POST'])
@api.validate(json=Profile, resp=Response(HTTP_200=Message, HTTP_403=None), tags=['api'])
def user_profile():
    """
    verify user profile (summary of this endpoint)

    user's name, user's age, ... (long description)
    """
    print(request.context.json) # or `request.json`
    return jsonify(text='it works')


if __name__ == "__main__":
    api.register(app) # if you don't register in api init step
    app.run(port=8000)

Flask example with type annotation

# opt in into annotations feature
api = SpecTree("flask", annotations=True)


@app.route('/api/user', methods=['POST'])
@api.validate(resp=Response(HTTP_200=Message, HTTP_403=None), tags=['api'])
def user_profile(json: Profile):
    """
    verify user profile (summary of this endpoint)

    user's name, user's age, ... (long description)
    """
    print(json) # or `request.json`
    return jsonify(text='it works')

Falcon

import falcon
from wsgiref import simple_server
from pydantic import BaseModel, Field, constr
from spectree import SpecTree, Response


class Profile(BaseModel):
    name: constr(min_length=2, max_length=40)  # Constrained Str
    age: int = Field(
        ...,
        gt=0,
        lt=150,
        description='user age(Human)'
    )


class Message(BaseModel):
    text: str


api = SpecTree('falcon')


class UserProfile:
    @api.validate(json=Profile, resp=Response(HTTP_200=Message, HTTP_403=None), tags=['api'])
    def on_post(self, req, resp):
        """
        verify user profile (summary of this endpoint)

        user's name, user's age, ... (long description)
        """
        print(req.context.json)  # or `req.media`
        resp.media = {'text': 'it works'}


if __name__ == "__main__":
    app = falcon.API()
    app.add_route('/api/user', UserProfile())
    api.register(app)

    httpd = simple_server.make_server('localhost', 8000, app)
    httpd.serve_forever()

Falcon with type annotations

# opt in into annotations feature
api = SpecTree("flask", annotations=True)


class UserProfile:
    @api.validate(resp=Response(HTTP_200=Message, HTTP_403=None), tags=['api'])
    def on_post(self, req, resp, json: Profile):
        """
        verify user profile (summary of this endpoint)

        user's name, user's age, ... (long description)
        """
        print(req.context.json)  # or `req.media`
        resp.media = {'text': 'it works'}

Starlette

import uvicorn
from starlette.applications import Starlette
from starlette.routing import Route, Mount
from starlette.responses import JSONResponse
from pydantic import BaseModel, Field, constr
from spectree import SpecTree, Response


class Profile(BaseModel):
    name: constr(min_length=2, max_length=40)  # Constrained Str
    age: int = Field(
        ...,
        gt=0,
        lt=150,
        description='user age(Human)'
    )


class Message(BaseModel):
    text: str


api = SpecTree('starlette')


@api.validate(json=Profile, resp=Response(HTTP_200=Message, HTTP_403=None), tags=['api'])
async def user_profile(request):
    """
    verify user profile (summary of this endpoint)

    user's name, user's age, ... (long description)
    """
    print(request.context.json)  # or await request.json()
    return JSONResponse({'text': 'it works'})


if __name__ == "__main__":
    app = Starlette(routes=[
        Mount('api', routes=[
            Route('/user', user_profile, methods=['POST']),
        ])
    ])
    api.register(app)

    uvicorn.run(app)

Starlette example with type annotations

# opt in into annotations feature
api = SpecTree("flask", annotations=True)


@api.validate(resp=Response(HTTP_200=Message, HTTP_403=None), tags=['api'])
async def user_profile(request, json=Profile):
    """
    verify user profile (summary of this endpoint)

    user's name, user's age, ... (long description)
    """
    print(request.context.json)  # or await request.json()
    return JSONResponse({'text': 'it works'})

FAQ

ValidationError: missing field for headers

The HTTP headers' keys in Flask are capitalized, in Falcon are upper cases, in Starlette are lower cases. You can use pydantic.root_validators(pre=True) to change all the keys into lower cases or upper cases.

ValidationError: value is not a valid list for query

Since there is no standard for HTTP query with multiple values, it's hard to find the way to handle this for different web frameworks. So I suggest not to use list type in query until I find a suitable way to fix it.

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