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Two-Piece Distributions Implementation

Project description

twopiece: Two-Piece Distributions

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PyPI license



Overview

The twopiece library provides a Python implementation of the family of Two Piece distributions. It covers three subfamilies Two-Piece Scale, Two-Piece Shape, and Double Two-Piece. The following diagram shows how these families relate.


Two-Piece Scale

The family of two–piece scale distributions is a family of univariate three parameter location-scale models, where skewness is introduced by differing scale parameters either side of the mode.

Definition. Let $f: \mathbb{R} \mapsto \mathbb{R}_{+}$ be a unimodal symmetric (around zero) probability density function (pdf) from the location-scale family, possibly including a shape parameter $\delta$. Then, the pdf of a member of the two-piece family of distributions is given by

$$ s\left(x; \mu,\sigma_1,\sigma_2, \delta\right) = \begin{cases} \dfrac{2}{\sigma_1+\sigma_2}f\left(\dfrac{x-\mu}{\sigma_1};\delta\right), \mbox{if } x < \mu, \ \dfrac{2}{\sigma_1+\sigma_2}f\left(\dfrac{x-\mu}{\sigma_2};\delta\right), \mbox{if } x \geq \mu. \ \end{cases} $$

Example. If $f$ corresponds to the normal pdf, then $s$ corresponds to the pdf of the Two-Piece Normal distribution as proposed by Gustav Fechner in 1887.


Two-Piece Shape

The family of two–piece shape distributions is a family of univariate three parameter location-scale models, where skewness is introduced by differing shape parameters either side of the mode.

Definition. Let $f: \mathbb{R} \mapsto \mathbb{R}_{+}$ be a unimodal symmetric (around 0) probability density function (pdf) from the location-scale family which includes a shape parameter $\delta$. Then, the pdf of a member of the two-piece family of distributions is given by

$$ s\left(x; \mu,\sigma,\delta_1 \delta_2\right) = \begin{cases} \dfrac{2\epsilon}{\sigma}f\left(\dfrac{x-\mu}{\sigma};\delta_1\right), \mbox{if } x < \mu, \ \dfrac{2(1 -\epsilon)}{\sigma}f\left(\dfrac{x-\mu}{\sigma};\delta_2\right), \mbox{if } x \geq \mu. \ \end{cases} $$

where

$$ \epsilon = \dfrac{f(0;\delta_2)}{f(0;\delta_1)+f(0;\delta_2)}. $$

Example. If $f$ corresponds to the Student-t pdf, then $s$ corresponds to the pdf of the Two-Piece Shape Student-t distribution. Note that $s$ has different shape parameter on each side mode but the same scale.


Double Two-Piece

The family of double two–piece distributions is obtained by using a density–based transformation of unimodal symmetric continuous distributions with a shape parameter. The resulting distributions contain five interpretable parameters that control the mode, as well as both scale and shape in each direction.

Definition. Let $f: \mathbb{R} \mapsto \mathbb{R}_{+}$ be a unimodal symmetric (around 0) probability density function (pdf) from the location-scale family which includes a shape parameter $\delta$. Then, the pdf of a member of the two-piece family of distributions is given by

$$ s\left(x; \mu,\sigma_1,\sigma_2, \delta_1, \delta_2 \right) = \begin{cases} \dfrac{2\epsilon}{\sigma_1}f\left(\dfrac{x-\mu}{\sigma_1};\delta_1\right), \mbox{if } x < \mu, \ \dfrac{2(1 -\epsilon)}{\sigma_2}f\left(\dfrac{x-\mu}{\sigma_2};\delta_2\right), \mbox{if } x \geq \mu. \ \end{cases} $$

where

$$ \epsilon = \dfrac{\sigma_1f(0;\delta_2)}{\sigma_2f(0;\delta_1)+\sigma_1 f(0;\delta_2)}. $$

Example. If $f$ corresponds to the Student-t pdf then $s$ corresponds to the pdf of the Double Two-Piece Student-t distribution. Note that $s$ has different scale and shape on each side of the mode.


Notes

For technical details on this families of distributions we refer to the following two publications which serve as reference for our implementation.

For the R implementation we refer to the following packages.

twopiece has been developed and tested on Python 3.6, and 3.7.


Supported Distributions

Implementation is provided for the following distributions.

Two-Piece Scale

Name Function Parameters
Two-Piece Normal tpnorm loc, sigma1, sigma2
Two-Piece Laplace tplaplace loc, sigma1, sigma2
Two-Piece Cauchy tpcauchy loc, sigma1, sigma2
Two-Piece Logistic tplogistic loc, sigma1, sigma2
Two-Piece Student-t tpstudent loc, sigma1, sigma2, shape
Two-Piece Exponential Power tpgennorm loc, sigma1, sigma2, shape
Two-Piece SinhArcSinh tpsas loc, sigma1, sigma2, shape

Two-Piece Shape

Name Function Parameters
Two-Piece-Shape Student-t tpshastudent loc, sigma, shape1, shape2
Two-Piece-Shape Exponential Power tpshagennorm loc, sigma, shape1, shape2
Two-Piece-Shape SinhArcSinh tpshasas loc, sigma, shape1, shape2

Double Two-Piece

Name Function Parameters
Double Two-Piece Student-t dtpstudent loc, sigma1, sigma2, shape1, shape2
Double Two-Piece Exponential Power dtpgennorm loc, sigma1, sigma2, shape1, shape2
Double Two-Piece SinhArcSinh dtpsinhasinh loc, sigma1, sigma2, shape1, shape2

Main Features

We provide the following functionality for all the supported distributions.

Function Method Parameters
Probability Density Function pdf x
Cumulative Distribution Function cdf x
Quantile Function ppf q
Random Sample Generation random_sample size

Quick Start

Install

We recommend install twopiece using pip as follows.

pip install twopiece

To illustrate usage two-piece scale distributions we will use the two-piece Normal, and two-piece Student-t. The behaviour is analogous for the rest of the supported distributions.


1. Create a twopiece instance

First, we load the family (scale, shape and double) of two-piece distributions that we want to use.

from twopiece.scale import *
from twopiece.shape import *
from twopiece.double import *

To create an instance we need to specify either 3, 4, or 5 parameters:

For the Two-Piece Normal we require:

  • loc: which is the location parameter
  • sigma1, sigma2 : which are both scale parameters
loc=0.0
sigma1=1.0
sigma2=1.0
dist = tpnorm(loc=loc, sigma1=sigma1, sigma2=sigma2)

For the Two-Piece Student-t we require:

  • loc: which is the location parameter
  • sigma1, sigma2 : which are both scale parameters
  • shape : which defines the degrees of freedom for the t-Student distribution
loc=0.0
sigma1=1.0
sigma2=2.0
shape=3.0
dist = tpstudent(loc=loc, sigma1=sigma1, sigma2=sigma2, shape=shape)

For the Double Two-Piece Student-t we require:

  • loc: which is the location parameter
  • sigma1, sigma2 : which are both scale parameters
  • shape1, shape2 : which define the degrees of freedom for the t-Student distribution on each side of the mode.
loc=0.0
sigma1=1.0
sigma2=2.0
shape1=3.0
shape2=10.0
dist = dtpstudent(loc=loc, sigma1=sigma1, sigma2=sigma2, shape1=shape1, shape2=shape2)

Hereafter we assume that there is a twopiece instance called dist.

2. Evaluate and visualise the probability density function (pdf)

We can evaluate the pdf on a single point or an array type object

dist.pdf(0)
dist.pdf([0.0,0.25,0.5])

To visualise the pdf use

x = arange(-12, 12, 0.1)
y = dist.pdf(x)
plt.plot(x, y)
plt.show()

3. Evaluate the cumulative distribution function (cdf)

We can evaluate the cdf on a single point or an array type object

dist.cdf(0)
dist.cdf([0.0,0.25,0.5])

To visualise the cdf use

x = arange(-12, 12, 0.1)
y = dist.cdf(x)
plt.plot(x, y)
plt.show()

4. Evaluate the quantile function (ppf)

We can evaluate the ppf on a single point or an array type object. Note that the ppf has support on [0,1].

dist.ppf(0.95)
dist.ppf([0.5, 0.9, 0.95])

To visualise the ppf use

x = arange(0.001, 0.999, 0.01)
y = dist.ppf(x)
plt.plot(x, y)
plt.show()

5. Generate a random sample

To generate a random sample we require:

  • size: which is simply the size of the sample
sample = dist.random_sample(size = 100)

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