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Navigate HTTP resources using WADL files as guides.

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An Application object represents a web service described by a WADL file.

>>> import os
>>> import sys
>>> import pkg_resources
>>> from wadllib.application import Application

The first argument to the Application constructor is the URL at which the WADL file was found. The second argument may be raw WADL markup.

>>> wadl_string = pkg_resources.resource_string(
...     '', 'launchpad-wadl.xml')
>>> wadl = Application("", wadl_string)

Or the second argument may be an open filehandle containing the markup.

>>> cleanups = []
>>> def application_for(filename, url=""):
...    wadl_stream = pkg_resources.resource_stream(
...    '', filename)
...    cleanups.append(wadl_stream)
...    return Application(url, wadl_stream)
>>> wadl = application_for("launchpad-wadl.xml",
...                        "")

Creating a Resource from a representation definition

Although every representation is a representation of some HTTP resource, an HTTP resource doesn’t necessarily correspond directly to a WADL <resource> or <resource_type> tag. Sometimes a representation is defined within a WADL <method> tag.

>>> find_method = personset_resource.get_method(
...     query_params={'ws.op' : 'find'})
>>> representation_definition = (
...     find_method.response.get_representation_definition(
...     'application/json'))

There may be no WADL <resource> or <resource_type> tag for the representation defined here. That’s why wadllib makes it possible to instantiate an anonymous Resource object using only the representation definition.

>>> from wadllib.application import Resource
>>> anonymous_resource = Resource(
...     wadl, "http://foo/", representation_definition.tag)

We can bind this resource to a representation, as long as we explicitly pass in the representation definition.

>>> anonymous_resource = anonymous_resource.bind(
...     get_testdata('personset'), 'application/json',
...     representation_definition=representation_definition)

Once the resource is bound to a representation, we can get its parameter values.

>>> print(anonymous_resource.get_parameter(
...     'total_size', 'application/json').get_value())

Resource instantiation

If you happen to have the URL to an object lying around, and you know its type, you can construct a Resource object directly instead of by following links.

>>> from wadllib.application import Resource
>>> limi_person = Resource(wadl, "",
...     "")
>>> sorted([ for method in limi_person.method_iter])[:3]
['person-acceptInvitationToBeMemberOf', 'person-addMember', 'person-declineInvitationToBeMemberOf']
>>> bound_limi = bind_to_testdata(limi_person, 'person-limi')
>>> sorted(bound_limi.parameter_names())[:3]
['admins_collection_link', 'confirmed_email_addresses_collection_link',
>>> languages_link = bound_limi.get_parameter("languages_collection_link")
>>> print(languages_link.get_value())

You can bind a Resource to a representation when you create it.

>>> limi_data = get_testdata('person-limi')
>>> bound_limi = Resource(
...     wadl, "",
...     "", limi_data,
...     "application/json")
>>> print(bound_limi.get_parameter(
...     "languages_collection_link").get_value())

By default the representation is treated as a string and processed according to the media type you pass into the Resource constructor. If you’ve already processed the representation, pass in False for the ‘representation_needs_processing’ argument.

>>> from wadllib import _make_unicode
>>> processed_limi_data = json.loads(_make_unicode(limi_data))
>>> bound_limi = Resource(wadl, "",
...     "", processed_limi_data,
...     "application/json", False)
>>> print(bound_limi.get_parameter(
...     "languages_collection_link").get_value())

Most of the time, the representation of a resource is of the type you’d get by sending a standard GET to that resource. If that’s not the case, you can specify a RepresentationDefinition as the ‘representation_definition’ argument to bind() or the Resource constructor, to show what the representation really looks like. Here’s an example.

There’s a method on a person resource such as bound_limi that’s identified by a distinctive query argument: ws.op=getMembersByStatus.

>>> method = bound_limi.get_method(
...     query_params={'ws.op' : 'findPathToTeam'})

Invoke this method with a GET request and you’ll get back a page from a list of people.

>>> people_page_repr_definition = (
...     method.response.get_representation_definition('application/json'))
>>> people_page_repr_definition.tag.attrib['href']

As it happens, we have a page from a list of people to use as test data.

>>> people_page_repr = get_testdata('personset')

If we bind the resource to the result of the method invocation as happened above, we don’t be able to access any of the parameters we’d expect. wadllib will think the representation is of type ‘person-full’, the default GET type for bound_limi.

>>> bad_people_page = bound_limi.bind(people_page_repr)
>>> print(bad_people_page.get_parameter('total_size'))

Since we don’t actually have a ‘person-full’ representation, we won’t be able to get values for the parameters of that kind of representation.

>>> bad_people_page.get_parameter('name').get_value()
Traceback (most recent call last):
KeyError: 'name'

So that’s a dead end. But, if we pass the correct representation type into bind(), we can access the parameters associated with a ‘person-page’ representation.

>>> people_page = bound_limi.bind(
...     people_page_repr,
...     representation_definition=people_page_repr_definition)
>>> people_page.get_parameter('total_size').get_value()

If you invoke the method and ask for a media type other than JSON, you won’t get anything.

>>> print(method.response.get_representation_definition('text/html'))

Data type conversion

The values of date and dateTime parameters are automatically converted to Python datetime objects.

>>> data_type_wadl = application_for('data-types-wadl.xml')
>>> service_root = data_type_wadl.get_resource_by_path('')
>>> representation = json.dumps(
...     {'a_date': '2007-10-20',
...      'a_datetime': '2005-06-06T08:59:51.619713+00:00'})
>>> bound_root = service_root.bind(representation, 'application/json')
>>> bound_root.get_parameter('a_date').get_value()
datetime.datetime(2007, 10, 20, 0, 0)
>>> bound_root.get_parameter('a_datetime').get_value()
datetime.datetime(2005, 6, 6, 8, ...)

A ‘date’ field can include a timestamp, and a ‘datetime’ field can omit one. wadllib will turn both into datetime objects.

>>> representation = json.dumps(
...     {'a_date': '2005-06-06T08:59:51.619713+00:00',
...      'a_datetime': '2007-10-20'})
>>> bound_root = service_root.bind(representation, 'application/json')
>>> bound_root.get_parameter('a_datetime').get_value()
datetime.datetime(2007, 10, 20, 0, 0)
>>> bound_root.get_parameter('a_date').get_value()
datetime.datetime(2005, 6, 6, 8, ...)

If a date or dateTime parameter has a null value, you get None. If the value is a string that can’t be parsed to a datetime object, you get a ValueError.

>>> representation = json.dumps(
...     {'a_date': 'foo', 'a_datetime': None})
>>> bound_root = service_root.bind(representation, 'application/json')
>>> bound_root.get_parameter('a_date').get_value()
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: foo
>>> print(bound_root.get_parameter('a_datetime').get_value())

Representation creation

You must provide a representation when invoking certain methods. The representation() method helps you build one without knowing the details of how a representation is put together.

>>> create_team_method.build_representation(
...     display_name='Joe Bloggs', name='joebloggs')
('application/x-www-form-urlencoded', 'display_name=Joe+Bloggs&name=joebloggs&ws.op=newTeam')

The return value of build_representation is a 2-tuple containing the media type of the built representation, and the string representation itself. Along with the resource’s URL, this is all you need to send the representation to a web server.

>>> bound_limi.get_method('patch').build_representation(name='limi2')
('application/json', '{"name": "limi2"}')

Representations may require values for certain parameters.

>>> create_team_method.build_representation()
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: No value for required parameter 'display_name'
>>> bound_limi.get_method('put').build_representation(name='limi2')
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: No value for required parameter 'mugshot_link'

Some representations may safely include binary data.

>>> binary_stream = pkg_resources.resource_stream(
...     '', 'multipart-binary-wadl.xml')
>>> cleanups.append(binary_stream)
>>> binary_wadl = Application(
...     "", binary_stream)
>>> service_root = binary_wadl.get_resource_by_path('')

Define a helper that processes the representation the same way zope.publisher would.

>>> import cgi
>>> import io
>>> def assert_message_parts(media_type, doc, expected):
...     if sys.version_info[0] == 3 and sys.version_info[1] < 3:
...         # We can't do much due to
...         for value in expected:
...             if not isinstance(value, bytes):
...                 value = value.encode('UTF-8')
...             assert value in doc
...         return
...     environ = {
...         'REQUEST_METHOD': 'POST',
...         'CONTENT_TYPE': media_type,
...         'CONTENT_LENGTH': str(len(doc)),
...         }
...     kwargs = (
...         {'encoding': 'UTF-8'} if sys.version_info[0] >= 3 else {})
...     fs = cgi.FieldStorage(
...         fp=io.BytesIO(doc), environ=environ, keep_blank_values=1,
...         **kwargs)
...     values = []
...     def append_values(fields):
...         for field in fields:
...             if field.list:
...                 append_values(field.list)
...             else:
...                 values.append(field.value)
...     append_values(fs.list)
...     assert values == expected, (
...         'Expected %s, got %s' % (expected, values))
>>> method = service_root.get_method('post', 'multipart/form-data')
>>> media_type, doc = method.build_representation(
...     text_field="text", binary_field=b"\x01\x02\r\x81\r")
>>> print(media_type)
multipart/form-data; boundary=...
>>> assert_message_parts(media_type, doc, ['text', b'\x01\x02\r\x81\r'])
>>> method = service_root.get_method('post', 'multipart/form-data')
>>> media_type, doc = method.build_representation(
...     text_field="text\n", binary_field=b"\x01\x02\r\x81\n\r")
>>> print(media_type)
multipart/form-data; boundary=...
>>> assert_message_parts(
...     media_type, doc, ['text\r\n', b'\x01\x02\r\x81\n\r'])
>>> method = service_root.get_method('post', 'multipart/form-data')
>>> media_type, doc = method.build_representation(
...     text_field="text\r\nmore\r\n",
...     binary_field=b"\x01\x02\r\n\x81\r\x82\n")
>>> print(media_type)
multipart/form-data; boundary=...
>>> assert_message_parts(
...     media_type, doc, ['text\r\nmore\r\n', b'\x01\x02\r\n\x81\r\x82\n'])
>>> method = service_root.get_method('post', 'text/unknown')
>>> method.build_representation(field="value")
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: Unsupported media type: 'text/unknown'


Some parameters take values from a predefined list of options.

>>> option_wadl = application_for('options-wadl.xml')
>>> definitions = option_wadl.representation_definitions
>>> service_root = option_wadl.get_resource_by_path('')
>>> definition = definitions['service-root-json']
>>> param = definition.params(service_root)[0]
>>> print(
>>> sorted([option.value for option in param.options])
['Value 1', 'Value 2']

Such parameters cannot take values that are not in the list.

>>> definition.validate_param_values(
...     [param], {'has_options': 'Value 1'})
{'has_options': 'Value 1'}
>>> definition.validate_param_values(
...     [param], {'has_options': 'Invalid value'})
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: Invalid value 'Invalid value' for parameter
'has_options': valid values are: "Value 1", "Value 2"

Error conditions

You’ll get None if you try to look up a nonexistent resource.

>>> print(wadl.get_resource_by_path('nosuchresource'))

You’ll get an exception if you try to look up a nonexistent resource type.

>>> print(wadl.get_resource_type('#nosuchtype'))
Traceback (most recent call last):
KeyError: 'No such XML ID: "#nosuchtype"'

You’ll get None if you try to look up a method whose parameters don’t match any defined method.

>>> print(bound_limi.get_method(
...     'post', representation_params={ 'foo' : 'bar' }))

NEWS for wadllib

1.3.4 (2020-04-29)

  • Advertise support for Python 3.8.
  • Add Python 3.9 compatibility by using xml.etree.ElementTree if xml.etree.cElementTree does not exist. [bug=1870294]

1.3.3 (2018-07-20)

  • Drop support for Python < 2.6.
  • Add tox testing support.
  • Implement a subset of MIME multipart/form-data encoding locally rather than using the standard library’s email module, which doesn’t have good handling of binary parts and corrupts bytes in them that look like line endings in various ways depending on the Python version. [bug=1729754]

1.3.2 (2013-02-25)

  • Impose sort order to avoid test failures due to hash randomization. LP: #1132125
  • Be sure to close streams opened by pkg_resources.resource_stream() to avoid test suite complaints.

1.3.1 (2012-03-22)

  • Correct the double pass through _from_string causing datetime issues

1.3.0 (2012-01-27)

  • Add Python 3 compatibility
  • Add the ability to inspect links before following them.
  • Ensure that the sample data is packaged.

1.2.0 (2011-02-03)

  • It’s now possible to examine a link before following it, to see whether it has a WADL description or whether it needs to be fetched with a general HTTP client.
  • It’s now possible to iterate over a resource’s Parameter objects with the .parameters() method.

1.1.8 (2010-10-27)

  • This revision contains no code changes, but the build system was changed (yet again). This time to include the version.txt file used by

1.1.7 (2010-10-26)

  • This revision contains no code changes, but the build system was changed (again) to include the sample data used in tests.

1.1.6 (2010-10-21)

  • This revision contains no code changes, but the build system was changed to include the sample data used in tests.

1.1.5 (2010-05-04)

  • Fixed a bug (Launchpad bug 274074) that prevented the lookup of parameter values in resources associated directly with a representation definition (rather than a resource type with a representation definition). Bug fix provided by James Westby.

1.1.4 (2009-09-15)

  • Fixed a bug that crashed wadllib unless all parameters of a multipart representation were provided.

1.1.3 (2009-08-26)

  • Remove unnecessary build dependencies.
  • Add missing dependencies to setup file.
  • Remove sys.path hack from

1.1.2 (2009-08-20)

  • Consistently handle different versions of simplejson.

1.1.1 (2009-07-14)

  • Make wadllib aware of the <option> tags that go beneath <param> tags.

1.1 (2009-07-09)

  • Make wadllib capable of recognizing and generating multipart/form-data representations, including representations that incorporate binary parameters.

1.0 (2009-03-23)

  • Initial release on PyPI

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