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Project Description

The zope.file package provides a content object used to store a file. The interface supports efficient upload and download.

File Object

The zope.file package provides a content object used to store a file. The interface supports efficient upload and download. Let’s create an instance:

>>> from zope.file.file import File
>>> f = File()

The object provides a limited number of data attributes. The mimeType attribute is used to store the preferred MIME content-type value for the data:

>>> f.mimeType
>>> f.mimeType = "text/plain"
>>> f.mimeType
'text/plain'
>>> f.mimeType = "application/postscript"
>>> f.mimeType
'application/postscript'

The parameters attribute is a mapping used to store the content-type parameters. This is where encoding information can be found when applicable (and available):

>>> f.parameters
{}
>>> f.parameters["charset"] = "us-ascii"
>>> f.parameters["charset"]
'us-ascii'

Both, parameters and mimeType can optionally also be set when creating a File object:

>>> f2 = File(mimeType = "application/octet-stream",
...           parameters = dict(charset = "utf-8"))
>>> f2.mimeType
'application/octet-stream'
>>> f2.parameters["charset"]
'utf-8'

File objects also sport a size attribute that provides the number of bytes in the file:

>>> f.size
0

The object supports efficient upload and download by providing all access to content data through accessor objects that provide (subsets of) Python’s file API.

A file that hasn’t been written to is empty. We can get a reader by calling open(). Note that all blobs are binary, thus the mode always contains a ‘b’:

>>> r = f.open("r")
>>> r.mode
'rb'

The read() method can be called with a non-negative integer argument to specify how many bytes to read, or with a negative or omitted argument to read to the end of the file:

>>> r.read(10)
''
>>> r.read()
''
>>> r.read(-1)
''

Once the accessor has been closed, we can no longer read from it:

>>> r.close()
>>> r.read()
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: I/O operation on closed file

We’ll see that readers are more interesting once there’s data in the file object.

Data is added by using a writer, which is also created using the open() method on the file, but requesting a write file mode:

>>> w = f.open("w")
>>> w.mode
'wb'

The write() method is used to add data to the file, but note that the data may be buffered in the writer:

>>> _ = w.write(b"some text ")
>>> _ = w.write(b"more text")

The flush() method ensure that the data written so far is written to the file object:

>>> w.flush()

We need to close the file first before determining its file size

>>> w.close()
>>> f.size
19

We can now use a reader to see that the data has been written to the file:

>>> w = f.open("w")
>>> _ = w.write(b'some text more text')
>>> _ = w.write(b" still more")
>>> w.close()
>>> f.size
30

Now create a new reader and let’s perform some seek operations.

>>> r = f.open()

The reader also has a seek() method that can be used to back up or skip forward in the data stream. Simply passing an offset argument, we see that the current position is moved to that offset from the start of the file:

>>> _ = r.seek(20)
>>> r.read()
'still more'

That’s equivalent to passing 0 as the whence argument:

>>> _ = r.seek(20, 0)
>>> r.read()
'still more'

We can skip backward and forward relative to the current position by passing 1 for whence:

>>> _ = r.seek(-10, 1)
>>> r.read(5)
'still'
>>> _ = r.seek(2, 1)
>>> r.read()
'ore'

We can skip to some position backward from the end of the file using the value 2 for whence:

>>> _ = r.seek(-10, 2)
>>> r.read()
'still more'
>>> _ = r.seek(0)
>>> _ = r.seek(-4, 2)
>>> r.read()
'more'
>>> r.close()

Attempting to write to a closed writer raises an exception:

>>> w = f.open('w')
>>> w.close()
>>> w.write(b'foobar')
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: I/O operation on closed file

Similarly, using seek() or tell() on a closed reader raises an exception:

>>> r.close()
>>> _ = r.seek(0)
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: I/O operation on closed file
>>> r.tell()
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: I/O operation on closed file

Downloading File Objects

The file content type provides a view used to download the file, regardless of the browser’s default behavior for the content type. This relies on browser support for the Content-Disposition header.

The download support is provided by two distinct objects: A view that provides the download support using the information in the content object, and a result object that can be used to implement a file download by other views. The view can override the content-type or the filename suggested to the browser using the standard IResponse.setHeader method.

Note that result objects are intended to be used once and then discarded.

Let’s start by creating a file object we can use to demonstrate the download support:

>>> import transaction
>>> from zope.file.file import File
>>> f = File()
>>> getRootFolder()['file'] = f
>>> transaction.commit()

Headers

Now, let’s get the headers for this file. We use a utility function called getHeaders:

>>> from zope.file.download import getHeaders
>>> headers = getHeaders(f, contentDisposition='attachment')

Since there’s no suggested download filename on the file, the Content-Disposition header doesn’t specify one, but does indicate that the response body be treated as a file to save rather than to apply the default handler for the content type:

>>> sorted(headers)
[('Content-Disposition', 'attachment; filename="file"'),
 ('Content-Length', '0'),
 ('Content-Type', 'application/octet-stream')]

Note that a default content type of ‘application/octet-stream’ is used.

If the file object specifies a content type, that’s used in the headers by default:

>>> f.mimeType = "text/plain"
>>> headers = getHeaders(f, contentDisposition='attachment')
>>> sorted(headers)
[('Content-Disposition', 'attachment; filename="file"'),
 ('Content-Length', '0'),
 ('Content-Type', 'text/plain')]

Alternatively, a content type can be specified to getHeaders:

>>> headers = getHeaders(f, contentType="text/xml",
...                      contentDisposition='attachment')
>>> sorted(headers)
[('Content-Disposition', 'attachment; filename="file"'),
 ('Content-Length', '0'),
 ('Content-Type', 'text/xml')]

The filename provided to the browser can be controlled similarly. If the content object provides one, it will be used by default:

>>> headers = getHeaders(f, contentDisposition='attachment')
>>> sorted(headers)
[('Content-Disposition', 'attachment; filename="file"'),
 ('Content-Length', '0'),
 ('Content-Type', 'text/plain')]

Providing an alternate name to getHeaders overrides the download name from the file:

>>> headers = getHeaders(f, downloadName="foo.txt",
...                      contentDisposition='attachment')
>>> sorted(headers)
[('Content-Disposition', 'attachment; filename="foo.txt"'),
 ('Content-Length', '0'),
 ('Content-Type', 'text/plain')]

The default Content-Disposition header can be overridden by providing an argument to getHeaders:

>>> headers = getHeaders(f, contentDisposition="inline")
>>> sorted(headers)
[('Content-Disposition', 'inline; filename="file"'),
 ('Content-Length', '0'),
 ('Content-Type', 'text/plain')]

If the contentDisposition argument is not provided, none will be included in the headers:

>>> headers = getHeaders(f)
>>> sorted(headers)
[('Content-Length', '0'),
 ('Content-Type', 'text/plain')]

Body

We use DownloadResult to deliver the content to the browser. Since there’s no data in this file, there are no body chunks:

>>> transaction.commit()
>>> from zope.file.download import DownloadResult
>>> result = DownloadResult(f)
>>> list(result)
[]

We still need to see how non-empty files are handled. Let’s write some data to our file object:

>>> with f.open("w") as w:
...    _ = w.write(b"some text")
...    w.flush()
>>> transaction.commit()

Now we can create a result object and see if we get the data we expect:

>>> result = DownloadResult(f)
>>> L = list(result)
>>> b"".join(L)
'some text'

If the body content is really large, the iterator may provide more than one chunk of data:

>>> with f.open("w") as w:
...   _ = w.write(b"*" * 1024 * 1024)
...   w.flush()
>>> transaction.commit()
>>> result = DownloadResult(f)
>>> L = list(result)
>>> len(L) > 1
True

Once iteration over the body has completed, further iteration will not yield additional data:

>>> list(result)
[]

The Download View

Now that we’ve seen the getHeaders function and the result object, let’s take a look at the basic download view that uses them. We’ll need to add a file object where we can get to it using a browser:

>>> f = File()
>>> f.mimeType = "text/plain"
>>> with f.open("w") as w:
...    _ = w.write(b"some text")
>>> transaction.commit()
>>> getRootFolder()["abcdefg"] = f
>>> transaction.commit()

Now, let’s request the download view of the file object and check the result:

>>> print(http(b"""
... GET /abcdefg/@@download HTTP/1.1
... Authorization: Basic mgr:mgrpw
... """, handle_errors=False))
HTTP/1.0 200 Ok
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="abcdefg"
Content-Length: 9
Content-Type: text/plain
<BLANKLINE>
some text

The Inline View

In addition, it is sometimes useful to view the data inline instead of downloading it. A basic inline view is provided for this use case. Note that browsers may decide not to display the image when this view is used and there is not page that it’s being loaded into: if this view is being referenced directly via the URL, the browser may show nothing:

>>> print(http(b"""
... GET /abcdefg/@@inline HTTP/1.1
... Authorization: Basic mgr:mgrpw
... """, handle_errors=False))
HTTP/1.0 200 Ok
Content-Disposition: inline; filename="abcdefg"
Content-Length: 9
Content-Type: text/plain
<BLANKLINE>
some text

The Default Display View

This view is similar to the download and inline views, but no content disposition is specified at all. This lets the browser’s default handling of the data in the current context to be applied:

>>> print(http(b"""
... GET /abcdefg/@@display HTTP/1.1
... Authorization: Basic mgr:mgrpw
... """, handle_errors=False))
HTTP/1.0 200 Ok
Content-Length: 9
Content-Type: text/plain
<BLANKLINE>
some text

Large Unicode Characters

We need to be able to support Unicode characters in the filename greater than what Latin-1 (the encoding used by WSGI) can support.

Let’s rename a file to contain a high Unicode character and try to download it; the filename will be encoded:

>>> getRootFolder()["abcdefg"].__name__ = u'Big \U0001F4A9'
>>> transaction.commit()
>>> print(http(b"""
... GET /abcdefg/@@download HTTP/1.1
... Authorization: Basic mgr:mgrpw
... """, handle_errors=False))
HTTP/1.0 200 Ok
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="Big 💩"
Content-Length: 9
Content-Type: text/plain
<BLANKLINE>
some text

Uploading a new file

There’s a simple view for uploading a new file. Let’s try it:

>>> from io import BytesIO as StringIO
>>> sio = StringIO(b"some text")
>>> from zope.testbrowser.wsgi import Browser
>>> browser = Browser()
>>> browser.handleErrors = False
>>> browser.addHeader("Authorization", "Basic mgr:mgrpw")
>>> browser.addHeader("Accept-Language", "en-US")
>>> browser.open("http://localhost/@@+/zope.file.File")
>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.data")
>>> ctrl.add_file(
...     sio, "text/plain; charset=utf-8", "plain.txt")
>>> browser.getControl("Add").click()

Now, let’s request the download view of the file object and check the result:

>>> print(http(b"""
... GET /plain.txt/@@download HTTP/1.1
... Authorization: Basic mgr:mgrpw
... """, handle_errors=False))
HTTP/1.0 200 Ok
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="plain.txt"
Content-Length: 9
Content-Type: text/plain;charset=utf-8
<BLANKLINE>
some text

We’ll peek into the database to make sure the object implements the expected MIME type interface:

>>> from zope.mimetype import types
>>> ob = getRootFolder()["plain.txt"]
>>> types.IContentTypeTextPlain.providedBy(ob)
True

We can upload new data into our file object as well:

>>> sio = StringIO(b"new text")
>>> browser.open("http://localhost/plain.txt/@@edit.html")
>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.data")
>>> ctrl.add_file(
...     sio, "text/plain; charset=utf-8", "stuff.txt")
>>> browser.getControl("Edit").click()

Now, let’s request the download view of the file object and check the result:

>>> print(http(b"""
... GET /plain.txt/@@download HTTP/1.1
... Authorization: Basic mgr:mgrpw
... """, handle_errors=False))
HTTP/1.0 200 Ok
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="plain.txt"
Content-Length: 8
Content-Type: text/plain;charset=utf-8
<BLANKLINE>
new text

If we upload a file that has imprecise content type information (as we expect from browsers generally, and MSIE most significantly), we can see that the MIME type machinery will improve the information where possible:

>>> sio = StringIO(b"<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>\n"
...                b"<html>...</html>\n")
>>> browser.open("http://localhost/@@+/zope.file.File")
>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.data")
>>> ctrl.add_file(
...     sio, "text/html; charset=utf-8", "simple.html")
>>> browser.getControl("Add").click()

Again, we’ll request the download view of the file object and check the result:

>>> print(http(b"""
... GET /simple.html/@@download HTTP/1.1
... Authorization: Basic mgr:mgrpw
... """, handle_errors=False))
HTTP/1.0 200 Ok
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="simple.html"
Content-Length: 56
Content-Type: application/xhtml+xml;charset=utf-8
<BLANKLINE>
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<html>...</html>
<BLANKLINE>

Further, if a browser is bad and sends a full path as the file name (as sometimes happens in many browsers, apparently), the name is correctly truncated and changed.

>>> sio = StringIO(b"<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>\n"
...                b"<html>...</html>\n")
>>> browser.open("http://localhost/@@+/zope.file.File")
>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.data")
>>> ctrl.add_file(
...     sio, "text/html; charset=utf-8", r"C:\Documents and Settings\Joe\naughty name.html")
>>> browser.getControl("Add").click()

Again, we’ll request the download view of the file object and check the result:

>>> print(http(b"""
... GET /naughty%20name.html/@@download HTTP/1.1
... Authorization: Basic mgr:mgrpw
... """, handle_errors=False))
HTTP/1.0 200 Ok
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="naughty name.html"
Content-Length: 56
Content-Type: application/xhtml+xml;charset=utf-8
<BLANKLINE>
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<html>...</html>
<BLANKLINE>

In zope.file <= 0.5.0, a redundant ObjectCreatedEvent was fired in the Upload view. We’ll demonstrate that this is no longer the case.

>>> import zope.component
>>> from zope.file.interfaces import IFile
>>> from zope.lifecycleevent import IObjectCreatedEvent

We’ll register a subscriber for IObjectCreatedEvent that simply increments a counter.

>>> count = 0
>>> def inc(*args):
...   global count; count += 1
>>> zope.component.provideHandler(inc, (IFile, IObjectCreatedEvent))
>>> browser.open("http://localhost/@@+/zope.file.File")
>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.data")
>>> sio = StringIO(b"some data")
>>> ctrl.add_file(
...     sio, "text/html; charset=utf-8", "name.html")
>>> browser.getControl("Add").click()

The subscriber was called only once.

>>> print(count)
1

Content type and encoding controls

Files provide a view that supports controlling the MIME content type and, where applicable, the content encoding. Content encoding is applicable based on the specific content type of the file.

Let’s demonstrate the behavior of the form with a simple bit of content. We’ll upload a bit of HTML as a sample document:

>>> from io import BytesIO
>>> sio = BytesIO(b"A <sub>little</sub> HTML."
...               b"  There's one 8-bit Latin-1 character: \xd8.")
>>> from zope.testbrowser.wsgi import Browser
>>> browser = Browser()
>>> browser.handleErrors = False
>>> browser.addHeader("Authorization", "Basic mgr:mgrpw")
>>> browser.addHeader("Accept-Language", "en-US")
>>> browser.open("http://localhost/@@+/zope.file.File")
>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.data")
>>> ctrl.add_file(
...     sio, "text/html", "sample.html")
>>> browser.getControl("Add").click()

We can see that the MIME handlers have marked this as HTML content:

>>> import zope.mimetype.interfaces
>>> import zope.mimetype.mtypes
>>> file = getRootFolder()[u"sample.html"]
>>> zope.mimetype.mtypes.IContentTypeTextHtml.providedBy(file)
True

It’s important to note that this also means the content is encoded text:

>>> zope.mimetype.interfaces.IContentTypeEncoded.providedBy(file)
True

The “Content Type” page will show us the MIME type and encoding that have been selected:

>>> browser.getLink("sample.html").click()
>>> browser.getLink("Content Type").click()
>>> browser.getControl(name="form.mimeType").value
['zope.mimetype.mtypes.IContentTypeTextHtml']

The empty string value indicates that we have no encoding information:

>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.encoding")
>>> print(ctrl.value)
['']

Let’s now set the encoding value to an old favorite, Latin-1:

>>> ctrl.value = ["iso-8859-1"]
>>> browser.handleErrors = False
>>> browser.getControl("Save").click()

We now see the updated value in the form, and can check the value in the MIME content-type parameters on the object:

>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.encoding")
>>> print(ctrl.value)
['iso-8859-1']
>>> file = getRootFolder()["sample.html"]
>>> file.parameters
{'charset': 'iso-8859-1'}

Something more interesting is that we can now use a non-encoded content type, and the encoding field will be removed from the form:

>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.mimeType")
>>> ctrl.value = ["zope.mimetype.mtypes.IContentTypeImageTiff"]
>>> browser.getControl("Save").click()
>>> browser.getControl(name="form.encoding")
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
LookupError: name 'form.encoding'
...

If we switch back to an encoded type, we see that our encoding wasn’t lost:

>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.mimeType")
>>> ctrl.value = ["zope.mimetype.mtypes.IContentTypeTextHtml"]
>>> browser.getControl("Save").click()
>>> browser.getControl(name="form.encoding").value
['iso-8859-1']

On the other hand, if we try setting the encoding to something which simply cannot decode the input data, we get an error message saying that’s not going to work, and no changes are saved:

>>> ctrl = browser.getControl(name="form.encoding")
>>> ctrl.value = ["utf-8"]
>>> browser.getControl("Save").click()
>>> print(browser.contents)
<...Selected encoding cannot decode document...

Presentation Adapters

Object size

The size of the file as presented in the contents view of a container is provided using an adapter implementing the zope.size.interfaces.ISized interface. Such an adapter is available for the file object.

Let’s do some imports and create a new file object:

>>> from zope.file.file import File
>>> from zope.file.browser import Sized
>>> from zope.size.interfaces import ISized
>>> f = File()
>>> f.size
0
>>> s = Sized(f)
>>> ISized.providedBy(s)
True
>>> s.sizeForSorting()
('byte', 0)
>>> s.sizeForDisplay()
u'0 KB'

Let’s add some content to the file:

>>> with f.open('w') as w:
...    _ =  w.write(b"some text")

The sized adapter now reflects the updated size:

>>> s.sizeForSorting()
('byte', 9)
>>> s.sizeForDisplay()
u'1 KB'

Let’s try again with a larger file size:

>>> with f.open('w') as w:
...    _ = w.write(b"x" * (1024*1024+10))
>>> s.sizeForSorting()
('byte', 1048586)
>>> m = s.sizeForDisplay()
>>> m
u'${size} MB'
>>> m.mapping
{'size': '1.00'}

And still a bigger size:

>>> with f.open('w') as w:
...    _ = w.write(b"x" * 3*512*1024)
>>> s.sizeForSorting()
('byte', 1572864)
>>> m = s.sizeForDisplay()
>>> m
u'${size} MB'
>>> m.mapping
{'size': '1.50'}

CHANGES

1.0.0 (2017-04-25)

  • Remove unneeded test dependencies zope.app.server, zope.app.component, zope.app.container, and others.
  • Update to work with zope.testbrowser 5.
  • Add PyPy support.
  • Add support for Python 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6. See PR 5.

0.6.2 (2012-06-04)

  • Moved menu-oriented registrations into new menus.zcml. This is now loaded if zope.app.zcmlfiles is available only.
  • Increase test coverage.

0.6.1 (2012-01-26)

  • Declared more dependencies.

0.6.0 (2010-09-16)

  • Bug fix: remove duplicate firing of ObjectCreatedEvent in zope.file.upload.Upload (the event is already fired in its base class, zope.formlib.form.AddForm).
  • Move browser-related zcml to browser.zcml so that it easier for applications to exclude it.
  • Import content-type parser from zope.contenttype, adding a dependency on that package.
  • Removed undeclared dependency on zope.app.container, depend on zope.browser.
  • Using Python’s doctest module instead of deprecated zope.testing.doctest.

0.5.0 (2009-07-23)

  • Change package’s mailing list address to zope-dev at zope.org instead of the retired one.
  • Made tests compatible with ZODB 3.9.
  • Removed not needed install requirement declarations.

0.4.0 (2009-01-31)

  • openDetached is now protected by zope.View instead of zope.ManageContent.
  • Use zope.container instead of zope.app.container.

0.3.0 (2007-11-01)

  • Package data update.

0.2.0 (2007-04-18)

  • Fix code for Publisher version 3.4.

0.1.0 (2007-04-18)

  • Initial release.
Release History

Release History

1.0.0

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