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A user-friendly, light-weight and extensible web content management system. Based on Pyramid and SQLAlchemy.

Project description


A user-friendly, light-weight and extensible web content management
system, based on Pyramid and SQLAlchemy. |build status|_

Kotti is most useful when you are developing applications that

- have complex security requirements,
- use workflows, and/or
- work with hierarchical data.

Built on top of a number of *best-of-breed* software components, most
notably Pyramid_ and SQLAlchemy_, Kotti introduces only a few concepts
of its own, thus hopefully keeping the learning curve flat for the

.. |build status| image::
.. _build status:
.. _Pyramid:
.. _SQLAlchemy:

Kotti CMS

You can **try out Kotti** on `Kotti's demo page`_.

Kotti CMS is a content management system that's heavily inspired by
Plone_. Its **main features** are:

- **User-friendliness**: editors can edit content where it appears;
thus the edit interface is contextual and intuitive

- **WYSIWYG editor**: includes a rich text editor

- **Responsive design**: Kotti builds on `Twitter Bootstrap`_, which
looks good both on desktop and mobile

- **Templating**: you can extend the CMS with your own look & feel
with almost no programming required

- **Add-ons**: install a variety of add-ons and customize them as well
as many aspects of the built-in CMS by use of an INI configuration

- **Security**: the advanced user and permissions management is
intuitive and scales to fit the requirements of large organizations

- **Internationalized**: the user interface is fully translatable,
Unicode is used everywhere to store data

.. _Kotti's demo page:
.. _Plone:
.. _Twitter Bootstrap:

Support and Documentation

`Click here to access Kotti's full documentation


Kotti is offered under the BSD-derived `Repoze Public License


Kotti was created by Daniel Nouri.

Major contributing authors include:

- Andreas Kaiser
- Andreas Zeidler
- Christian Neumann
- Daniel Nouri
- Jure Cerjak
- Marco Scheidhuber
- Nuno Teixeira
- Tom Lazar

For a complete list of contributors, see

Change History

0.9 - 2013-09-17

- Add multi file content upload. You can now select several files from your
local storage that you want to upload and chose what content nodes shall be
created in your Kotti site. Currently files with MIME types of ´´image/*´´
can be uploaded and be created as either ``Image`` or ``File`` nodes, all
other MIME types will be created as ``File``. In future releases (or add-on
products) this can be extended with additional converters allowing for example
to upload HTML files and create ``Document`` nodes with the content of the
``title`` tag becoming the node's title, the content of the ``body`` tag
becoming the node's body and so on.

- Fix #253: Many translations weren't included in the last release.

'--use-fuzzy' translations when running 'compile_catalog' adds back
translations that were recently marked as fuzzy. (All translations
that were marked as fuzzy in German were still accurate.)

- Fix #252: Wrap templates where extract_messages failed with <tal:block>

- Fix #249: TinyMCE translations work again.

0.9b2 - 2013-08-20

- Fix #251: Broken comparison of NestedMutationDict and NestedMutationList.

- Update kotti_tinymce to version 4.0.2.

- Fix bug in `kotti.views.content.FileEditForm` to preserve file
content while editing it.

0.9b1 - 2013-06-26

- Add ``kotti.util.ViewLink.visible`` method for better control over
whether a view link should be visible or not. This allows us to
move formerly hardcoded action links defined in
``kotti.views.edit.actions`` into ``TypeInfo.action_links`` and thus
make them configurable either globally or per content type.

- ```` will now check for
```` with a request method
set to 'GET' by default. It used to check for a view that matches
the current request's method.

This fixes an issue where ``kotti.util.ViewLink.permitted`` would by
mistake check for a 'POST' view when the current request was 'POST'.

- Add ``INavigationRoot`` interface and ``TemplateAPI.navigation_root``
property. The latter returns the first content node in the lineage that
implements ``INavigationRoot`` or the root node if ``INavigationRoot`` is not
implemented by any node in the lineage. Make the ```` template use
``api.navigation_root`` instead of ``api.root``. This allows third party
add-ons to define content types that can reside somewhere in the content tree
while still being the root for the navigation.

- Move navigation related view code to new module ``kotti.views.navigation``.
Deprecate imports from the old locations.

- Remove *some* code that has been deprecated in 0.6 or 0.7.

- A view assigned to a slot can access the slot name where its rendered.

- Add missing `transaction.commit()` in `kotti-reset-workflow`.

- Fix bug in `kotti.views.util.render_view` where local roles weren't
respected correctly.

- Add helper method `kotti.message.send_email` for sending general
emails. These emails must follow a particular structure. Look at
`kotti:templates/` as an example.

0.9a2 - 2013-05-04

- Fix #222: Use SQLAlchemy's `before_flush` event for object events.

We were using the wrong events previously. The problem with
`before_insert`, `before_update`, and `before_delete` was that event
handlers could not reliably call `Session.add`, `Session.delete`,
and change mapped relationships. But only SQLAlchemy 0.8 started
emitting a warning when that was done.

Also deprecated `ObjectAfterDelete` because I don't think it's useful.

- Remove the html5shim from the master templates and use the fanstatic
package js.html5shiv instead.

- A temporary fix for #187. Basically suppresses DetachedInstanceError.

- Add ```` decorator. See the also updated docs on that
topic / module for details.

0.9a1 - 2013-03-12

- Fix ordering on how ``include_me`` functions are loaded. This puts
Kotti's own and Kotti add-on search paths in front of

- Add image thumbs with preview popovers to @@contents view.

- Add drag'n'drop ordering support to @@contents view.

- Add "toggle all" checkbox to @@contents view.

- Add contents path bar to @@contents view.

0.8 - 2013-03-12

- No changes.

0.8b2 - 2013-02-08

- Fix Kotti's tests to no longer trigger deprecation warnings.
Kotti's funcargs need to be better documented still, see #141.

- Add a fanstatic.Group 'tagit' and need() it in the defered widget. This is
needed to make the tags widget render correctly with a theme package enabled
until the defered widget is replaced by a widget class that declares its
requirements in the usual deform style.

- Transform ``setup_users``, ``setup_user`` and ``prefs`` views into
class-based views. Add a little text at subsection ``Security`` on
developer manual mentioning those views.

0.8b1 - 2012-12-30

- No changes

0.8a2 - 2012-12-15

- Remove test related dependencies on requirements.txt.
So now we need to run `python dev` to get testing

- Update packages versions on requirements.txt for latest working

- Added a tags display in views for documents, files, folders, and images,
where they show up as a horizontal list between description and body.

- Modified general search to include simple tags searching. The default
search in Kotti works on a simple search term matching basis. Tags
searching is added here in a simple fashion also, such that you can only
search for one tag at a time, but partial matches work: searching for 'foo'
finds content tagged 'foo bar'. You can also search on single tags by
clicking an individual tag in the tags display of an item. More
sophisticated tags searching, just as for general search, is left to
dedicated add-ons.

0.8a1 - 2012-11-13

- Make language-dependent URL normalization the default. (How to do
this used to be a cookbook entry.)

- Cleanup node edit actions and use decorated view classes.

- Add contents view with actions for multiple items.

- Add children_with_permission method to ContainerMixin.

- Add UI for default_view selection.

- Deprecate 'kotti.views.edit.generic_add' and 'generic_edit'. Just
use class-based forms instead.

0.7.2 - 2012-10-02

- Improve installation instructions. Now uses tagged requirements.txt

- Added event request POST vars to the request for the slot viewlet.

- Added IFile and IImage interfaces to allow for file and image
subclasses to reuse the same view (registrations).

0.7.1 - 2012-08-30

- Add deletion of users to the users management.

- Fix tag support for files and images.

- Upgrade to Twitter Bootstrap 2.1

- remove lots of CSS that is no longer needed

- fix responsive layout that was broken on some phone size
screen resolutions

- Add "Site Setup" submenu / remove @@setup view.

0.7 - 2012-08-16

- Fix critical issue with migrations where version number would not be
persisted in the Alembic versions table.

0.7rc1 - 2012-08-14

- No changes.

0.7a6 - 2012-08-07

- Fix a bug with connections in the migration script. This would
previously cause Postgres to deadlock when calling

0.7a5 - 2012-08-07

- Add workflow support based on ``repoze.workflow``. A simple
workflow is included in ``workflow.zcml`` and is active by default.
Use ``kotti.use_workflow = 0`` to deactivate. The workflow support
adds a drop-down that allows users with ``state_change`` permission
to modify the workflow state.

- Change the default layout

Kotti's new default look is now even closer to the Bootstrap
documentation, with the main nav bar at the very top and the
edit bar right below.

Upgrade note: if you have a customized main_template and want to
use the recent changes in that template, you need to swap
positions of ```` and ```` ``api.render_template``
calls and remove the ```` call from the main_template
(it's now called from within ````).
Everything else is completely optional.

- Add migrations via Alembic. A new script ``kotti-migrate`` helps
with managing database upgrades of Kotti and Kotti add-ons. Run
``kotti-migrate <your.ini> upgrade`` to upgrade the Kotti database
to the latest version.

Add-on authors should see the ``kotti.migrate`` module's docstring
for more details.

- Make ``Document.body`` searchable (and therefore the search feature
actually useful for the first time).

- Add a "minify" command to compress CSS and JS resources.

To use it run::

python dev
python minify

The ``minify`` command assumes, that all resources are in
``kotti/static/``. ``YUI compressor`` is used for compression
and will be automatically installed when running
``python dev``. However, you still need a JVM on
your development machine to be able to use the ``minify``

- Fix settings: only values for kotti* keys should be converted to
unicode strings.

- Fix #89: Validate email address for uniqueness when user changes it.

- Fix #91: Styling of search box.

- Fix #104: Make fanstatic resources completely overridable.

- Enabled deferred loading on column.


- Upgrading from 0.6 to 0.7 requires you to run a migration script on
your database. To run the migration, call::

$ bin/kotti-migrate <myconfig.ini> upgrade

Make sure you **backup** your database before running the migration!

- Upgrading to 0.7 will initialize workfow state and permissions for
all your content objects, unless you've overwritten
``kotti-use_workflow`` to not use a workflow (use ``0``) or a custom

It is **important** that sites that have custom permissions,
e.g. custom modifications to SITE_ACL, turn off workflow support
prior to running the upgrade script.

0.7a4 - 2012-06-25

- Add minified versions JS/CSS files.

- Fix #88: logging in with email.

- Update translations.

0.7a3 - 2012-06-15

- Include ``kotti.tinymce`` which adds plug-ins for image and file
upload and content linking to the TinyMCE rich text editor.

- Slot renderers have been replaced by normal views (or viewlets).
``kotti.views.slots.register`` has been deprecated in favour of
``kotti.views.slots.assign_slot``, which works similarly, but takes
a view name of a registered view instead of a function for

- Switch to fanstatic for static resource management.

Upgrade note: This requires changes to existing `*.ini` application
configuration files. Concretely, you'll need to add a
``filter:fanstatic`` section and a ``pipeline:main`` section and
rename an existing ``app:main`` section to ``app:Kotti`` or the
like. Take a look at Kotti's own ``development.ini`` for an

- Retire the undocumented ``kotti.resources.Setting`` class and table.
``kotti.get_settings`` will now return ``registry.settings``
straight, without looking for persistent overrides in the database.

- Drop support for Pyramid<1.3, since we use
``pyramid.response.FileResponse``, and kotti_tinymce uses

- Fix encoding error with non-ascii passwords.

0.7a2 - 2012-06-07

- Do not allow inactive users to reset their password.

0.7a1 - 2012-06-01


- Add a new 'Image' content type and image scaling, originally from
the kotti_image_gallery add-on. See ``kotti.image_scales.*``

- Add search and related setting ``kotti.search_content``.

- Add subscriber to set cache headers based on caching rules. See
also related setting ``kotti.caching_policy_chooser``.

- Remove TinyMCE from the core.

- Move email templates into page templates in
``kotti:templates/`` and
``kotti:templates/``. This is to make them
easier to translate and customize. This deprecates

- Add a 'edit_inhead' slot for stuff that goes into the edit
interface's head. 'inhead' is no longer be used in

- For more details, see also


- Fix bug with group edit views.

- Fix bug where ``user.last_login_date`` was not set during automic
login after the set password screen.

0.6.3 - 2012-05-08

- Add tag support. All content objects now have tags. They can be
added in the UI using the "jQuery UI Tag-it!" widget.
See .

- Fix a bug with file download performance.

0.6.2 - 2012-04-21

- Links in Navigation view lead to node view. Added edit links
to view the node's edit form.

- Hitting 'Cancel' now returns to the context node for add/edit views

0.6.1 - 2012-03-30

- Added button to show/hide nodes from navigation in the order screen.

- The 'rename' action now strips slashes out of names. Fixes #53.

- Add Dutch translation.

- Allow translation of TinyMCE's UI (starting with deform 0.9.5)

- Separated out testing dependencies. Run ``bin/python dev``
to install Kotti with extra dependencies for testing.

- Deprecate 'kotti.includes' setting. Use the standard
'pyramid.includes' instead.

- Setting 'Node.__acl__' to the empty list will now persist the empty
list instead of setting 'None'.

- Let 'pyramid_deform' take care of configuring deform with
translation dirs and search paths.

0.6.0 - 2012-03-22

- Add Japanese translation.

- Enforce lowercase user names and email with registration and login.

- Moved SQLAlchemy related stuff from kotti.util into kotti.sqla.

- You can also append to 'Node.__acl__' now in addition to setting the

0.6.0b3 - 2012-03-17

- Have the automatic ``__tablename__`` and ``polymorphic_identity``
for CamelCase class names use underscores, so a class
'MyFancyDocument' gets a table name of 'my_fancy_documents' and a
type of 'my_fancy_document'.

0.6.0b2 - 2012-03-16

- Make the 'item_type' attribute of AddForm optional. Fixes #41.

- ``kotti.util.title_to_name`` will now return a name with a maximum
length of 40. Fixes #31.

0.6.0b1 - 2012-03-15

- Use declarative style instead of class mapper for SQLAlchemy resources.

Unfortunately, this change is backwards incompatible with existing
content types (not with existing databases however). Updating your
types to use Declarative is simple. See kotti_calendar for an

0.5.2 - 2012-03-10

- A new 'Actions' menu makes copy, paste, delete and rename of items
more accessible.

- Add German translation.

- Populators no longer need to call ``transaction.commit()``

0.5.1 - 2012-02-27

- Internationalize user interface. Add Portuguese as the first

- A new 'Add' menu in the editor toolbar allows for a more intuitive
adding of items in the CMS.

- Refine ``Node.copy``. No longer copy over local roles per default.

0.5.0 - 2012-02-15

- Move Kotti's default user interface to use Twitter Bootstrap 2.

- Add a new 'File' content type.

- Add CSRF protection to some forms.

- Remove Kotti's ``FormController`` in favor of using ``pyramid_deform``.

- Use plone.i18n to normalize titles to URL parts.

- Add a separate navigation screen that replaces the former
intelligent breadcrumbs menu.

- Use ``pyramid_beaker`` as the default session factory.

- Make ``kotti.messages.send_set_password`` a bit more flexible.

0.4.5 - 2012-01-19

- Add '' which may be used instead of

The difference is that Kotti's version will set the "authorization
context" to be the context that you pass to 'has_permission'. The
effect is that 'list_groups' will return a more correct list of
local roles, i.e. the groups in the given context instead of

- Add a template ('') for when user is logged in but still
getting HTTPForbidden.

0.4.4 - 2012-01-05

- The "Forbidden View" will no longer redirect clients that don't
accept 'text/html' to the login form.

- Fix bug with 'kotti.site_title' setting.

0.4.3 - 2011-12-22

- Add 'kotti.root_factory' setting which allows the override Kotti's
default Pyramid *root factory*. Also, make master templates more
robust so that a minimal root with '__parent__' and '__name__' can
be rendered.

- The 'kotti.tests' was factored out. Tests should now import from

0.4.2 - 2011-12-20

- More convenient overrides for add-on packages by better use of

0.4.1 - 2011-12-20

- Modularize Kotti's Paste App Factory 'kotti.main'.

- Allow explicit setting of tables that Kotti creates

0.4.0 - 2011-12-14

- Remove configuration variables 'kotti.templates.*' in favour of
'kotti.asset_overrides', which uses Pyramid asset specs and their

- Remove 'TemplateAPI.__getitem__' and instead add 'TemplateAPI.macro'
which has a similar but less 'special' API.

- Factor snippets in 'kotti/templates/' out into their own
templates. Use 'api.render_template' to render them instead of

0.3.1 - 2011-12-09

- Add 'keys' method to mutation dicts (see 0.3.0).

0.3.0 - 2011-11-30

- Replace `Node.__annotations__` in favor of an extended `Node.annotations`.

`Node.annotations` will attempt to not only recognize changes to
subobjects of type dict, it will also handle list objects
transparently. That is, changing arbitrary JSON structures should
just work with regard to calling `node.annotations.changed()` when
the structure was changed.

0.2.10 - 2011-11-22

- 'api.format_datetime' now also accepts a timestamp in addition to datetime.

0.2.9 - 2011-11-21

- Remove in favour of using 'setuptools-git'.

0.2.8 - 2011-11-21

- Remove 'PasteScript' dependency since that would result in spurious
errors when installing Kotti. See

0.2.7 - 2011-11-20

- Add 'PasteScript' dependency.

- Fix #11 where 'python test' would look into a hard-coded
'bin' directory.

- Structural analysis documentation. (Unfinished; in 'analysis' directory
during development. Will be moved to main docs when finished.)

0.2.6 - 2011-11-17

- Add `Node.__annotations__` convenience attribute.

`Node.__annotations__` will wrap the annotations dict in such a way
that both item and attribute access are possible. It'll also record
changes to dicts inside dicts and mark the parent `__annotations__`
attribute as dirty.

- Add a welcome page.
- Delete the demo added in version 0.2.4.

0.2.5 - 2011-11-14

- Add 'TemplateAPI.render_template'; allow templates to be rendered
conveniently from templates.

0.2.4 - 2011-11-13

- Adjust for Pyramid 1.2: INI file, pyramid_tm, Wsgiref server, pcreate and
pserve. (MO)

- Add Kotti Demo source and documentation.

0.2.3 - 2011-10-28

- ``Node.__getitem__`` will now also accept a tuple as key.

``folder['1', '2']`` is the same as ``folder['1']['2']``, just more

- Added a new cache decorator based on ``repoze.lru``.

0.2.2 - 2011-10-10

- Change the function signature of ``kotti.authn_policy_factory``,
``kotti.authz_policy_factory`` and ``kotti.session_factory`` to
include all settings from the configuration file.

0.2.1 - 2011-09-29

- Minor changes to events setup code to ease usage in tests.

0.2 - 2011-09-16

- No changes.

0.2a2 - 2011-09-05

- Fix templates to be compatible with Chameleon 2. Also, require

- Require pyramid>=1.2. Also, enable pyramid_debugtoolbar for
``development.ini`` profile.

0.2a1 - 2011-08-29

- Improve database schema for ``Nodes``. Split ``Node`` class into
``Node`` and ``Content``.

This change is backward incompatible in that existing content types
in your code will need to subclass ``Content`` instead of ``Node``.
The example in the docs has been updated. Also, the underlying
database schema has changed.

- Improve user database hashing and local roles storage.

- Compatibility fix for Pyramid 1.2.

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