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Grok: Now even cavemen can use Zope 3!

Project description


What is grok?

Grok makes it easier to get started with a Zope 3 web application.

Grok uses the Component Architecture and builds on Zope 3 concepts
like content objects (models), views, and adapters. Its simplicity
lies in using **convention over configuration** and **sensible
defaults** when wiring components together. That means neither a
configuration language like ZCML nor a lot of repetition are needed to
create a web application with grok.

You can find out much more about Grok at our

Who is grok?

Grok is a friendly caveman from the Stone Age. He has a big club that
he hunts mammoths with. He will also use this club to smash anything
he doesn't like.


Getting grok

The easiest way to get started with grok is to install the
`grokproject <>`_ package
(e.g. via ``easy_install grokproject``) and then create a new project
area by calling the ``grokproject`` script like so::

$ grokproject MyProject
... many lines of output here

This will create a project area in ``MyProject`` as well as download
and install grok and Zope 3 (the application server grok is built on).

You can also get grok from the subversion repository::

svn co svn:// grok

Then follow the instructions of ``INSTALL.txt``.

Grok changes

1.0b1 (2009-09-14)

See: :ref:`upgrade_notes_1.0b1` for special notes on upgrading to this release.

* Bump used version (now: 3.4.2) to support
product-configs in zope.conf files with paster. Fix

* Default location for Data.fs and logfiles of grok's sample application is
now var/filestorage/ and var/log/ instead of parts/data/ and parts/log/.

* Bumped grokcore.view version: the View class is now split into View (with a
template) and CodeView (with just a render() method).

* Bump used `z3c.testsetup` version (now: 0.4). Fix

* Bump used ZODB3 version (now: 3.8.3). Fix

* Added `zope.publisher.interfaces.IReRaiseException` adapter for
IUnauthorized exceptions. Closes

* Removed `docutils` and `Pygment` from versions.cfg. Both are pinned
in grokdocs subpackage. Closes

* Corrected Content-type; JSON views now report 'application/json'.

* updated zope.publisher dependency to 3.4.8 (fix paster.httpserver
related bugs in XMLRPC, PUT)

* switched buildout to paster based template (like grokproject default)

* changed interpreter name from 'python' to 'grokpy'

* Changed the default permission to grok.View instead of zope.Public.

* Restructured the upgrade and change documentation so that they now
get generated into separate files by Sphinx

1.0a4 (2009-05-21)

* Pin grokcore.view to 1.7.

* Import interfaces from their actual definition not from a

* JSON views now report a Content-type: text/json. See

1.0a3 (2009-04-10)

* Pin grokui.admin to 0.3.2

* Pin grokcore.view to 1.5.

* Pin grokcore.component to 1.6.

1.0a2 (2009-04-08)

* Documentation and doc string updates.

* Pin grokui.admin to 0.3.

* Pin grokcore.view to 1.4.

* Synced versions.cfg with the latest KGS release available at:

* Expose ``IBeforeTraverseEvent`` for import in the ``grok`` namespace.

1.0a1 (2009-01-08)

See: :ref:`upgrade_notes_1.0a1` for special notes on upgrading to this release.

Feature changes

* Introduced ``grok.interfaces.IGrokSecurityView``, a marker interface
which non-Grok views can use to state that they want to be handled
like regular Grok views by the Grok publisher.

* Expose the ``DirectoryResource`` component from grokcore.view and the
accompanying ``path`` directive.

* Similar to the layers and skins restructuring, the ``grok.RESTProtocol``
baseclass has been removed in favour of a ``grok.restskin(name)`` directive
that can be used on REST layer interfaces. Introduced the IRESTLayer base
interfaces for defining REST layers.

* Besides our extensive existing documentation, we have also started
to add a lot of docstrings to the Grok source code so it becomes
easier to understand.

Bug fixes

* Have GrokForm define an empty actions attribute by default, in order
for "action-less" forms to work easily.

* Allow the grok.layer() directive on JSON components. Closes

* Close a bad security hole (also fixed in 0.14.1 and other
releases). See


* Viewlet-related base classes and helpers have been moved out to a
``grokcore.viewlet`` package which Grok now depends on.

0.14 (2008-09-29)

See: :ref:`upgrade_notes_0.14` for special notes on upgrading to this release.

Feature changes

* Grok now officially supports Python 2.5 and still supports Python 2.4.

* Merged the versions from the zope 3.4c7 KGS (known good set):
So we are now using the latest Zope 3 releases for all Zope packages.


* The ``grok.admin`` subpackage has been factored out to a separate
package ``grokui.admin``. To have the Grok admin UI available in
your environment, add ``grokui.admin`` to the required packages in
the ```` of your package.

* Removed ``grok.Skin`` baseclass in favour of a ````
directive that can be used on layer interfaces. Also removed the
``IGrokLayer`` interface in favour of exposing ``IBrowserRequest``
from the grok package.

* Security-related directives and helpers have been moved out to a
```` package.

* View-related base classes, directives and grokkers have been moved
out to a ``grokcore.view`` package.

* Form-related base classes and helpers have been moved out to a
``grokcore.formlib`` package.

Bug fixes

* Replace zope.deprecation.tests.warn with grok.testing.warn to:

* Make the signature identical to warnings.warn

* To check for \*.pyc and \*.pyo files.

When zope.deprecation is fixed this warn() function can be removed again.
Makes all the tests pass under Python-2.5.

0.13 (2008-06-23)

See: :ref:`upgrade_notes_0.13` for special notes on upgrading to this release.


* The basic component base classes (``Adapter``, ``MultiAdapter``,
``GlobalUtility``), their grokkers, as well as many of the basic
directives have been factored out to a reusable
``grokcore.component`` package.

* Ported directives to Martian's new directive implementation. As a
result, many helper functions that were available from ``grok.util``
were removed. The functionality is mostly available from the
directives themselves now.

* Refactored class grokkers to make use of Martian's new declarative
way for retrieving directive data from classes, and Martian's new
declarative way to write grokkers. See :ref:`upgrade_notes_0.13`
for more information.

Feature changes

* ``GrokTemplate`` sets up the namespaces for the template by calling
``default_namespace() ``on the view component the template is
associated with. As a result, ``ViewletManagers`` and ``Viewlet``
can now push in the ``viewletmanager`` and ``viewlet`` namespaces
into the template.

* Updated tutorial section about grokproject to fit the latest changes.

* Added ``grok.traversable`` directive for easy traversal to attributes and

* ``grok.require()`` can refer to subclasses of ``grok.Permission``
directly, instead of their id. This, for one, avoids making typos in
permission ids. Permission components *do* still need the directive for defining the permission's id.

* Added an optional parameter ``data`` to the method ``url()`` that
accepts a dictionary that is then converted to a query string. See

* Added an ``OrderedContainer`` component.

* Introduced the new `sphinx`-based documentation engine. See
grokdocs/README.txt for details.

* Merged the versions from the 3.4 KGS (known good set):

We are now using the latest Zope 3 releases for all Zope packages.
See :ref:`upgrade_notes_0.13` for more information.

* Added support for easier test setup based on ``z3c.testsetup``. This
is a more stable and more powerful implementation of
``grok.testing.register_all_tests()``. See

for details.

* There is now a new ``IContext`` interface available. If you make
your class implement that interface, it (and its subclasses) will be
candidates for being a context in a module (for automatic context
lookup if ``grok.context`` is not present). This relies on a feature
introduced in ``grokcore.component`` 1.1.

* ``grok.Model`` implements ``grok.interfaces.IContext`` now (which is
imported from ``grokcore.component``). ``grok.Container`` now
implements ``grok.interfaces.IContainer``. Traversers and default
views have been set up for these interfaces, so that new
implementations that function as a model or container can be easily
created. Just use ``grok.implements(IContainer)`` or
``grok.implements(IContext)``. This is useful for Grok extensions
that want to implement new content classes.

Bug fixes

* Fix the ``url()`` method on
``ViewletManager`` and ``Viewlet`` has been removed now that there's easy
access to the view component the viewlet(manager) is registered for.

* Fix Use the
viewletmanager.sort() method for sorting viewlets by using

* grok.REST views now have a properly set ``__parent__`` attribute and
will correctly allow acquisition from parent objects, as it's used
by the security policy for acquiring local grants, for example.

* Fix egg missing. Now
3.4.6 is additionally required by Grok and fetched by buildout.

* Removed first testsetup hack from grok.testing.

* Version 2.1 of z3c.autoinclude contained code that caused Grok to
fail to start on some platforms if the system-supplied Python was
used (at least on some versions of Ubuntu and Debian). Now include
version 2.2 of z3c.autoinclude which should fix this problem. This
fix was also made on Grok 0.12 in its online versions list after

* Port fix of zope.formlib to correctly adapt the context to a FormField's
interface, not the field.

0.12 (2008-04-22)

See: :ref:`upgrade_notes_0.12` for special notes on upgrading to this release.

Feature changes

* The new release needs new version of grokproject, please do::

$ easy_install -U grokproject

* Added testsetup classes in grok.testing to improve easy setup of
unit- and functional tests.

* Add support for viewlets and viewlet managers, ``grok.Viewlet``
and ``grok.ViewletManager``.

* Add a new directive, ``grok.order()``, which can be used to help
sort components. At the time it is not used yet, but we intend to
use it for the viewlets support. Note that this means Grok now
requires Martian 0.9.3 or higher. See ``grok.interfaces`` for more
documentation on this directive.

* Now depend on ``z3c.autoinclude``. This allows the use of the
``<includeDependencies package="."/>`` directive, which automatically loads
up ZCML needed for the dependencies listed in your project's
````. The new release of grokproject adds this line
automatically. Upgrade ``grokproject`` to make use of this
functionality in new projects::

$ easy_install -U grokproject

* Classes that end with "-Base" are no longer implicitly considered base
classes. These classes need to have the grok.baseclass() directive added to
them explicitly.

See :ref:`upgrade_notes_0.12` for more information.

Bug fixes

* Do not register the publishTraverse and browserDefault methods of the
JSON component as views.

* Methods with names that start with an '_' are not registered as views
for XMLRPC, REST and JSON components.

* Use a configuration action for the registration of the static directory.

* Fix imports from

* Grok does not raise a GrokError anymore when it finds unassociated
templates, but will issue a UserWarning.

* Fix grok.testing.grok()
now also loads the ZPT template factories so that unit tests that
need to configure views with ZPT templates continue to work.

* Changed a few remaining references to ``grok.grok`` and
``grok.grok_component`` to their correct equivalents in

* ``grok.testing.grok_component()`` could not be used in a pure
doctest. This needed a bugfix in Martian (since 0.9.2). Add a test
that demonstrates this problem.

* Fix grok.Form and its
subclasses did not implement IBrowserView.

* Fix grok introspector
was broken for zipped eggs.

* Fix server control form
had shutdown as default action, even when entering an admin message.

* Fix Fix situation where
a module name is identical to the package name. At least modules
with templates can now have same name as their package.

* Multiple skins and REST protocols could be registered under the same
name, but this is actually a conflict. Now give configuration
conflict error when someone tries this.

* Overriding traversal behavior using the ``traverse()`` method or
``grok.Traverser`` failed in the face of (REST) ``PUT`` and
``DELETE``. XML-RPC also failed when custom traversal was in use.

* Fix where config action
discriminators for permission and role registrations were incorrect.

* Permission definitions received the wrong, too high, configure
action priority (not to be confused with grokker priority). In some
cases this caused permissions to be defined later than they were
used. Use a low action priority instead for permissions.


* Refactor commonalities out of

* is no longer used. zope.securitypolicy provides
all securitypolicy features used by Grok.

0.11 (2007-11-08)

See: :ref:`upgrade_notes_0.11` for special notes on upgrading to this release.

Feature changes

* Integrated skins and layers: ``grok.layer``, ``grok.IGrokLayer``,

* Grok now supports hooking in new template languages without much work.
See also doc/minitutorials/template-languages.txt. See Restructuring below
for more techinical info.

* Accessing a template macro via context/@@the_view/the_template is now
deprecated for the standard ZPT story of using

* There is now a directive that can be used on GlobalUtilities
to mark that the class provides the utility interface directly and need
no instantiation.

* Removed ``grok.define_permission`` in favor of the
``grok.Permission`` component base class. You should now subclass
this base class to define permissions. See also

* Added the ``grok.Role`` component base class to define roles.

* The admin UI now displays and offers deletion of broken objects.

* Removed support for defining model schemas using an inner class with
the special name ``fields``. This was abandoned in favor the usual
Zope 3 way of defining schemas in interfaces and implementing them
in our Grok models.

* Integrated REST support. See doc/minitutorials/rest.txt for usage

Bug fixes

* Remove zc.recipe.egg, zc.recipe.filestorage, zc.recipe.testrunner,
zc.zope3recipes from version requirements.

* The admin UI now shows interfaces in modules.

* ``handle...`` is not a special function name anymore.

* Views no longer need a custom ``AbsoluteURL`` view to determine
their URL, since each instance now properly gets a ``__name__``

* buildout.cfg extends versions.cfg to pin down the versions of the
dependency tree. See also


* Grokkers now emit configuration actions, much like ZCML directive
handlers do. If you defined custom grokkers,
see :ref:`upgrade_notes_0.11` for more information.

* The new pluggable template language support includes some restructuring:

- GrokPageTemplate is now split up into two. BaseTemplate, on which all
templates need to be based, and GrokTemplate, which also provides a
set of methods for easy integration of templating languages.

- All objects based on GrokTemplate are now grokked, instead of having
separate grokkers for each type of template.

- The View is now completely template-language agnostic, which makes it
easy to hook in new page template languages.

- There are now new interfaces (ITemplate and ITemplateFileFactory)
used when you implement support for a new templating language.

* Changed the way grok's functional tests are set up. Instead of each
test case doing its own test setup, it is now done once by the
ftesting layer. This avoids ordering problems when some ftests
would influence the environment of other ftests that were run later
in time.

0.10.2 (2007-10-24)

Bug fixes

* Remove zc.recipe.egg, zc.recipe.filestorage, zc.recipe.testrunner,
zc.zope3recipes from version requirements.

* Require = 3.5.1

0.10.1 (2007-10-10)

Bug fixes

* buildout.cfg extends versions.cfg to pin down the versions of the
dependency tree. This should avoid the situation where we release
Grok, some dependency changes, and Grok breaks as a result. In
conjunction with this we will also be releasing a new version of
grokproject that will use this version infrastructure by default.

For more information about this change, see:

0.10 (2007-08-21)

Feature changes

* Integrated admin user interface.

* Configuration using Martian (

* Flash message infrastructure included.

* Adjust dependencies for Grok so that grokproject should work on

Bug fixes

* A fix in Martian where multiple grok.Model or grok.Container classes
could result in something being found as a context twice.

0.9 series (early 2007 until July 2007)

Feature changes

Grok was released in "continuous release" mode from SVN during this period.

0.1 series (September 2006 until early 2007)

Feature changes

Grok was created in September 2006.


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