Skip to main content

Minimap2 python binding

Project description

Mappy provides a convenient interface to minimap2, a fast and accurate C program to align genomic and transcribe nucleotide sequences.


Mappy depends on zlib. It can be installed with pip:

pip install --user mappy

or from the minimap2 github repo (Cython required):

git clone
cd minimap2
python install


The following Python script demonstrates the key functionality of mappy:

import mappy as mp
a = mp.Aligner("test/MT-human.fa")  # load or build index
if not a: raise Exception("ERROR: failed to load/build index")
s = a.seq("MT_human", 100, 200)     # retrieve a subsequence from the index
print(mp.revcomp(s))                # reverse complement
for name, seq, qual in mp.fastx_read("test/MT-orang.fa"): # read a fasta/q sequence
        for hit in # traverse alignments
                print("{}\t{}\t{}\t{}".format(hit.ctg, hit.r_st, hit.r_en, hit.cigar_str))


Mappy implements two classes and two global function.

Class mappy.Aligner

mappy.Aligner(fn_idx_in=None, preset=None, ...)

This constructor accepts the following arguments:

  • fn_idx_in: index or sequence file name. Minimap2 automatically tests the file type. If a sequence file is provided, minimap2 builds an index. The sequence file can be optionally gzip’d. This option has no effect if seq is set.

  • seq: a single sequence to index. The sequence name will be set to N/A.

  • preset: minimap2 preset. Currently, minimap2 supports the following presets: sr for single-end short reads; map-pb for PacBio read-to-reference mapping; map-ont for Oxford Nanopore read mapping; splice for long-read spliced alignment; asm5 for assembly-to-assembly alignment; asm10 for full genome alignment of closely related species. Note that the Python module does not support all-vs-all read overlapping.

  • k: k-mer length, no larger than 28

  • w: minimizer window size, no larger than 255

  • min_cnt: mininum number of minimizers on a chain

  • min_chain_score: minimum chaing score

  • bw: chaining and alignment band width (initial chaining and extension)

  • bw_long: chaining and alignment band width (RMQ-based rechaining and closing gaps)

  • best_n: max number of alignments to return

  • n_threads: number of indexing threads; 3 by default

  • extra_flags: additional flags defined in minimap.h

  • fn_idx_out: name of file to which the index is written. This parameter has no effect if seq is set.

  • scoring: scoring system. It is a tuple/list consisting of 4, 6 or 7 positive integers. The first 4 elements specify match scoring, mismatch penalty, gap open and gap extension penalty. The 5th and 6th elements, if present, set long-gap open and long-gap extension penalty. The 7th sets a mismatch penalty involving ambiguous bases., seq2=None, cs=False, MD=False)

This method aligns seq against the index. It is a generator, yielding a series of mappy.Alignment objects. If seq2 is present, mappy performs paired-end alignment, assuming the two ends are in the FR orientation. Alignments of the two ends can be distinguished by the read_num field (see Class mappy.Alignment below). Argument cs asks mappy to generate the cs tag; MD is similar. These two arguments might slightly degrade performance and are not enabled by default.

mappy.Aligner.seq(name, start=0, end=0x7fffffff)

This method retrieves a (sub)sequence from the index and returns it as a Python string. None is returned if name is not present in the index or the start/end coordinates are invalid.


This property gives the array of sequence names in the index.

Class mappy.Alignment

This class describes an alignment. An object of this class has the following properties:

  • ctg: name of the reference sequence the query is mapped to

  • ctg_len: total length of the reference sequence

  • r_st and r_en: start and end positions on the reference

  • q_st and q_en: start and end positions on the query

  • strand: +1 if on the forward strand; -1 if on the reverse strand

  • mapq: mapping quality

  • blen: length of the alignment, including both alignment matches and gaps but excluding ambiguous bases.

  • mlen: length of the matching bases in the alignment, excluding ambiguous base matches.

  • NM: number of mismatches, gaps and ambiguous positions in the alignment

  • trans_strand: transcript strand. +1 if on the forward strand; -1 if on the reverse strand; 0 if unknown

  • is_primary: if the alignment is primary (typically the best and the first to generate)

  • read_num: read number that the alignment corresponds to; 1 for the first read and 2 for the second read

  • cigar_str: CIGAR string

  • cigar: CIGAR returned as an array of shape (n_cigar,2). The two numbers give the length and the operator of each CIGAR operation.

  • MD: the MD tag as in the SAM format. It is an empty string unless the MD argument is applied when calling

  • cs: the cs tag.

An Alignment object can be converted to a string with str() in the following format:

q_st  q_en  strand  ctg  ctg_len  r_st  r_en  mlen  blen  mapq  cg:Z:cigar_str

It is effectively the PAF format without the QueryName and QueryLength columns (the first two columns in PAF).

Miscellaneous Functions

mappy.fastx_read(fn, read_comment=False)

This generator function opens a FASTA/FASTQ file and yields a (name,seq,qual) tuple for each sequence entry. The input file may be optionally gzip’d. If read_comment is True, this generator yields a (name,seq,qual,comment) tuple instead.


Return the reverse complement of DNA string seq. This function recognizes IUB code and preserves the letter cases. Uracil U is complemented to A.

Project details

Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Source Distribution

mappy-2.28.tar.gz (136.5 kB view hashes)

Uploaded Source

Supported by

AWS AWS Cloud computing and Security Sponsor Datadog Datadog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN Google Google Download Analytics Microsoft Microsoft PSF Sponsor Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Sentry Sentry Error logging StatusPage StatusPage Status page