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Subprocesses simplified

Project description

Travis CI Code Coverage

Subby is a small Python library with the goal of simplifying the use of subprocesses. Subby is similar to delegator.py, but it adds a few additional features and excludes others (e.g. no pexpect support).

Requirements

The only requirement is python 3.6+. There are no other 3rd-party runtime dependencies. The pytest and coverage packages are required for testing.

Installation

pip install subby

Usage

Subby's primary interface is the run function. It takes a list of commands and executes them. If there is are multiple commands, they are chained (i.e. piped) together.

import subby

# We can pass input to the stdin of the command as bytes
input_str = "foo\nbar"

# The following three commands are equivalent; each returns a
# `Processes` object that can be used to inspect and control
# the process(es).
p1 = subby.run([["grep foo", "wc -l"]], stdin=input_str)
p2 = subby.run(("grep foo", "wc -l"), stdin=input_str)
p3 = subby.run("grep foo | wc -l", stdin=input_str)

# The `done` property tells us whether the processes have finished
assert p1.done and p2.done and p3.done

# The `output` property provides the output of the command
assert p1.output == p2.output == p3.output == "1"

Raw mode

By default, text I/O is used for stdin/stdout/stderr. You can instead use raw I/O (bytes) by passing mode=bytes.

import subby

assert b"1" == subby.run(
    "grep foo | wc -l", stdin="foo\nbar", mode=bytes
).output

Non-blocking processes

By default, the run function blocks until the processes are finshed running. This behavior can be changed by passing block=False, in which case, the caller is responsible for checking the status and/or calling the Processes.block() method manually.

import subby
import time

p = subby.run("sleep 10", block=False)
for i in range(5):
    if p.done:
        break
    else:
        time.sleep(1)
else:
    # A timeout can be used to kill the process if it doesn't
    # complete in a certain amount of time. By default, block()
    # raises an error if the return code is non-zero.
    p.block(timeout=10, raise_on_error=False)
    
    # The process can also be killed manually.
    p.kill()

# The `Processes.ok` property is True if the processes have
# finished and the return code is 0.
if not p.ok:
    # The `Processes.output` and `Processes.error` properties
    # provide access to the process stdout and stderr.
    print(f"The command failed: stderr={p.error}")

Convenience method

There is also a convenience method, sub, equivalent to calling run with mode=str and block=True and returning the output attribute (stdout) of the resulting Processes object.

import subby

assert subby.sub("grep foo | wc -l", stdin="foo\nbar") == "1"

stdin/stdout/stderr

Subby supports several different types of arguments for stdin, stdout, and stderr:

  • A file: specified as a pathlib.Path; for stdin, the content is read from the file, whereas for stdout/stderr the content is written to the file (and is thus not available via the output/error properties).
  • A bytes string: for stdin, the bytes are written to a temporary file, which is passed to the process stdin.
  • One of the values provided by the StdType enumeration:
    • PIPE: for stdout/stderr, subprocess.PIPE is used, giving the caller direct access to the process stdout/stderr streams.
    • BUFFER: for stdout/stderr, a temporary file is used, and the contents are made available via the output/error properties after the process completes.
    • SYS: stdin/stdout/stderr is passed through from the main process (i.e. the sys.stdin/sys.stdout/sys.stderr streams).

By default, the stderr streams of all processes in a chain are captured (you can disable this by passing capture_stderr=False to run()).

import subby
p = subby.run("echo -n hi | tee /dev/stderr | tee /dev/stderr")
assert p.output == b"hi"
assert p.get_all_stderr() == [b"", b"hi", b"hi"]

Logging

By default, all executed commands are logged (with loglevel INFO). You can disable this behavior by passing echo=False to run().

import subby
subby.run("touch foo")  # Echoes "touch foo" to the log with level INFO
subby.run("login -p mypassword", echo=False)  # Does not echo mypassword

Return codes

By default, Subby treats a return code of 0 as success and all other return codes as failure. In some cases, this is not the desired behavior. A well-known example is grep, which has a returncode of 1 when no lines are matched. To ignore additional return codes, set the allowed_return_codes keyword argument to run().

import subby
subby.run("echo foo | grep bar")  # Raises CalledProcessError
subby.run("echo foo | grep bar", allowed_return_codes=(0, 1))

Contributing

Subby is considered to be largely feature-complete, but if you find a bug or have a suggestion for improvement, please submit an issue (or even better, a pull request).

Acknowledgements

Subby was inspired by delegator.py.

Subby was originally written as part of the dxpy.sugar package, but because it is (hopefully) useful more generally, it is being made available as a separate package. @Damien-Black and @msimbirsky contributed code and reviews.

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