Python HTTP for Humans.
Requests is an ISC Licensed HTTP library, written in Python, for human beings.
Most existing Python modules for sending HTTP requests are extremely verbose and cumbersome. Python’s builtin urllib2 module provides most of the HTTP capabilities you should need, but the api is thoroughly broken. It requires an enormous amount of work (even method overrides) to perform the simplest of tasks.
Things shouldn’t be this way. Not in Python.
>>> r = requests.get('https://api.github.com', auth=('user', 'pass')) >>> r.status_code 204 >>> r.headers['content-type'] 'application/json' >>> r.text ...
See the same code, without Requests.
Requests allow you to send HTTP/1.1 requests. You can add headers, form data, multipart files, and parameters with simple Python dictionaries, and access the response data in the same way. It’s powered by httplib and urllib3, but it does all the hard work and crazy hacks for you.
International Domains and URLs
Keep-Alive & Connection Pooling
Sessions with Cookie Persistence
Browser-style SSL Verification
Elegant Key/Value Cookies
Unicode Response Bodies
Multipart File Uploads
To install requests, simply:
$ pip install requests
Or, if you absolutely must:
$ easy_install requests
But, you really shouldn’t do that.
Check for open issues or open a fresh issue to start a discussion around a feature idea or a bug. There is a Contributor Friendly tag for issues that should be ideal for people who are not very familiar with the codebase yet.
Fork the repository on Github to start making your changes to the develop branch (or branch off of it).
Write a test which shows that the bug was fixed or that the feature works as expected.
Send a pull request and bug the maintainer until it gets merged and published. :) Make sure to add yourself to AUTHORS.
Attempt to use the OS’s certificate bundle if certifi isn’t available.
Infinite digest auth redirect fix
Multi-part file upload improvements
Fix decoding of invalid %encodings in URLs
If there is no content in a response don’t throw an error the second time that content is attempted to be read.
Upload data on redirects.
POST redirects now break RFC to do what browsers do: Follow up with a GET.
New strict_mode configuration to disable new redirect behavior.
Private SSL Certificate support
Remove select.poll from Gevent monkeypatching
Remove redundant generator for chunked transfer encoding
Fix: Response.ok raises Timeout Exception in safe_mode
Generate chunked ValueError fix
Proxy configuration by environment variables
Simplification of iter_lines.
New trust_env configuration for disabling system/environment hints.
Suppress cookie errors.
encode_uri = False
Allow ‘=’ in cookies.
Response body with 0 content-length fix.
Don’t fail on netrc.
HEAD requests don’t follow redirects anymore.
raise_for_status() doesn’t raise for 3xx anymore.
Make Session objects picklable.
ValueError for invalid schema URLs.
Vastly improved URL quoting.
Additional allowed cookie key values.
Attempted fix for “Too many open files” Error
Replace unicode errors on first pass, no need for second pass.
Append ‘/’ to bare-domain urls before query insertion.
Exceptions now inherit from RuntimeError.
Binary uploads + auth fix.
PYTHON 3 SUPPORT!
Dropped 2.5 Support. (Backwards Incompatible)
Response.content is now bytes-only. (Backwards Incompatible)
New Response.text is unicode-only.
If no Response.encoding is specified and chardet is available, Respoonse.text will guess an encoding.
Default to ISO-8859-1 (Western) encoding for “text” subtypes.
Removal of decode_unicode. (Backwards Incompatible)
New multiple-hooks system.
New Response.register_hook for registering hooks within the pipeline.
Response.url is now Unicode.
SSL verify=False bugfix (apparent on windows machines).
Asynchronous async.send method.
Support for proper chunk streams with boundaries.
session argument for Session classes.
Print entire hook tracebacks, not just exception instance.
Fix response.iter_lines from pending next line.
Fix but in HTTP-digest auth w/ URI having query strings.
Fix in Event Hooks section.
danger_mode for automatic Response.raise_for_status()
verify ssl is default.
SSL CERT VERIFICATION!
Release of Cerifi: Mozilla’s cert list.
New ‘verify’ argument for SSL requests.
iter_lines last-line truncation fix
Force safe_mode for async requests
Handle safe_mode exceptions more consistently
Fix iteration on null responses in safe_mode
Socket timeout fixes.
Proxy Authorization support.
Added license to installed version.
Converted auth system to use simpler callable objects.
New session parameter to API methods.
Display full URL while logging.
New Unicode decoding system, based on over-ridable Response.encoding.
Proper URL slash-quote handling.
Cookies with [, ], and _ allowed.
URL Request path fix
Complete removal of Urllib2
Complete removal of Poster
Complete removal of CookieJars
New ConnectionError raising
Safe_mode for error catching
prefetch parameter for request methods
Async pool size throttling
File uploads send real names
Vendored in urllib3
Digest authentication bugfix (attach query data to path)
Response.content = None if there was an invalid repsonse.
Redirection auth handling.
Session Hooks fix.
Digest Auth fix.
Move away from urllib2 authentication handling.
Fully Remove AuthManager, AuthObject, &c.
New tuple-based auth system with handler callbacks.
Sessions are now the primary interface.
New config system (no more global settings).
Session parameter bugfix (params merging).
Offline (fast) test suite.
Session dictionary argument merging.
Automatic decoding of unicode, based on HTTP Headers.
New decode_unicode setting.
Removal of r.read/close methods.
New r.faw interface for advanced response usage.*
Automatic expansion of parameterized headers.
Beautiful requests.async module, for making async requests w/ gevent.
GET/HEAD obeys allow_redirects=False.
Enhanced status codes experience \o/
Set a maximum number of redirects (settings.max_redirects)
Full Unicode URL support
Support for protocol-less redirects.
Allow for arbitrary request types.
New callback hook system
New persistient sessions object and context manager
Transparent Dict-cookie handling
Status code reference object
All args are kwargs
Relative redirect support
HTTPError handling improvements
Improved https testing
International Domain Name Support!
Access headers without fetching entire body (read())
Use lists as dicts for parameters
Add Forced Basic Authentication
Forced Basic is default authentication type
python-requests.org default User-Agent header
CaseInsensitiveDict lower-case caching
Support for Proxies
HTTPBin Test Suite
settings.verbose stream writing
Querystrings for all methods
URLErrors (Connection Refused, Timeout, Invalid URLs) are treated as explicity raised r.requests.get('hwe://blah'); r.raise_for_status()
Improved Redirection Handling
New ‘allow_redirects’ param for following non-GET/HEAD Redirects
Settings module refactoring
Response.history: list of redirected responses
Case-Insensitive Header Dictionaries!
Urllib2 HTTPAuthentication Recursion fix (Basic/Digest)
Bytes data upload Bugfix
Unicode url-encoded data
Settings context manager and module
Automatic Decompression of GZip Encoded Content
AutoAuth Support for Tupled HTTP Auth
Automatic Authentication API Change
Smarter Query URL Parameterization
Allow file uploads and POST data together
- New Authentication Manager System
Simpler Basic HTTP System
Supports all build-in urllib2 Auths
Allows for custom Auth Handlers
Python 2.5 Support
PyPy-c v1.4 Support
Improved Request object constructor
- New HTTPHandling Methods
Reponse.__nonzero__ (false if bad HTTP Status)
Response.ok (True if expected HTTP Status)
Response.error (Logged HTTPError if bad HTTP Status)
Reponse.raise_for_status() (Raises stored HTTPError)
Still handles request in the event of an HTTPError. (Issue #2)
Eventlet and Gevent Monkeypatch support.
Cookie Support (Issue #1)
Added file attribute to POST and PUT requests for multipart-encode file uploads.
Added Request.url attribute for context and redirects
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