Python HTTP for Humans.
Requests is an Apache2 Licensed HTTP library, written in Python, for human beings.
Most existing Python modules for sending HTTP requests are extremely verbose and cumbersome. Python’s builtin urllib2 module provides most of the HTTP capabilities you should need, but the api is thoroughly broken. It requires an enormous amount of work (even method overrides) to perform the simplest of tasks.
Things shouldn’t be this way. Not in Python.
>>> r = requests.get('https://api.github.com', auth=('user', 'pass')) >>> r.status_code 204 >>> r.headers['content-type'] 'application/json' >>> r.text ...
Requests allow you to send HTTP/1.1 requests. You can add headers, form data, multipart files, and parameters with simple Python dictionaries, and access the response data in the same way. It’s powered by httplib and urllib3, but it does all the hard work and crazy hacks for you.
- International Domains and URLs
- Keep-Alive & Connection Pooling
- Sessions with Cookie Persistence
- Browser-style SSL Verification
- Basic/Digest Authentication
- Elegant Key/Value Cookies
- Automatic Decompression
- Unicode Response Bodies
- Multipart File Uploads
- Connection Timeouts
- HTTP(S) proxy support
To install Requests, simply:
$ pip install requests
Documentation is available at http://docs.python-requests.org/.
- Check for open issues or open a fresh issue to start a discussion around a feature idea or a bug. There is a Contributor Friendly tag for issues that should be ideal for people who are not very familiar with the codebase yet.
- If you feel uncomfortable or uncertain about an issue or your changes, feel free to email @sigmavirus24 and he will happily help you via email, Skype, remote pairing or whatever you are comfortable with.
- Fork the repository on GitHub to start making your changes to the master branch (or branch off of it).
- Write a test which shows that the bug was fixed or that the feature works as expected.
- Send a pull request and bug the maintainer until it gets merged and published. :) Make sure to add yourself to AUTHORS.
- Revert changes to our vendored certificate bundle. For more context see (#2455, #2456, and http://bugs.python.org/issue23476)
Features and Improvements
- Add sha256 fingerprint support. (shazow/urllib3#540)
- Improve the performance of headers. (shazow/urllib3#544)
- Copy pip’s import machinery. When downstream redistributors remove requests.packages.urllib3 the import machinery will continue to let those same symbols work. Example usage in requests’ documentation and 3rd-party libraries relying on the vendored copies of urllib3 will work without having to fallback to the system urllib3.
- Attempt to quote parts of the URL on redirect if unquoting and then quoting fails. (#2356)
- Fix filename type check for multipart form-data uploads. (#2411)
- Properly handle the case where a server issuing digest authentication challenges provides both auth and auth-int qop-values. (#2408)
- Fix a socket leak. (shazow/urllib3#549)
- Fix multiple Set-Cookie headers properly. (shazow/urllib3#534)
- Disable the built-in hostname verification. (shazow/urllib3#526)
- Fix the behaviour of decoding an exhausted stream. (shazow/urllib3#535)
- Pulled in an updated cacert.pem.
- Drop RC4 from the default cipher list. (shazow/urllib3#551)
- Only catch HTTPErrors in raise_for_status (#2382)
- Handle LocationParseError from urllib3 (#2344)
- Handle file-like object filenames that are not strings (#2379)
- Unbreak HTTPDigestAuth handler. Allow new nonces to be negotiated (#2389)
- Allow usage of urllib3’s Retry object with HTTPAdapters (#2216)
- The iter_lines method on a response now accepts a delimiter with which to split the content (#2295)
- Add deprecation warnings to functions in requests.utils that will be removed in 3.0 (#2309)
- Sessions used by the functional API are always closed (#2326)
- Restrict requests to HTTP/1.1 and HTTP/1.0 (stop accepting HTTP/0.9) (#2323)
- Only parse the URL once (#2353)
- Allow Content-Length header to always be overriden (#2332)
- Properly handle files in HTTPDigestAuth (#2333)
- Cap redirect_cache size to prevent memory abuse (#2299)
- Fix HTTPDigestAuth handling of redirects after authenticating successfully (#2253)
- Fix crash with custom method parameter to Session.request (#2317)
- Fix how Link headers are parsed using the regular expression library (#2271)
- Add more references for interlinking (#2348)
- Update CSS for theme (#2290)
- Update width of buttons and sidebar (#2289)
- Replace references of Gittip with Gratipay (#2282)
- Add link to changelog in sidebar (#2273)
- Unicode URL improvements for Python 2.
- Re-order JSON param for backwards compat.
- Automatically defrag authentication schemes from host/pass URIs. (#2249)
- Avoid getting stuck in a loop (#2244)
- Multiple calls to iter* fail with unhelpful error. (#2240, #2241)
- Now has a “security” package extras set, $ pip install requests[security]
- Requests will now use Certifi if it is available.
- Capture and re-raise urllib3 ProtocolError
- Bugfix for responses that attempt to redirect to themselves forever (wtf?).
- Connection: keep-alive header is now sent automatically.
- Support for connect timeouts! Timeout now accepts a tuple (connect, read) which is used to set individual connect and read timeouts.
- Allow copying of PreparedRequests without headers/cookies.
- Updated bundled urllib3 version.
- Refactored settings loading from environment – new Session.merge_environment_settings.
- Handle socket errors in iter_content.
- New Response property is_redirect, which is true when the library could have processed this response as a redirection (whether or not it actually did).
- The timeout parameter now affects requests with both stream=True and stream=False equally.
- The change in v2.0.0 to mandate explicit proxy schemes has been reverted. Proxy schemes now default to http://.
- The CaseInsensitiveDict used for HTTP headers now behaves like a normal dictionary when references as string or viewed in the interpreter.
- No longer expose Authorization or Proxy-Authorization headers on redirect. Fix CVE-2014-1829 and CVE-2014-1830 respectively.
- Authorization is re-evaluated each redirect.
- On redirect, pass url as native strings.
- Fall-back to autodetected encoding for JSON when Unicode detection fails.
- Headers set to None on the Session are now correctly not sent.
- Correctly honor decode_unicode even if it wasn’t used earlier in the same response.
- Stop advertising compress as a supported Content-Encoding.
- The Response.history parameter is now always a list.
- Many, many urllib3 bugfixes.
- Fixes incorrect parsing of proxy credentials that contain a literal or encoded ‘#’ character.
- Assorted urllib3 fixes.
- New exception: ContentDecodingError. Raised instead of urllib3 DecodeError exceptions.
- Avoid many many exceptions from the buggy implementation of proxy_bypass on OS X in Python 2.6.
- Avoid crashing when attempting to get authentication credentials from ~/.netrc when running as a user without a home directory.
- Use the correct pool size for pools of connections to proxies.
- Fix iteration of CookieJar objects.
- Ensure that cookies are persisted over redirect.
- Switch back to using chardet, since it has merged with charade.
- Updated CA Bundle, of course.
- Cookies set on individual Requests through a Session (e.g. via Session.get()) are no longer persisted to the Session.
- Clean up connections when we hit problems during chunked upload, rather than leaking them.
- Return connections to the pool when a chunked upload is successful, rather than leaking it.
- Match the HTTPbis recommendation for HTTP 301 redirects.
- Prevent hanging when using streaming uploads and Digest Auth when a 401 is received.
- Values of headers set by Requests are now always the native string type.
- Fix previously broken SNI support.
- Fix accessing HTTP proxies using proxy authentication.
- Unencode HTTP Basic usernames and passwords extracted from URLs.
- Support for IP address ranges for no_proxy environment variable
- Parse headers correctly when users override the default Host: header.
- Avoid munging the URL in case of case-sensitive servers.
- Looser URL handling for non-HTTP/HTTPS urls.
- Accept unicode methods in Python 2.6 and 2.7.
- More resilient cookie handling.
- Make Response objects pickleable.
- Actually added MD5-sess to Digest Auth instead of pretending to like last time.
- Updated internal urllib3.
- Fixed @Lukasa’s lack of taste.
- Updated included CA Bundle with new mistrusts and automated process for the future
- Added MD5-sess to Digest Auth
- Accept per-file headers in multipart file POST messages.
- Fixed: Don’t send the full URL on CONNECT messages.
- Fixed: Correctly lowercase a redirect scheme.
- Fixed: Cookies not persisted when set via functional API.
- Fixed: Translate urllib3 ProxyError into a requests ProxyError derived from ConnectionError.
- Updated internal urllib3 and chardet.
- Keys in the Headers dictionary are now native strings on all Python versions, i.e. bytestrings on Python 2, unicode on Python 3.
- Proxy URLs now must have an explicit scheme. A MissingSchema exception will be raised if they don’t.
- Timeouts now apply to read time if Stream=False.
- RequestException is now a subclass of IOError, not RuntimeError.
- Added new method to PreparedRequest objects: PreparedRequest.copy().
- Added new method to Session objects: Session.update_request(). This method updates a Request object with the data (e.g. cookies) stored on the Session.
- Added new method to Session objects: Session.prepare_request(). This method updates and prepares a Request object, and returns the corresponding PreparedRequest object.
- Added new method to HTTPAdapter objects: HTTPAdapter.proxy_headers(). This should not be called directly, but improves the subclass interface.
- httplib.IncompleteRead exceptions caused by incorrect chunked encoding will now raise a Requests ChunkedEncodingError instead.
- Invalid percent-escape sequences now cause a Requests InvalidURL exception to be raised.
- HTTP 208 no longer uses reason phrase "im_used". Correctly uses "already_reported".
- HTTP 226 reason added ("im_used").
- Vastly improved proxy support, including the CONNECT verb. Special thanks to the many contributors who worked towards this improvement.
- Cookies are now properly managed when 401 authentication responses are received.
- Chunked encoding fixes.
- Support for mixed case schemes.
- Better handling of streaming downloads.
- Retrieve environment proxies from more locations.
- Minor cookies fixes.
- Improved redirect behaviour.
- Improved streaming behaviour, particularly for compressed data.
- Miscellaneous small Python 3 text encoding bugs.
- .netrc no longer overrides explicit auth.
- Cookies set by hooks are now correctly persisted on Sessions.
- Fix problem with cookies that specify port numbers in their host field.
- BytesIO can be used to perform streaming uploads.
- More generous parsing of the no_proxy environment variable.
- Non-string objects can be passed in data values alongside files.
- Simple packaging fix
- Simple packaging fix
- 301 and 302 redirects now change the verb to GET for all verbs, not just POST, improving browser compatibility.
- Python 3.3.2 compatibility
- Always percent-encode location headers
- Fix connection adapter matching to be most-specific first
- new argument to the default connection adapter for passing a block argument
- prevent a KeyError when there’s no link headers
- Fixed cookies on sessions and on requests
- Significantly change how hooks are dispatched - hooks now receive all the arguments specified by the user when making a request so hooks can make a secondary request with the same parameters. This is especially necessary for authentication handler authors
- certifi support was removed
- Fixed bug where using OAuth 1 with body signature_type sent no data
- Major proxy work thanks to @Lukasa including parsing of proxy authentication from the proxy url
- Fix DigestAuth handling too many 401s
- Update vendored urllib3 to include SSL bug fixes
- Allow keyword arguments to be passed to json.loads() via the Response.json() method
- Don’t send Content-Length header by default on GET or HEAD requests
- Add elapsed attribute to Response objects to time how long a request took.
- Fix RequestsCookieJar
- Sessions and Adapters are now picklable, i.e., can be used with the multiprocessing library
- Update charade to version 1.0.3
The change in how hooks are dispatched will likely cause a great deal of issues.
- CHUNKED REQUESTS
- Support for iterable response bodies
- Assume servers persist redirect params
- Allow explicit content types to be specified for file data
- Make merge_kwargs case-insensitive when looking up keys
- Fix file upload encoding bug
- Fix cookie behavior
- Proxy fix for HTTPAdapter.
- Cert verification exception bug.
- Proxy fix for HTTPAdapter.
- Massive Refactor and Simplification
- Switch to Apache 2.0 license
- Swappable Connection Adapters
- Mountable Connection Adapters
- Mutable ProcessedRequest chain
- Removal of all configuration
- Standard library logging
- Make Response.json() callable, not property.
- Usage of new charade project, which provides python 2 and 3 simultaneous chardet.
- Removal of all hooks except ‘response’
- Removal of all authentication helpers (OAuth, Kerberos)
This is not a backwards compatible change.
- Improved mime-compatible JSON handling
- Proxy fixes
- Path hack fixes
- Case-Insensistive Content-Encoding headers
- Support for CJK parameters in form posts
- Python 3.3 Compatibility
- Simply default accept-encoding
- No more iter_content errors if already downloaded.
- Fix for OAuth + POSTs
- Remove exception eating from dispatch_hook
- General bugfixes
- Incredible Link header support :)
- Support for (key, value) lists everywhere.
- Digest Authentication improvements.
- Ensure proxy exclusions work properly.
- Clearer UnicodeError exceptions.
- Automatic casting of URLs to tsrings (fURL and such)
- Long awaited fix for hanging connections!
- Packaging fix
- GSSAPI/Kerberos authentication!
- App Engine 2.7 Fixes!
- Fix leaking connections (from urllib3 update)
- OAuthlib path hack fix
- OAuthlib URL parameters fix.
- Use simplejson if available.
- Do not hide SSLErrors behind Timeouts.
- Fixed param handling with urls containing fragments.
- Significantly improved information in User Agent.
- client certificates are ignored when verify=False
- Zero dependencies (once again)!
- New: Response.reason
- Sign querystring parameters in OAuth 1.0
- Client certificates no longer ignored when verify=False
- Add openSUSE certificate support
- Allow passing a file or file-like object as data.
- Allow hooks to return responses that indicate errors.
- Fix Response.text and Response.json for body-less responses.
- Removal of Requests.async in favor of grequests
- Allow disabling of cookie persistiance.
- New implimentation of safe_mode
- cookies.get now supports default argument
- Session cookies not saved when Session.request is called with return_response=False
- Env: no_proxy support.
- RequestsCookieJar improvements.
- Various bug fixes.
- New Response.json property.
- Ability to add string file uploads.
- Fix out-of-range issue with iter_lines.
- Fix iter_content default size.
- Fix POST redirects containing files.
- EXPERIMENTAL OAUTH SUPPORT!
- Proper CookieJar-backed cookies interface with awesome dict-like interface.
- Speed fix for non-iterated content chunks.
- Move pre_request to a more usable place.
- New pre_send hook.
- Lazily encode data, params, files.
- Load system Certificate Bundle if certify isn’t available.
- Cleanups, fixes.
- Attempt to use the OS’s certificate bundle if certifi isn’t available.
- Infinite digest auth redirect fix.
- Multi-part file upload improvements.
- Fix decoding of invalid %encodings in URLs.
- If there is no content in a response don’t throw an error the second time that content is attempted to be read.
- Upload data on redirects.
- POST redirects now break RFC to do what browsers do: Follow up with a GET.
- New strict_mode configuration to disable new redirect behavior.
- Private SSL Certificate support
- Remove select.poll from Gevent monkeypatching
- Remove redundant generator for chunked transfer encoding
- Fix: Response.ok raises Timeout Exception in safe_mode
- Generate chunked ValueError fix
- Proxy configuration by environment variables
- Simplification of iter_lines.
- New trust_env configuration for disabling system/environment hints.
- Suppress cookie errors.
- encode_uri = False
- Allow ‘=’ in cookies.
- Response body with 0 content-length fix.
- New async.imap.
- Don’t fail on netrc.
- Honor netrc.
- HEAD requests don’t follow redirects anymore.
- raise_for_status() doesn’t raise for 3xx anymore.
- Make Session objects picklable.
- ValueError for invalid schema URLs.
- Vastly improved URL quoting.
- Additional allowed cookie key values.
- Attempted fix for “Too many open files” Error
- Replace unicode errors on first pass, no need for second pass.
- Append ‘/’ to bare-domain urls before query insertion.
- Exceptions now inherit from RuntimeError.
- Binary uploads + auth fix.
- PYTHON 3 SUPPORT!
- Dropped 2.5 Support. (Backwards Incompatible)
- Response.content is now bytes-only. (Backwards Incompatible)
- New Response.text is unicode-only.
- If no Response.encoding is specified and chardet is available, Respoonse.text will guess an encoding.
- Default to ISO-8859-1 (Western) encoding for “text” subtypes.
- Removal of decode_unicode. (Backwards Incompatible)
- New multiple-hooks system.
- New Response.register_hook for registering hooks within the pipeline.
- Response.url is now Unicode.
- SSL verify=False bugfix (apparent on windows machines).
- Asynchronous async.send method.
- Support for proper chunk streams with boundaries.
- session argument for Session classes.
- Print entire hook tracebacks, not just exception instance.
- Fix response.iter_lines from pending next line.
- Fix but in HTTP-digest auth w/ URI having query strings.
- Fix in Event Hooks section.
- Urllib3 update.
- danger_mode for automatic Response.raise_for_status()
- Response.iter_lines refactor
- verify ssl is default.
- Packaging fix.
- SSL CERT VERIFICATION!
- Release of Cerifi: Mozilla’s cert list.
- New ‘verify’ argument for SSL requests.
- Urllib3 update.
- iter_lines last-line truncation fix
- Force safe_mode for async requests
- Handle safe_mode exceptions more consistently
- Fix iteration on null responses in safe_mode
- Socket timeout fixes.
- Proxy Authorization support.
- Prefetch bugfix.
- Added license to installed version.
- Converted auth system to use simpler callable objects.
- New session parameter to API methods.
- Display full URL while logging.
- New Unicode decoding system, based on over-ridable Response.encoding.
- Proper URL slash-quote handling.
- Cookies with [, ], and _ allowed.
- URL Request path fix
- Proxy fix.
- Timeouts fix.
- Keep-alive support!
- Complete removal of Urllib2
- Complete removal of Poster
- Complete removal of CookieJars
- New ConnectionError raising
- Safe_mode for error catching
- prefetch parameter for request methods
- OPTION method
- Async pool size throttling
- File uploads send real names
- Vendored in urllib3
- Digest authentication bugfix (attach query data to path)
- Response.content = None if there was an invalid repsonse.
- Redirection auth handling.
- Session Hooks fix.
- Digest Auth fix.
- PATCH Fix.
- Move away from urllib2 authentication handling.
- Fully Remove AuthManager, AuthObject, &c.
- New tuple-based auth system with handler callbacks.
- Sessions are now the primary interface.
- Deprecated InvalidMethodException.
- PATCH fix.
- New config system (no more global settings).
- Session parameter bugfix (params merging).
- Offline (fast) test suite.
- Session dictionary argument merging.
- Automatic decoding of unicode, based on HTTP Headers.
- New decode_unicode setting.
- Removal of r.read/close methods.
- New r.faw interface for advanced response usage.*
- Automatic expansion of parameterized headers.
- Beautiful requests.async module, for making async requests w/ gevent.
- GET/HEAD obeys allow_redirects=False.
- Enhanced status codes experience \o/
- Set a maximum number of redirects (settings.max_redirects)
- Full Unicode URL support
- Support for protocol-less redirects.
- Allow for arbitrary request types.
- New callback hook system
- New persistient sessions object and context manager
- Transparent Dict-cookie handling
- Status code reference object
- Removed Response.cached
- Added Response.request
- All args are kwargs
- Relative redirect support
- HTTPError handling improvements
- Improved https testing
- International Domain Name Support!
- Access headers without fetching entire body (read())
- Use lists as dicts for parameters
- Add Forced Basic Authentication
- Forced Basic is default authentication type
- python-requests.org default User-Agent header
- CaseInsensitiveDict lower-case caching
- Response.history bugfix
- PATCH Support
- Support for Proxies
- HTTPBin Test Suite
- Redirect Fixes
- settings.verbose stream writing
- Querystrings for all methods
- URLErrors (Connection Refused, Timeout, Invalid URLs) are treated as explicity raised r.requests.get('hwe://blah'); r.raise_for_status()
- Improved Redirection Handling
- New ‘allow_redirects’ param for following non-GET/HEAD Redirects
- Settings module refactoring
- Response.history: list of redirected responses
- Case-Insensitive Header Dictionaries!
- Unicode URLs
- Urllib2 HTTPAuthentication Recursion fix (Basic/Digest)
- Internal Refactor
- Bytes data upload Bugfix
- Request timeouts
- Unicode url-encoded data
- Settings context manager and module
- Automatic Decompression of GZip Encoded Content
- AutoAuth Support for Tupled HTTP Auth
- Cookie Changes
- Poster fix
- Automatic Authentication API Change
- Smarter Query URL Parameterization
- Allow file uploads and POST data together
- New Authentication Manager System
- Simpler Basic HTTP System
- Supports all build-in urllib2 Auths
- Allows for custom Auth Handlers
- Python 2.5 Support
- PyPy-c v1.4 Support
- Auto-Authentication tests
- Improved Request object constructor
- New HTTPHandling Methods
- Response.__nonzero__ (false if bad HTTP Status)
- Response.ok (True if expected HTTP Status)
- Response.error (Logged HTTPError if bad HTTP Status)
- Response.raise_for_status() (Raises stored HTTPError)
- Still handles request in the event of an HTTPError. (Issue #2)
- Eventlet and Gevent Monkeypatch support.
- Cookie Support (Issue #1)
- Added file attribute to POST and PUT requests for multipart-encode file uploads.
- Added Request.url attribute for context and redirects
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