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A minimal PyPI server for use with pip/easy_install.

Project description


pypiserver - minimal PyPI server for use with pip/easy_install

Latest Version in PyPI Travis build status Dependencies up-to-date? Downloads Supported Python versions Project License









Kostis Anagnostopoulos <>, Matthew Planchard <>


zlib/libpng + MIT

pypiserver is a minimal PyPI compatible server for pip or easy_install. It is based on bottle and serves packages from regular directories. Wheels, bdists, eggs and accompanying PGP-signatures can be uploaded either with pip, setuptools, twine or simply copied with scp.

Quickstart: Installation and Usage

pypiserver > 1.2.x works with python 2.7 and 3.3+ or pypy. Python 3.0 --> 3.2 may also work, but it is not being tested for these versions. For legacy python versions, use pypiserver-1.1.x series.

Run the following commands to get your pypiserver up and running:

## Installation.
pip install pypiserver                ## Or: pypiserver[passlib,watchdog]
mkdir ~/packages                      ## Copy packages into this directory.

## Start server.
pypi-server -p 8080 ~/packages &      ## Will listen to all IPs.

From the client computer, type this:

## Download and Install hosted packages.
pip install  --extra-index-url http://localhost:8080/simple/ ...
## Search hosted packages
pip search --index http://localhost:8080/simple/ ...

See also Client-side configurations for avoiding tedious typing.

Uploading packages from sources, remotely

Instead of copying packages directly to the server’s folder, you may also upload them remotely with a python upload command. Currently only password-protected uploads are supported!

  1. First make sure you have the passlib module installed (note that passlib>=1.6 is required), which is needed for parsing the Apache htpasswd file specified by the -P, --passwords option (see next steps):

    pip install passlib
  2. Create the Apache htpasswd file with at least one user/password pair with this command (you’ll be prompted for a password):

    htpasswd -sc htpasswd.txt <some_username>
  3. You need to restart the server with the -P option only once (but user/password pairs can later be added or updated on the fly):

    ./pypi-server -p 8080 -P htpasswd.txt ~/packages &
  4. On client-side, edit or create a ~/.pypirc file with a similar content:

    index-servers =
    repository: http://localhost:8080
    username: <some_username>
    password: <some_passwd>
  5. Then from within the directory of the python-project you wish to upload, issue this command:

    python sdist upload -r local

Client-side configurations

Always specifying the the pypi url on the command line is a bit cumbersome. Since pypiserver redirects pip/easy_install to the index if it doesn’t have a requested package, it’s a good idea to configure them to always use your local pypi index.

Configuring pip

For pip command this can be done by setting the environment variable PIP_EXTRA_INDEX_URL in your .bashr/.profile/.zshrc:

export PIP_EXTRA_INDEX_URL=http://localhost:8080/simple/

or by adding the following lines to ~/.pip/pip.conf:

extra-index-url = http://localhost:8080/simple/
Configuring easy_install

For easy_install command you may set the following configuration in ~/.pydistutils.cfg:

index_url = http://localhost:8080/simple/

Alternative Installation methods

When trying the methods below, first use the following command to check whether previous versions of pypiserver already exist, and (optionally) uninstall them:

## VERSION-CHECK: Fails if not installed.
pypi-server --version

## UNINSTALL: Invoke again untill it fails.
pip uninstall pypiserver

Installing the very latest version

In case the latest version in pypi is a pre-release, you have to use pip’s –pre option. And to update an existing installation combine it with –ignore-installed:

pip install pypiserver --pre -I

You can even install the latest pypiserver directly from github with the following command, assuming you have git installed on your $PATH:

pip install git+git://

Installing it as standalone script

The git repository contains a script, which is a single python file that can be executed without any other dependencies.

Run the following commands to download the script with wget:

chmod +x

or with curl:

curl -O
chmod +x

You can then start-up the server with:


Feel free to rename the script and move it into your $PATH.

Running on heroku/dotcloud contains instructions on how to run pypiserver on one of the supported cloud service providers.

Detailed Usage

Enter pypi-server -h in the cmd-line to print a detailed usage message:

  start PyPI compatible package server serving packages from
  command line, it uses the default ~/packages.  pypiserver scans this
  directory recursively for packages. It skips packages and
  directories starting with a dot. Multiple package directories can be

pypi-server understands the following options:

  -p, --port PORT
    listen on port PORT (default: 8080)

  -i, --interface INTERFACE
    listen on interface INTERFACE (default:, any interface)

  -a, --authenticate (UPDATE|download|list), ...
    comma-separated list of (case-insensitive) actions to authenticate
    Use '.' or '' for empty. Requires to have set the password (-P option).
    For example to password-protect package downloads (in addition to uploads)
    while leaving listings public, give:
      -P foo/htpasswd.txt  -a update,download
    To drop all authentications, use:
      -P .  -a .
    Note that when uploads are not protected, the `register` command
    is not necessary, but `~/.pypirc` still need username and password fields,
    even if bogus.
    By default, only 'update' is password-protected.

  -P, --passwords PASSWORD_FILE
    use apache htpasswd file PASSWORD_FILE to set usernames & passwords when
    authenticating certain actions (see -a option).
    If you want to allow un-authorized access, set this option and -a
    explicitly to empty (either '.' or'').

    disable redirect to real PyPI index for packages not found in the
    local index

  --fallback-url FALLBACK_URL
    for packages not found in the local index, this URL will be used to
    redirect to (default:

  --server METHOD
    use METHOD to run the server. Valid values include paste,
    cherrypy, twisted, gunicorn, gevent, wsgiref, auto. The
    default is to use "auto" which chooses one of paste, cherrypy,
    twisted or wsgiref.

    [deprecated] serve packages from PACKAGES_DIRECTORY

  -o, --overwrite
    allow overwriting existing package files

  --hash-algo ALGO
    any `hashlib` available algo used as fragments on package links.
    Set one of (0, no, off, false) to disabled it. (default: md5)

  --welcome HTML_FILE
    uses the ASCII contents of HTML_FILE as welcome message response.

    enable INFO logging;  repeat for more verbosity.

  --log-conf <FILE>
    read logging configuration from FILE.
    By default, configuration is read from `log.conf` if found in server's dir.

  --log-file <FILE>
    write logging info into this FILE.

  --log-frmt <FILE>
    the logging format-string.  (see `logging.LogRecord` class from standard python library)
    [Default: %(asctime)s|%(name)s|%(levelname)s|%(thread)d|%(message)s]

  --log-req-frmt FORMAT
    a format-string selecting Http-Request properties to log; set to  '%s' to see them all.
    [Default: %(bottle.request)s]

  --log-res-frmt FORMAT
    a format-string selecting Http-Response properties to log; set to  '%s' to see them all.
    [Default: %(status)s]

  --log-err-frmt FORMAT
    a format-string selecting Http-Error properties to log; set to  '%s' to see them all.
    [Default: %(body)s: %(exception)s \n%(traceback)s]

pypi-server -h
pypi-server --help
  show this help message

pypi-server --version
  show pypi-server's version

  update packages in PACKAGES_DIRECTORY. This command searches for updates and shows a pip command line which
  updates the package.

The following additional options can be specified with -U:

    execute the pip commands instead of only showing them

    download package updates to this directory. The default is to use
    the directory which contains the latest version of the package to
    be updated.

    allow updating to unstable version (alpha, beta, rc, dev versions)

Visit for more information.

Managing the package directory

The pypi-server command has the -U option that searches for updates of available packages. It scans the package directory for available packages and searches on for updates. Without further options pypi-server -U will just print a list of commands which must be run in order to get the latest version of each package. Output looks like:

$ ./pypi-server -U
checking 106 packages for newer version


no releases found on pypi for PyXML, Pymacs, mercurial, setuptools

# update raven from 1.4.3 to 1.4.4
pip -q install --no-deps  --extra-index-url -d /home/ralf/packages/mirror raven==1.4.4

# update greenlet from 0.3.3 to 0.3.4
pip -q install --no-deps  --extra-index-url -d /home/ralf/packages/mirror greenlet==0.3.4

It first prints for each package a single character after checking the available versions on pypi. A dot(.) means the package is up-to-date, 'u' means the package can be updated and 'e' means the list of releases on pypi is empty. After that it shows a pip command line which can be used to update a one package. Either copy and paste that or run pypi-server -Ux in order to really execute those commands. You need to have pip installed for that to work however.

Specifying an additional -u option will also allow alpha, beta and release candidates to be downloaded. Without this option these releases won’t be considered.

Serving thousands of packages

By default, pypiserver scans the entire packages directory each time an incoming HTTP request occurs. This isn’t a problem for a small number of packages, but causes noticeable slowdowns when serving thousands or tens of thousands of packages.

If you run into this problem, significant speedups can be gained by enabling pypiserver’s directory caching functionality. The only requirement is to install the watchdog package, or it can be installed by installing pypiserver using the cache extras option:

pip install pypiserver[cache]

If you are using a static webserver such as Apache or nginx as a reverse-proxy for pypiserver, additional speedup can be gained by directly serving the packages directory:

For instance, in nginx you may adding the following config to serve packages-directly directly (take care not to expose “sensitive” files):

location /packages/ {
  root /path/to/packages/parentdir;

If you have packages that are very large, you may find it helpful to disable hashing of files (set --hash-algo=off, or hash_algo=None when using wsgi).

Managing Automated Startup

There are a variety of options for handling the automated starting of pypiserver upon system startup. Two of the most common are systemd and supervisor.

Running as a systemd service

systemd is installed by default on most modern Linux systems and as such, it is an excellent option for managing the pypiserver process. An example config file for systemd can be seen below:

Description=A minimal PyPI server for use with pip/easy_install.

# systemd requires absolute path here too.

ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/pypi-server -p 8080 -a update,download --log-file /var/log/pypiserver.log --P /etc/nginx/.htpasswd /var/www/pypi
ExecStop=/bin/kill -TERM $MAINPID
ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID




Adjusting the paths and adding this file as pypiserver.service into your systemd/system directory will allow management of the pypiserver process with systemctl, e.g. systemctl start pypiserver.

More useful information about systemd can be found at

Launching through supervisor

supervisor has the benefit of being a pure python package and as such, it provides excellent cross-platform support for process management. An example configuration file for supervisor is given below:

command=/home/pypi/pypi-venv/bin/pypi-server -p 7001 -P /home/pypi/.htaccess /home/pypi/packages

From there, the process can be managed via supervisord using supervisorctl.

Utilizing the API

In order to enable ad-hoc authentication-providers or to use WSGI-servers not supported by bottle out-of-the-box, you needed to launch pypiserver via its API.

  • The main entry-point for configuring pypiserver is the pypiserver:app() function. This function returns the internal WSGI-app that you my then send to any WSGI-server you like.

  • To get all pypiserver:app() keywords and their explanations, read the function pypiserver:default_config().

  • Finally, to fire-up a WSGI-server with the configured app, invoke the bottle:run(app, host, port, server) function. Note that pypiserver ships with it’s own copy of bottle; to use it, import it like that: from pypiserver import bottle

Using a different WSGI-server

  • The bottle web-server which supports many WSGI-servers, among others, paste, cherrypy, twisted and wsgiref (part of python); you select them using the --server flag.

  • You may view all supported WSGI servers using the following interactive code:

    >>> from pypiserver import bottle
    >>> list(bottle.server_names.keys())
    ['cgi', 'gunicorn', 'cherrypy', 'eventlet', 'tornado', 'geventSocketIO',
    'rocket', 'diesel', 'twisted', 'wsgiref', 'fapws3', 'bjoern', 'gevent',
    'meinheld', 'auto', 'aiohttp', 'flup', 'gae', 'paste', 'waitress']
  • If none of the above servers matches your needs, invoke just the pypiserver:app() method which returns the internal WSGI-app WITHOUT starting-up a server - you may then send it to any WSGI-server you like.


The following command uses gunicorn to start pypiserver:

gunicorn -w4 'pypiserver:app(root="/home/ralf/packages")'

or when using multiple roots:

gunicorn -w4 'pypiserver:app(root=["/home/ralf/packages", "/home/ralf/experimental"])'

In case you’re using apache2 with mod_wsgi, the following config-file (contributed by Thomas Waldmann) can be used:

# An example pypiserver.wsgi for use with apache2 and mod_wsgi, edit as necessary.
# apache virtualhost configuration for mod_wsgi daemon mode:
#    Alias /robots.txt /srv/yoursite/htdocs/robots.txt
#    WSGIPassAuthorization On
#    WSGIScriptAlias /     /srv/yoursite/cfg/pypiserver.wsgi
#    WSGIDaemonProcess     pypisrv user=pypisrv group=pypisrv processes=1 threads=5 maximum-requests=500 umask=0007 display-name=wsgi-pypisrv inactivity-timeout=300
#    WSGIProcessGroup      pypisrv

PACKAGES = "/srv/yoursite/packages"
HTPASSWD = "/srv/yoursite/htpasswd"
import pypiserver
application =, redirect_to_fallback=True, password_file=HTPASSWD)

paste allows to run multiple WSGI applications under different URL paths. Therefore it’s possible to serve different set of packages on different paths.

The following example paste.ini could be used to serve stable and unstable packages on different paths:

use = egg:Paste#urlmap
/unstable/ = unstable
/ = stable

use = egg:pypiserver#main
root = ~/stable-packages

use = egg:pypiserver#main
root = ~/stable-packages

use = egg:gunicorn#main
host =
port = 9000
workers = 5
accesslog = -

Using Ad-hoc authentication providers

The auther keyword of pypiserver:app() function maybe set only using the API. This can be any callable that returns a boolean when passed the username and the password for a given request.

For example, to authenticate users based on the /etc/passwd file under Unix, you may delegate such decisions to the python-pam library by following these steps:

  1. Ensure python-pam module is installed:

    pip install python-pam
  2. Create a python-script along these lines:

    $ cat >
    import pypiserver
    from pypiserver import bottle
    import pam'./packages', auther=pam.authenticate), host='', port=80, server='auto')
    [Ctrl+ D]
  3. Invoke the python-script to start-up pypiserver:

    $ python


To create a copy of the repository, use:

git clone
cd pypiserver

To receive any later changes, in the above folder use:

git pull

Known Limitations

pypiserver does not implement the full API as seen on PyPI. It implements just enough to make easy_install and pip install to work.

The following limitations are known:

Please use Github’s bugtracker for other bugs you find.

Similar Projects

There are lots of other projects, which allow you to run your own PyPI server. If pypiserver doesn’t work for you, the following are among the most popular alternatives:


pypiserver contains a copy of bottle which is available under the MIT license, and the remaining part is distributed under the zlib/libpng license. See the LICENSE.txt file.

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