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A minimal PyPI server for use with pip/easy_install.

Project description

.. -*- mode: rst; coding: utf-8 -*-

.. image:: pypiserver_logo.png
:width: 300 px
:align: center

pypiserver - minimal PyPI server for use with pip/easy_install
|pypi-ver| |travis-status| |dependencies| |downloads-count| |python-ver| \

:Version: 1.2.0b1
:Date: 2016-06-24
:Maintainer: Kostis Anagnostopoulos <>
:License: zlib/libpng + MIT

*pypiserver* is a minimal PyPI_ compatible server for *pip* or *easy_install*.
It is based on bottle_ and serves packages from regular directories.
Wheels, bdists, eggs and accompanying PGP-signatures can be uploaded
either with *pip*, *setuptools*, *twine* or simply copied with *scp*.

.. contents:: Table of Contents
:backlinks: top

Quickstart: Installation and Usage
*pypiserver* ``> 1.2.x`` works with python ``2.7`` and ``3.3+`` or *pypy*.
Python ``3.0 --> 3.2`` may also work, but it is not being tested for these
For legacy python versions, use ``pypiserver-1.1.x`` series.

Run the following commands to get your *pypiserver* up and running::

## Installation.
pip install pypiserver ## Or: pypiserver[passlib,watchdog]
mkdir ~/packages ## Copy packages into this directory.

## Start server.
pypi-server -p 8080 ~/packages & ## Will listen to all IPs.

>From the client computer, type this::

## Download and Install hosted packages.
pip install --extra-index-url http://localhost:8080/simple/ ...
## Search hosted packages
pip search --index http://localhost:8080/simple/ ...

See also `Client-side configurations`_ for avoiding tedious typing.

.. Note::
The above commands work on a unix-like operating system with a posix shell.
The ``'~'`` character expands to user's home directory.

If you're using Windows, you'll have to use their "Windows counterparts".
The same is true for the rest of this documentation.

Uploading packages from sources, remotely
Instead of copying packages directly to the server's folder,
you may also upload them remotely with a ``python upload`` command.
Currently only password-protected uploads are supported!

#. First make sure you have the *passlib* module installed (note that
`passlib>=1.6` is required), which is needed for parsing the Apache
*htpasswd* file specified by the `-P`, `--passwords` option
(see next steps)::

pip install passlib

#. Create the Apache *htpasswd* file with at least one user/password pair
with this command (you'll be prompted for a password)::

htpasswd -sc htpasswd.txt <some_username>

.. Tip:: Read this SO question for running `htpasswd` cmd
under *Windows*:

or if you have bogus passwords that you don't care because they are for
an internal service (which is still "bad", from a security prespective...)
you may use this public service:

It is also possible to disable authentication even for uploads.
To avoid lazy security decisions, read help for ``-P`` and ``-a`` options.

#. You need to restart the server with the `-P` option only once
(but user/password pairs can later be added or updated on the fly)::

./pypi-server -p 8080 -P htpasswd.txt ~/packages &

#. Alternate Authentication using PAM:
'auther' is only avaliable through the api not command line flags.
Example Script::
from pypiserver import bottle
import pypiserver
from pypiserver.core import auth_by_pam

kwds = pypiserver.default_config(auther=auth_by_pam, root='/packages')
config = pypiserver.Configuration(**kwds)
app =**kwds),, port=config.port, server=config.server)

.. Note::
If you are getting authentication even with incorrect credentials please check your PAM configuration.

#. On client-side, edit or create a `~/.pypirc` file with a similar content::

index-servers =


repository: http://localhost:8080
username: <some_username>
password: <some_passwd>

#. Then from within the directory of the python-project you wish to upload,
issue this command::

python sdist upload -r local

.. Tip::
To avoid storing you passwords on disk, in clear text, you may either:

- use the ``register`` *setuptools*'s command with the ``-r`` option,
like that::

python sdist register -r local upload -r local

- use `twine`_ library, which
breaks the procedure in two steps. In addition, it supports signing
your files with PGP-Signatures and uploading the generated `.asc` files
to *pypiserver*::

twine upload -r local --sign -identity user_name ./

.. Tip::
You can also upload packages using `pypi-uploader`_, which
obviates the need to download packages locally prior to uploading them to
pypiserver. You can install it with ``pip install pypi-uploader``, and
assuming you have a ``pypi_local`` source set up in your ``~/.pypirc``,
use it like this::

pypiupload packages mock==1.0.1 requests==2.2.1 -i pypi_local
pypiupload requirements requirements.txt -i pypi_local

Client-side configurations
Always specifying the the pypi url on the command line is a bit
cumbersome. Since *pypiserver* redirects ``pip/easy_install`` to the
```` index if it doesn't have a requested package, it's a
good idea to configure them to always use your local pypi index.

Configuring *pip*
For ``pip`` command this can be done by setting the environment variable
``PIP_EXTRA_INDEX_URL`` in your ``.bashr/.profile/.zshrc``::

export PIP_EXTRA_INDEX_URL=http://localhost:8080/simple/

or by adding the following lines to ``~/.pip/pip.conf``::

extra-index-url = http://localhost:8080/simple/

.. Note::
If you have installed *pypiserver* on a remote url without *https*
you wil receive an "untrusted" warning from *pip*, urging you to append
the ``--trusted-host`` option. You can also include this option permanently
in your configuration-files or environment variables.

Configuring *easy_install*
For ``easy_install`` command you may set the following configuration in

index_url = http://localhost:8080/simple/

Alternative Installation methods
When trying the methods below, first use the following command to check whether
previous versions of *pypiserver* already exist, and (optionally) uninstall them::

## VERSION-CHECK: Fails if not installed.
pypi-server --version

## UNINSTALL: Invoke again untill it fails.
pip uninstall pypiserver

Installing the very latest version
In case the latest version in *pypi* is a pre-release, you have to use
*pip*'s `--pre` option. And to update an existing installation combine it
with `--ignore-installed`::

pip install pypiserver --pre -I

You can even install the latest *pypiserver* directly from *github* with the
following command, assuming you have *git* installed on your `$PATH`::

pip install git+git://

Installing it as standalone script
The git repository contains a ```` script,
which is a single python file that can be executed without any other

Run the following commands to download the script with ``wget``::

chmod +x

or with ``curl``::

curl -O
chmod +x

You can then start-up the server with::


Feel free to rename the script and move it into your ``$PATH``.

Running on *heroku/dotcloud*
---------------------------- contains
instructions on how to run *pypiserver* on one of the supported cloud
service providers.

Detailed Usage
Enter ``pypi-server -h`` in the cmd-line to print a detailed usage message::

start PyPI compatible package server serving packages from
command line, it uses the default ~/packages. pypiserver scans this
directory recursively for packages. It skips packages and
directories starting with a dot. Multiple package directories can be

pypi-server understands the following options:

-p, --port PORT
listen on port PORT (default: 8080)

-i, --interface INTERFACE
listen on interface INTERFACE (default:, any interface)

-a, --authenticate (UPDATE|download|list), ...
comma-separated list of (case-insensitive) actions to authenticate
Use '.' or '' for empty. Requires to have set the password (-P option).
For example to password-protect package downloads (in addition to uploads)
while leaving listings public, give:
-P foo/htpasswd.txt -a update,download
To drop all authentications, use:
-P . -a .
Note that when uploads are not protected, the `register` command
is not necessary, but `~/.pypirc` still need username and password fields,
even if bogus.
By default, only 'update' is password-protected.

-P, --passwords PASSWORD_FILE
use apache htpasswd file PASSWORD_FILE to set usernames & passwords when
authenticating certain actions (see -a option).
If you want to allow un-authorized access, set this option and -a
explicitly to empty (either '.' or'').

disable redirect to real PyPI index for packages not found in the
local index

--fallback-url FALLBACK_URL
for packages not found in the local index, this URL will be used to
redirect to (default:

--server METHOD
use METHOD to run the server. Valid values include paste,
cherrypy, twisted, gunicorn, gevent, wsgiref, auto. The
default is to use "auto" which chooses one of paste, cherrypy,
twisted or wsgiref.

[deprecated] serve packages from PACKAGES_DIRECTORY

-o, --overwrite
allow overwriting existing package files

--hash-algo ALGO
any `hashlib` available algo used as fragments on package links.
Set one of (0, no, off, false) to disabled it. (default: md5)

--welcome HTML_FILE
uses the ASCII contents of HTML_FILE as welcome message response.

enable INFO logging; repeat for more verbosity.

--log-conf <FILE>
read logging configuration from FILE.
By default, configuration is read from `log.conf` if found in server's dir.

--log-file <FILE>
write logging info into this FILE.

--log-frmt <FILE>
the logging format-string. (see `logging.LogRecord` class from standard python library)
[Default: %(asctime)s|%(name)s|%(levelname)s|%(thread)d|%(message)s]

--log-req-frmt FORMAT
a format-string selecting Http-Request properties to log; set to '%s' to see them all.
[Default: %(bottle.request)s]

--log-res-frmt FORMAT
a format-string selecting Http-Response properties to log; set to '%s' to see them all.
[Default: %(status)s]

--log-err-frmt FORMAT
a format-string selecting Http-Error properties to log; set to '%s' to see them all.
[Default: %(body)s: %(exception)s \n%(traceback)s]

pypi-server -h
pypi-server --help
show this help message

pypi-server --version
show pypi-server's version

update packages in PACKAGES_DIRECTORY. This command searches for updates and shows a pip command line which
updates the package.

The following additional options can be specified with -U:

execute the pip commands instead of only showing them

download package updates to this directory. The default is to use
the directory which contains the latest version of the package to
be updated.

allow updating to unstable version (alpha, beta, rc, dev versions)

Visit for more information.

Managing the package directory
The ``pypi-server`` command has the ``-U`` option that searches for updates of
available packages. It scans the package directory for available
packages and searches on for updates. Without further
options ``pypi-server -U`` will just print a list of commands which must
be run in order to get the latest version of each package. Output
looks like::

$ ./pypi-server -U
checking 106 packages for newer version


no releases found on pypi for PyXML, Pymacs, mercurial, setuptools

# update raven from 1.4.3 to 1.4.4
pip -q install --no-deps --extra-index-url -d /home/ralf/packages/mirror raven==1.4.4

# update greenlet from 0.3.3 to 0.3.4
pip -q install --no-deps --extra-index-url -d /home/ralf/packages/mirror greenlet==0.3.4

It first prints for each package a single character after checking the
available versions on pypi. A dot(`.`) means the package is up-to-date, ``'u'``
means the package can be updated and ``'e'`` means the list of releases on
pypi is empty. After that it shows a *pip* command line which can be used
to update a one package. Either copy and paste that or run
``pypi-server -Ux`` in order to really execute those commands. You need
to have *pip* installed for that to work however.

Specifying an additional ``-u`` option will also allow alpha, beta and
release candidates to be downloaded. Without this option these
releases won't be considered.

Serving thousands of packages

By default, *pypiserver* scans the entire packages directory each time an
incoming HTTP request occurs. This isn't a problem for a small number of
packages, but causes noticeable slowdowns when serving thousands or tens
of thousands of packages.

If you run into this problem, significant speedups can be gained by enabling
pypiserver's directory caching functionality. The only requirement is to
install the ``watchdog`` package, or it can be installed by installing
``pypiserver`` using the ``cache`` extras option::

pip install pypiserver[cache]

If you are using a static webserver such as *Apache* or *nginx* as
a reverse-proxy for pypiserver, additional speedup can be gained by
directly serving the packages directory:

For instance, in *nginx* you may adding the following config to serve
packages-directly directly (take care not to expose "sensitive" files)::

location /packages/ {
root /path/to/packages/parentdir;

If you have packages that are very large, you may find it helpful to
disable hashing of files (set ``--hash-algo=off``, or ``hash_algo=None`` when
using wsgi).

Managing Automated Startup
There are a variety of options for handling the automated starting of
pypiserver upon system startup. Two of the most common are *systemd* and

Running as a *systemd* service
*systemd* is installed by default on most modern Linux systems and as such,
it is an excellent option for managing the pypiserver process. An example
config file for ``systemd`` can be seen below::

Description=A minimal PyPI server for use with pip/easy_install.

# systemd requires absolute path here too.

ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/pypi-server -p 8080 -a update,download --log-file /var/log/pypiserver.log --P /etc/nginx/.htpasswd /var/www/pypi
ExecStop=/bin/kill -TERM $MAINPID
ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID




Adjusting the paths and adding this file as ``pypiserver.service`` into your
``systemd/system`` directory will allow management of the pypiserver process with
``systemctl``, e.g. ``systemctl start pypiserver``.

More useful information about *systemd* can be found at

Launching through *supervisor*

`supervisor <>`_ has the benefit of being a pure python
package and as such, it provides excellent cross-platform support for process
management. An example configuration file for ``supervisor`` is given below::

command=/home/pypi/pypi-venv/bin/pypi-server -p 7001 -P /home/pypi/.htaccess /home/pypi/packages

>From there, the process can be managed via ``supervisord`` using ``supervisorctl``.

Using a different WSGI server
- *pypiserver* ships with it's own copy of bottle.
It's possible to use bottle with different WSGI servers.

- *pypiserver* chooses any of the
following *paste*, *cherrypy*, *twisted*, *wsgiref* (part of python) if

- If none of the above servers matches your needs, pypiserver also
exposes an API to get the internal WSGI app, which you can then run
under any WSGI server you like. ```` has the following

def app(root=None,

and returns the WSGI application. `root` is the package directory,
`redirect_to_fallback` specifies whether to redirect to `fallback_url` when
a package is missing.


The following command uses *gunicorn* to start *pypiserver*::

gunicorn -w4 'pypiserver:app(root="/home/ralf/packages")'

or when using multiple roots::

gunicorn -w4 'pypiserver:app(root=["/home/ralf/packages", "/home/ralf/experimental"])'

In case you're using *apache2* with *mod_wsgi*, the following config-file
(contributed by Thomas Waldmann) can be used::

# An example pypiserver.wsgi for use with apache2 and mod_wsgi, edit as necessary.
# apache virtualhost configuration for mod_wsgi daemon mode:
# Alias /robots.txt /srv/yoursite/htdocs/robots.txt
# WSGIPassAuthorization On
# WSGIScriptAlias / /srv/yoursite/cfg/pypiserver.wsgi
# WSGIDaemonProcess pypisrv user=pypisrv group=pypisrv processes=1 threads=5 maximum-requests=500 umask=0007 display-name=wsgi-pypisrv inactivity-timeout=300
# WSGIProcessGroup pypisrv

PACKAGES = "/srv/yoursite/packages"
HTPASSWD = "/srv/yoursite/htpasswd"
import pypiserver
application =, redirect_to_fallback=True, password_file=HTPASSWD)

`paste <>`_ allows to run multiple WSGI applications
under different URL paths. Therefore it's possible to serve different set
of packages on different paths.

The following example ``paste.ini`` could be used to serve stable and
unstable packages on different paths::

use = egg:Paste#urlmap
/unstable/ = unstable
/ = stable

use = egg:pypiserver#main
root = ~/stable-packages

use = egg:pypiserver#main
root = ~/stable-packages

use = egg:gunicorn#main
host =
port = 9000
workers = 5
accesslog = -

.. Note::
You need to install some more dependencies for this to work, like::

pip install paste pastedeploy gunicorn pypiserver

The server can then start with::

gunicorn_paster paste.ini

To create a copy of the repository, use::

git clone
cd pypiserver

To receive any later changes, in the above folder use::

git pull

Known Limitations
*pypiserver* does not implement the full API as seen on PyPI_. It
implements just enough to make ``easy_install`` and ``pip install`` to work.

The following limitations are known:

- Command ``pypi -U`` that compares uploaded packages with *pypi* to see if
they are outdated, does not respect a http-proxy environment variable
- It accepts documentation uploads but does not save them to
disk (see for a
- It does not handle misspelled packages as *pypi-repo* does,
therefore it is suggested to use it with ``--extra-index-url`` instead
of ``--index-url`` (see

Please use Github's `bugtracker <>`_
for other bugs you find.

Similar Projects
There are lots of other projects, which allow you to run your own
PyPI server. If *pypiserver* doesn't work for you, the following are
among the most popular alternatives:

- `devpi-server <>`_:
a reliable fast caching server, part of
the comprehensive `github-style pypi index server and packaging meta tool
(version: 2.1.4, access date: 8/3/2015)

- `pip2pi <>`_
a simple cmd-line tool that builds a PyPI-compatible local folder from pip requirements
(version: 0.6.7, access date: 8/3/2015)

- `flask-pypi-proxy <>`_
A proxy for PyPI that also enables also uploading custom packages.

- `twine`_:
A command-line utility for interacting with PyPI or *pypiserver*.

- `pypi-uploader`_:
A command-line utility to upload packages to your *pypiserver* from pypi without
having to store them locally first.

- Check this SO question: ` How to roll my own pypi

*pypiserver* contains a copy of bottle_ which is available under the
*MIT* license, and the remaining part is distributed under the *zlib/libpng* license.
See the ``LICENSE.txt`` file.

.. _bottle:
.. _PyPI:
.. _twine:
.. _pypi-uploader:
.. |travis-status| image::
:alt: Travis build status
:scale: 100%

.. |pypi-ver| image::
:alt: Latest Version in PyPI

.. |python-ver| image::
:alt: Supported Python versions

.. |downloads-count| image::
:alt: Downloads

.. |proj-license| image::
:alt: Project License

.. |dependencies| image::
:alt: Dependencies up-to-date?

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