Clean single-source support for Python 3 and 2
future is the missing compatibility layer between Python 2 and Python 3. It allows you to use a single, clean Python 3.x-compatible codebase to support both Python 2 and Python 3 with minimal overhead.
It is designed to be used as follows:
from __future__ import (absolute_import, division, print_function, unicode_literals) from builtins import ( bytes, dict, int, list, object, range, str, ascii, chr, hex, input, next, oct, open, pow, round, super, filter, map, zip)
followed by predominantly standard, idiomatic Python 3 code that then runs similarly on Python 2.6/2.7 and Python 3.3+.
The imports have no effect on Python 3. On Python 2, they shadow the corresponding builtins, which normally have different semantics on Python 3 versus 2, to provide their Python 3 semantics.
Standard library reorganization
future supports the standard library reorganization (PEP 3108) through the following Py3 interfaces:
>>> # Top-level packages with Py3 names provided on Py2: >>> import html.parser >>> import queue >>> import tkinter.dialog >>> import xmlrpc.client >>> # etc.>>> # Aliases provided for extensions to existing Py2 module names: >>> from future.standard_library import install_aliases >>> install_aliases()>>> from collections import Counter, OrderedDict # backported to Py2.6 >>> from collections import UserDict, UserList, UserString >>> import urllib.request >>> from itertools import filterfalse, zip_longest >>> from subprocess import getoutput, getstatusoutput
An included script called futurize aids in converting code (from either Python 2 or Python 3) to code compatible with both platforms. It is similar to python-modernize but goes further in providing Python 3 compatibility through the use of the backported types and builtin functions in future.
|Author:||Ed Schofield, Jordan M. Adler, et al|
|Sponsor:||Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia, and Python Charmers Pte Ltd, Singapore. http://pythoncharmers.com|
|Others:||See docs/credits.rst or http://python-future.org/credits.html|
Copyright 2013-2019 Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia. The software is distributed under an MIT licence. See LICENSE.txt.
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