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Clean single-source support for Python 3 and 2

Project description

future is the missing compatibility layer between Python 2 and Python 3. It allows you to use a single, clean Python 3.x-compatible codebase to support both Python 2 and Python 3 with minimal overhead.

Notable projects that use future for Python 2/3 compatibility are Mezzanine and xlwt-future.

It is designed to be used as follows:

from __future__ import (absolute_import, division,
                        print_function, unicode_literals)
from future import standard_library
from future.builtins import *     # or explicit imports: str, int, bytes,
                                  # open, super, range, zip, input, etc.

followed by predominantly standard, idiomatic Python 3 code that then runs similarly on Python 2.6/2.7 and Python 3.3+.

On Python 3, the import lines have zero effect (and zero namespace pollution).

On Python 2, from future import standard_library installs import hooks to allow renamed and moved standard library modules to be imported from their new Py3 locations. On Python 2, the from future.builtins import * line shadows all builtins with different behaviour in Python 3 versus 2 to provide their Python 3 semantics.

Automatic conversion

An included script called futurize aids in converting code (from either Python 2 or Python 3) to code compatible with both platforms. It is similar to python-modernize but goes further in providing Python 3 compatibility through the use of the backported types and builtin functions in future.



Also see the docstrings for each of these modules for more info:

- future.standard_library
- future.builtins
- future.utils


Author:Ed Schofield
Sponsor:Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia, and Python Charmers Pte Ltd, Singapore.
Others:See docs/credits.rst or


Copyright 2013-2014 Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia. The software is distributed under an MIT licence. See LICENSE.txt.

Project details

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