An extremely fast Python linter, written in Rust.
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An extremely fast Python linter, written in Rust.
Linting the CPython codebase from scratch.
- ⚡️ 10-100x faster than existing linters
- 🐍 Installable via
- 🤝 Python 3.11 compatibility
- 📦 Built-in caching, to avoid re-analyzing unchanged files
- 🔧 Autofix support, for automatic error correction (e.g., automatically remove unused imports)
- 📏 Over 500 built-in rules
- ⚖️ Near-parity with the built-in Flake8 rule set
- 🔌 Native re-implementations of dozens of Flake8 plugins, like flake8-bugbear
- ⌨️ First-party editor integrations for VS Code and more
- 🌎 Monorepo-friendly, with hierarchical and cascading configuration
Ruff aims to be orders of magnitude faster than alternative tools while integrating more functionality behind a single, common interface.
Ruff can be used to replace Flake8 (plus dozens of plugins), isort, pydocstyle, yesqa, eradicate, pyupgrade, and autoflake, all while executing tens or hundreds of times faster than any individual tool.
Ruff is extremely actively developed and used in major open-source projects like:
...and many more.
Ruff is backed by Astral. Read the launch post, or the original project announcement.
Sebastián Ramírez, creator of FastAPI:
Ruff is so fast that sometimes I add an intentional bug in the code just to confirm it's actually running and checking the code.
Nick Schrock, founder of Elementl, co-creator of GraphQL:
Why is Ruff a gamechanger? Primarily because it is nearly 1000x faster. Literally. Not a typo. On our largest module (dagster itself, 250k LOC) pylint takes about 2.5 minutes, parallelized across 4 cores on my M1. Running ruff against our entire codebase takes .4 seconds.
Bryan Van de Ven, co-creator of Bokeh, original author of Conda:
Ruff is ~150-200x faster than flake8 on my machine, scanning the whole repo takes ~0.2s instead of ~20s. This is an enormous quality of life improvement for local dev. It's fast enough that I added it as an actual commit hook, which is terrific.
Timothy Crosley, creator of isort:
Just switched my first project to Ruff. Only one downside so far: it's so fast I couldn't believe it was working till I intentionally introduced some errors.
Tim Abbott, lead developer of Zulip:
This is just ridiculously fast...
Table of Contents
For more, see the documentation.
For more, see the documentation.
Ruff is available as
ruff on PyPI:
pip install ruff
You can also install Ruff via Homebrew, Conda, and with a variety of other package managers.
To run Ruff, try any of the following:
ruff check . # Lint all files in the current directory (and any subdirectories) ruff check path/to/code/ # Lint all files in `/path/to/code` (and any subdirectories) ruff check path/to/code/*.py # Lint all `.py` files in `/path/to/code` ruff check path/to/code/to/file.py # Lint `file.py`
Ruff can also be used as a pre-commit hook:
- repo: https://github.com/astral-sh/ruff-pre-commit # Ruff version. rev: v0.0.270 hooks: - id: ruff
Ruff can also be used as a VS Code extension or alongside any other editor through the Ruff LSP.
Ruff can also be used as a GitHub Action via
name: Ruff on: [ push, pull_request ] jobs: ruff: runs-on: ubuntu-latest steps: - uses: actions/checkout@v3 - uses: chartboost/ruff-action@v1
Ruff can be configured through a
.ruff.toml file (see:
Configuration, or Settings
for a complete list of all configuration options).
If left unspecified, the default configuration is equivalent to:
[tool.ruff] # Enable pycodestyle (`E`) and Pyflakes (`F`) codes by default. select = ["E", "F"] ignore =  # Allow autofix for all enabled rules (when `--fix`) is provided. fixable = ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "I", "N", "Q", "S", "T", "W", "ANN", "ARG", "BLE", "COM", "DJ", "DTZ", "EM", "ERA", "EXE", "FBT", "ICN", "INP", "ISC", "NPY", "PD", "PGH", "PIE", "PL", "PT", "PTH", "PYI", "RET", "RSE", "RUF", "SIM", "SLF", "TCH", "TID", "TRY", "UP", "YTT"] unfixable =  # Exclude a variety of commonly ignored directories. exclude = [ ".bzr", ".direnv", ".eggs", ".git", ".git-rewrite", ".hg", ".mypy_cache", ".nox", ".pants.d", ".pytype", ".ruff_cache", ".svn", ".tox", ".venv", "__pypackages__", "_build", "buck-out", "build", "dist", "node_modules", "venv", ] # Same as Black. line-length = 88 # Allow unused variables when underscore-prefixed. dummy-variable-rgx = "^(_+|(_+[a-zA-Z0-9_]*[a-zA-Z0-9]+?))$" # Assume Python 3.10. target-version = "py310" [tool.ruff.mccabe] # Unlike Flake8, default to a complexity level of 10. max-complexity = 10
Some configuration options can be provided via the command-line, such as those related to rule enablement and disablement, file discovery, logging level, and more:
ruff check path/to/code/ --select F401 --select F403 --quiet
ruff help for more on Ruff's top-level commands, or
ruff help check for more on the
Ruff supports over 500 lint rules, many of which are inspired by popular tools like Flake8, isort, pyupgrade, and others. Regardless of the rule's origin, Ruff re-implements every rule in Rust as a first-party feature.
By default, Ruff enables Flake8's
F rules. Ruff supports all rules from the
and a subset of the
E category, omitting those
stylistic rules made obsolete by the use of an autoformatter, like
If you're just getting started with Ruff, the default rule set is a great place to start: it catches a wide variety of common errors (like unused imports) with zero configuration.
Beyond the defaults, Ruff re-implements some of the most popular Flake8 plugins and related code quality tools, including:
- flake8-bandit (#1646)
- flynt (#2102)
For a complete enumeration of the supported rules, see Rules.
Contributions are welcome and highly appreciated. To get started, check out the contributing guidelines.
You can also join us on Discord.
Having trouble? Check out the existing issues on GitHub, or feel free to open a new one.
You can also ask for help on Discord.
Ruff's linter draws on both the APIs and implementation details of many other tools in the Python ecosystem, especially Flake8, Pyflakes, pycodestyle, pydocstyle, pyupgrade, and isort.
In some cases, Ruff includes a "direct" Rust port of the corresponding tool. We're grateful to the maintainers of these tools for their work, and for all the value they've provided to the Python community.
Ruff's autoformatter is built on a fork of Rome's
and again draws on both the APIs and implementation details of Rome,
Prettier, and Black.
Ruff is also influenced by a number of tools outside the Python ecosystem, like Clippy and ESLint.
Ruff is the beneficiary of a large number of contributors.
Ruff is released under the MIT license.
Who's Using Ruff?
Ruff is used by a number of major open-source projects and companies, including:
- Amazon (AWS SAM)
- Apache Airflow
- AstraZeneca (Magnus)
- Benchling (Refac)
- Cryptography (PyCA)
- Great Expectations
- Hugging Face (Transformers, Datasets, Diffusers)
- Home Assistant
- Matrix (Synapse)
- Meltano (Meltano CLI, Singer SDK)
- Modern Treasury (Python SDK)
- Mozilla (Firefox)
- Microsoft (Semantic Kernel, ONNX Runtime, LightGBM)
- Netflix (Dispatch)
- Prefect (Python SDK, Marvin)
- Scale AI (Launch SDK)
- Snowflake (SnowCLI)
- Stable Baselines3
- The Algorithms
- WordPress (Openverse)
- build (PyPA)
- cibuildwheel (PyPA)
Show Your Support
If you're using Ruff, consider adding the Ruff badge to project's
.. image:: https://img.shields.io/endpoint?url=https://raw.githubusercontent.com/charliermarsh/ruff/main/assets/badge/v2.json :target: https://github.com/charliermarsh/ruff :alt: Ruff
...or, as HTML:
<a href="https://github.com/charliermarsh/ruff"><img src="https://img.shields.io/endpoint?url=https://raw.githubusercontent.com/charliermarsh/ruff/main/assets/badge/v2.json" alt="Ruff" style="max-width:100%;"></a>
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