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The Pyramid web application framework, a Pylons project

Project description


Pyramid is a small, fast, down-to-earth, open source Python web development framework. It makes real-world web application development and deployment more fun, more predictable, and more productive.

Pyramid is a Pylons project, and underlies the newest web frameworks produced by the Pylons community.

Pyramid was previously known as repoze.bfg.

Support and Documentation

See the Pylons Project website to view documentation, report bugs, and obtain support.


Pyramid is offered under the BSD-derived Repoze Public License.


Pyramid is made available by Agendaless Consulting and a team of contributors.

1.0b3 (2011-01-28)

Bug Fixes

  • Use © instead of copyright symbol in paster templates / tutorial templates for the benefit of folks who cutnpaste and save to a non-UTF8 format.
  • pyramid.view.append_slash_notfound_view now preserves GET query parameters across redirects.


  • Beef up documentation related to set_default_permission: explicitly mention that default permissions also protect exception views.
  • Paster templates and tutorials now use tabs instead of spaces in their HTML templates.

1.0b2 (2011-01-24)

Bug Fixes

  • The production.ini generated by all paster templates now have an effective logging level of WARN, which prevents e.g. SQLAlchemy statement logging and other inappropriate output.
  • The production.ini of the pyramid_routesalchemy and pyramid_alchemy paster templates did not have a sqlalchemy logger section, preventing paster serve production.ini from working.
  • The pyramid_routesalchemy and pyramid_alchemy paster templates used the {{package}} variable in a place where it should have used the {{project}} variable, causing applications created with uppercase letters e.g. paster create -t pyramid_routesalchemy Dibbus to fail to start when paster serve development.ini was used against the result. See
  • The render_view method of pyramid.renderers.RendererHelper passed an incorrect value into the renderer for renderer_info. It now passes an instance of RendererHelper instead of a dictionary, which is consistent with other usages. See
  • A bug existed in the pyramid.authentication.AuthTktCookieHelper which would break any usage of an AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy when one was configured to reissue its tokens (reissue_time < timeout / max_age). Symptom: ValueError: ('Invalid token %r', ''). See

1.0b1 (2011-01-21)


  • The AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy now accepts a tokens parameter via The value must be a sequence of strings. Tokens are placed into the auth_tkt “tokens” field and returned in the auth_tkt cookie.
  • Add wild_domain argument to AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy, which defaults to True. If it is set to False, the feature of the policy which sets a cookie with a wilcard domain will be turned off.
  • Add a file to each paster template. See

Bug Fixes

  • testing.setUp now adds a settings attribute to the registry (both when it’s passed a registry without any settings and when it creates one).
  • The testing.setUp function now takes a settings argument, which should be a dictionary. Its values will subsequently be available on the returned config object as config.registry.settings.


  • Added “What’s New in Pyramid 1.0” chapter to HTML rendering of documentation.
  • Merged caseman-master narrative editing branch, many wording fixes and extensions.
  • Fix deprecated example showing chameleon_zpt API call in testing narrative chapter.
  • Added “Adding Methods to the Configurator via add_directive” section to Advanced Configuration narrative chapter.
  • Add docs for add_finished_callback, add_response_callback, route_path, route_url, and static_url methods to pyramid.request.Request API docs.
  • Add (minimal) documentation about using I18N within Mako templates to “Internationalization and Localization” narrative chapter.
  • Move content of “Forms” chapter back to “Views” chapter; I can’t think of a better place to put it.
  • Slightly improved interface docs for IAuthorizationPolicy.
  • Minimally explain usage of custom regular expressions in URL dispatch replacement markers within URL Dispatch chapter.


  • Using the pyramid.view.bfg_view alias for pyramid.view.view_config (a backwards compatibility shim) now issues a deprecation warning.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • When a pyramid.exceptions.Forbidden error is raised, its status code now 403 Forbidden. It was previously 401 Unauthorized, for backwards compatibility purposes with repoze.bfg. This change will cause problems for users of Pyramid with repoze.who, which intercepts 401 Unauthorized by default, but allows 403 Forbidden to pass through. Those deployments will need to configure repoze.who to also react to 403 Forbidden.
  • The default value for the cookie_on_exception parameter to pyramid.session.UnencyrptedCookieSessionFactory is now True. This means that when view code causes an exception to be raised, and the session has been mutated, a cookie will be sent back in the response. Previously its default value was False.

Paster Templates

  • The pyramid_zodb, pyramid_routesalchemy and pyramid_alchemy paster templates now use a default “commit veto” hook when configuring the repoze.tm2 transaction manager in development.ini. This prevents a transaction from being committed when the response status code is within the 400 or 500 ranges. See also

1.0a10 (2011-01-18)

Bug Fixes

  • URL dispatch now properly handles a .* or * appearing in a regex match when used inside brackets. Resolves issue #90.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The add_handler method of a Configurator has been removed from the Pyramid core. Handlers are now a feature of the pyramid_handlers package, which can be downloaded from PyPI. Documentation for the package should be available via, which describes how to add a configuration statement to your main block to reobtain this method. You will also need to add an install_requires dependency upon pyramid_handlers to your file.
  • The load_zcml method of a Configurator has been removed from the Pyramid core. Loading ZCML is now a feature of the pyramid_zcml package, which can be downloaded from PyPI. Documentation for the package should be available via, which describes how to add a configuration statement to your main block to reobtain this method. You will also need to add an install_requires dependency upon pyramid_zcml to your file.
  • The pyramid.includes subpackage has been removed. ZCML files which use include the package pyramid.includes (e.g. <include package="pyramid.includes"/>) now must include the pyramid_zcml package instead (e.g. <include package="pyramid_zcml"/>).
  • The pyramid.view.action decorator has been removed from the Pyramid core. Handlers are now a feature of the pyramid_handlers package. It should now be imported from pyramid_handlers e.g. from pyramid_handlers import action.
  • The handler ZCML directive has been removed. It is now a feature of the pyramid_handlers package.
  • The pylons_minimal, pylons_basic and pylons_sqla paster templates were removed. Use pyramid_sqla (available from PyPI) as a generic replacement for Pylons-esque development.
  • The make_app function has been removed from the pyramid.router module. It continues life within the pyramid_zcml package. This leaves the pyramid.router module without any API functions.
  • The configure_zcml setting within the deployment settings (within **settings passed to a Pyramid main function) has ceased to have any meaning.


  • pyramid.testing.setUp and pyramid.testing.tearDown have been undeprecated. They are now the canonical setup and teardown APIs for test configuration, replacing “direct” creation of a Configurator. This is a change designed to provide a facade that will protect against any future Configurator deprecations.
  • Add charset attribute to pyramid.testing.DummyRequest (unconditionally UTF-8).
  • Add add_directive method to configurator, which allows framework extenders to add methods to the configurator (ala ZCML directives).
  • When Configurator.include is passed a module as an argument, it defaults to attempting to find and use a callable named includeme within that module. This makes it possible to use config.include('some.module') rather than config.include('some.module.somefunc') as long as the include function within some.module is named includeme.
  • The bfg2pyramid script now converts ZCML include tags that have repoze.bfg.includes as a package attribute to the value pyramid_zcml. For example, <include package="repoze.bfg.includes"> will be converted to <include package="pyramid_zcml">.

Paster Templates

  • All paster templates now use pyramid.testing.setUp and pyramid.testing.tearDown rather than creating a Configurator “by hand” within their module, as per decision in features above.
  • The starter_zcml paster template has been moved to the pyramid_zcml package.


  • The wiki and wiki2 tutorials now use pyramid.testing.setUp and pyramid.testing.tearDown rather than creating a Configurator “by hand”, as per decision in features above.
  • The “Testing” narrative chapter now explains pyramid.testing.setUp and pyramid.testing.tearDown instead of Configurator creation and Configurator.begin() and Configurator.end().
  • Document the request.override_renderer attribute within the narrative “Renderers” chapter in a section named “Overriding A Renderer at Runtime”.
  • The “Declarative Configuration” narrative chapter has been removed (it was moved to the pyramid_zcml package).
  • Most references to ZCML in narrative chapters have been removed or redirected to pyramid_zcml locations.


  • Deprecation warnings related to import of the following API functions were added: pyramid.traversal.find_model, pyramid.traversal.model_path, pyramid.traversal.model_path_tuple, pyramid.url.model_url. The instructions emitted by the deprecation warnings instruct the developer to change these method spellings to their resource equivalents. This is a consequence of the mass concept rename of “model” to “resource” performed in 1.0a7.

1.0a9 (2011-01-08)

Bug Fixes

  • The proutes command tried too hard to resolve the view for printing, resulting in exceptions when an exceptional root factory was encountered. Instead of trying to resolve the view, if it cannot, it will now just print <unknown>.
  • The self argument was included in new methods of the ISession interface signature, causing pyramid_beaker tests to fail.
  • Readd pyramid.traversal.model_path_tuple as an alias for pyramid.traversal.resource_path_tuple for backwards compatibility.


  • Add a new API pyramid.url.current_route_url, which computes a URL based on the “current” route (if any) and its matchdict values.
  • config.add_view now accepts a decorator keyword argument, a callable which will decorate the view callable before it is added to the registry.
  • If a handler class provides an __action_decorator__ attribute (usually a classmethod or staticmethod), use that as the decorator for each view registration for that handler.
  • The pyramid.interfaces.IAuthenticationPolicy interface now specifies an unauthenticated_userid method. This method supports an important optimization required by people who are using persistent storages which do not support object caching and whom want to create a “user object” as a request attribute.
  • A new API has been added to the module named unauthenticated_userid. This API function calls the unauthenticated_userid method of the effective security policy.
  • An unauthenticated_userid method has been added to the dummy authentication policy returned by pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_securitypolicy. It returns the same thing as that the dummy authentication policy’s authenticated_userid method.
  • The class pyramid.authentication.AuthTktCookieHelper is now an API. This class can be used by third-party authentication policy developers to help in the mechanics of authentication cookie-setting.
  • New constructor argument to Configurator: default_view_mapper. Useful to create systems that have alternate view calling conventions. A view mapper allows objects that are meant to be used as view callables to have an arbitrary argument list and an arbitrary result. The object passed as default_view_mapper should implement the pyramid.interfaces.IViewMapperFactory interface.
  • add a set_view_mapper API to Configurator. Has the same result as passing default_view_mapper to the Configurator constructor.
  • config.add_view now accepts a mapper keyword argument, which should either be None, a string representing a Python dotted name, or an object which is an IViewMapperFactory. This feature is not useful for “civilians”, only for extension writers.
  • Allow static renderer provided during view registration to be overridden at request time via a request attribute named override_renderer, which should be the name of a previously registered renderer. Useful to provide “omnipresent” RPC using existing rendered views.
  • Instances of pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now have a session object, which is mostly a dictionary, but also implements the other session API methods for flash and CSRF.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Since the pyramid.interfaces.IAuthenticationPolicy interface now specifies that a policy implementation must implement an unauthenticated_userid method, all third-party custom authentication policies now must implement this method. It, however, will only be called when the global function named is invoked, so if you’re not invoking that, you will not notice any issues.
  • pyramid.interfaces.ISession.get_csrf_token now mandates that an implementation should return a new token if one doesn’t already exist in the session (previously it would return None). The internal sessioning implementation has been changed.


  • The (weak) “Converting a CMF Application to Pyramid” tutorial has been removed from the tutorials section. It was moved to the pyramid_tutorials Github repository.
  • The “Resource Location and View Lookup” chapter has been replaced with a variant of Rob Miller’s “Much Ado About Traversal” (originally published at
  • Many minor wording tweaks and refactorings (merged Casey Duncan’s docs fork, in which he is working on general editing).
  • Added (weak) description of new view mapper feature to Hooks narrative chapter.
  • Split views chapter into 2: View Callables and View Configuration.
  • Reorder Renderers and Templates chapters after View Callables but before View Configuration.
  • Merge Session Objects, Cross-Site Request Forgery, and Flash Messaging chapter into a single Sessions chapter.
  • The Wiki and Wiki2 tutorials now have much nicer CSS and graphics.


  • The “view derivation” code is now factored into a set of classes rather than a large number of standalone functions (a side effect of the view mapper refactoring).
  • The pyramid.renderer.RendererHelper class has grown a render_view method, which is used by the default view mapper (a side effect of the view mapper refactoring).
  • The object passed as renderer to the “view deriver” is now an instance of pyramid.renderers.RendererHelper rather than a dictionary (a side effect of view mapper refactoring).
  • The class used as the “page template” in pyramid.chameleon_text was removed, in preference to using a Chameleon-inbuilt version.
  • A view callable wrapper registered in the registry now contains an __original_view__ attribute which references the original view callable (or class).
  • The (non-API) method of all internal authentication policy implementations previously named _get_userid is now named unauthenticated_userid, promoted to an API method. If you were overriding this method, you’ll now need to override it as unauthenticated_userid instead.
  • Remove (non-API) function of named _map_view.

1.0a8 (2010-12-27)

Bug Fixes

  • The name registry was not available in the paster pshell environment under IPython.


  • If a resource implements a __resource_url__ method, it will be called as the result of invoking the pyramid.url.resource_url function to generate a URL, overriding the default logic. See the new “Generating The URL Of A Resource” section within the Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added flash messaging, as described in the “Flash Messaging” narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added CSRF token generation, as described in the narrative chapter entitled “Preventing Cross-Site Request Forgery Attacks”.
  • Prevent misunderstanding of how the view and view_permission arguments to add_route work by raising an exception during configuration if view-related arguments exist but no view argument is passed.
  • Add paster proute command which displays a summary of the routing table. See the narrative documentation section within the “URL Dispatch” chapter entitled “Displaying All Application Routes”.

Paster Templates

  • The pyramid_zodb Paster template no longer employs ZCML. Instead, it is based on scanning.


  • Added “Generating The URL Of A Resource” section to the Resources narrative chapter (includes information about overriding URL generation using __resource_url__).
  • Added “Generating the Path To a Resource” section to the Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added “Finding a Resource by Path” section to the Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added “Obtaining the Lineage of a Resource” to the Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added “Determining if a Resource is In The Lineage of Another Resource” to Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added “Finding the Root Resource” to Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added “Finding a Resource With a Class or Interface in Lineage” to Resources narrative chapter.
  • Added a “Flash Messaging” narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added a narrative chapter entitled “Preventing Cross-Site Request Forgery Attacks”.
  • Changed the “ZODB + Traversal Wiki Tutorial” based on changes to pyramid_zodb Paster template.
  • Added “Advanced Configuration” narrative chapter which documents how to deal with configuration conflicts, two-phase configuration, include and commit.
  • Fix API documentation rendering for pyramid.view.static
  • Add “Pyramid Provides More Than One Way to Do It” to Design Defense documentation.
  • Changed “Static Assets” narrative chapter: clarify that name represents a prefix unless it’s a URL, added an example of a root-relative static view fallback for URL dispatch, added an example of creating a simple view that returns the body of a file.
  • Move ZCML usage in Hooks chapter to Declarative Configuration chapter.
  • Merge “Static Assets” chapter into the “Assets” chapter.
  • Added narrative documentation section within the “URL Dispatch” chapter entitled “Displaying All Application Routes” (for paster proutes command).

1.0a7 (2010-12-20)

Terminology Changes

  • The Pyramid concept previously known as “model” is now known as “resource”. As a result:

    • The following API changes have been made:

      pyramid.url.model_url ->
      pyramid.traversal.find_model ->
      pyramid.traversal.model_path ->
      pyramid.traversal.model_path_tuple ->
      pyramid.traversal.ModelGraphTraverser ->
      pyramid.config.Configurator.testing_models ->
      pyramid.testing.registerModels ->
      pyramid.testing.DummyModel ->
    • All documentation which previously referred to “model” now refers to “resource”.
    • The starter and starter_zcml paster templates now have a module instead of a module.
    • Positional argument names of various APIs have been changed from model to resource.

    Backwards compatibility shims have been left in place in all cases. They will continue to work “forever”.

  • The Pyramid concept previously known as “resource” is now known as “asset”. As a result:

    • The (non-API) module previously known as pyramid.resource is now known as pyramid.asset.

    • All docs that previously referred to “resource specification” now refer to “asset specification”.

    • The following API changes were made:

      pyramid.config.Configurator.absolute_resource_spec ->
      pyramid.config.Configurator.override_resource ->
    • The ZCML directive previously known as resource is now known as asset.

    • The setting previously known as BFG_RELOAD_RESOURCES (envvar) or reload_resources (config file) is now known, respectively, as PYRAMID_RELOAD_ASSETS and reload_assets.

    Backwards compatibility shims have been left in place in all cases. They will continue to work “forever”.

Bug Fixes

  • Make it possible to succesfully run all tests via nosetests command directly (rather than indirectly via python nosetests).
  • When a configuration conflict is encountered during scanning, the conflict exception now shows the decorator information that caused the conflict.


  • Added debug_routematch configuration setting that logs matched routes (including the matchdict and predicates).
  • The name registry is now available in a pshell environment by default. It is the application registry object.


  • All environment variables which used to be prefixed with BFG_ are now prefixed with PYRAMID_ (e.g. BFG_DEBUG_NOTFOUND is now PYRAMID_DEBUG_NOTFOUND)


  • Added “Debugging Route Matching” section to the urldispatch narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added reference to PYRAMID_DEBUG_ROUTEMATCH envvar and debug_routematch config file setting to the Environment narrative docs chapter.
  • Changed “Project” chapter slightly to expand on use of paster pshell.
  • Direct Jython users to Mako rather than Jinja2 in “Install” narrative chapter.
  • Many changes to support terminological renaming of “model” to “resource” and “resource” to “asset”.
  • Added an example of WebTest functional testing to the testing narrative chapter.
  • Rearranged chapter ordering by popular demand (URL dispatch first, then traversal). Put hybrid chapter after views chapter.
  • Split off “Renderers” as its own chapter from “Views” chapter in narrative documentation.

Paster Templates

  • Added debug_routematch = false to all paster templates.


  • Depend on Venusian >= 0.5 (for scanning conflict exception decoration).

1.0a6 (2010-12-15)

Bug Fixes

  • 1.0a5 introduced a bug when pyramid.config.Configurator.scan was used without a package argument (e.g. config.scan() as opposed to config.scan('packagename'). The symptoms were: lots of deprecation warnings printed to the console about imports of deprecated Pyramid functions and classes and non-detection of view callables decorated with view_config decorators. This has been fixed.
  • Tests now pass on Windows (no bugs found, but a few tests in the test suite assumed UNIX path segments in filenames).


  • If you followed it to-the-letter, the ZODB+Traversal Wiki tutorial would instruct you to run a test which would fail because the view callable generated by the pyramid_zodb tutorial used a one-arg view callable, but the test in the sample code used a two-arg call.
  • Updated ZODB+Traversal tutorial of all steps to match what’s generated by pyramid_zodb.
  • Fix reference to repoze.bfg.traversalwrapper in “Models” chapter (point at pyramid_traversalwrapper instead).

1.0a5 (2010-12-14)


  • Add a handler ZCML directive. This directive does the same thing as pyramid.configuration.add_handler.
  • A new module named pyramid.config was added. It subsumes the duties of the older pyramid.configuration module.
  • The new pyramid.config.Configurator` class has API methods that the older ``pyramid.configuration.Configurator class did not: with_context (a classmethod), include, action, and commit. These methods exist for imperative application extensibility purposes.
  • The pyramid.testing.setUp function now accepts an autocommit keyword argument, which defaults to True. If it is passed False, the Config object returned by setUp will be a non-autocommiting Config object.
  • Add logging configuration to all paster templates.
  • pyramid_alchemy, pyramid_routesalchemy, and pylons_sqla paster templates now use idiomatic SQLAlchemy configuration in their respective .ini files and Python code.
  • pyramid.testing.DummyRequest now has a class variable, query_string, which defaults to the empty string.
  • Add support for json on GAE by catching NotImplementedError and importing simplejson from django.utils.
  • The Mako renderer now accepts a resource specification for mako.module_directory.
  • New boolean Mako settings variable mako.strict_undefined. See Mako Context Variables for its meaning.


  • Depend on Mako 0.3.6+ (we now require the strict_undefined feature).

Bug Fixes

  • When creating a Configurator from within a paster pshell session, you were required to pass a package argument although package is not actually required. If you didn’t pass package, you would receive an error something like KeyError: '__name__' emanating from the pyramid.path.caller_module function. This has now been fixed.
  • The pyramid_routesalchemy paster template’s unit tests failed (AssertionError: 'SomeProject' != 'someproject'). This is fixed.
  • Make default renderer work (renderer factory registered with no name, which is active for every view unless the view names a specific renderer).
  • The Mako renderer did not properly turn the mako.imports, mako.default_filters, and mako.imports settings into lists.
  • The Mako renderer did not properly convert the mako.error_handler setting from a dotted name to a callable.


  • Merged many wording, readability, and correctness changes to narrative documentation chapters from (up to and including “Models” narrative chapter).
  • “Sample Applications” section of docs changed to note existence of Cluegun, Shootout and Virginia sample applications, ported from their repoze.bfg origin packages.
  • SQLAlchemy+URLDispatch tutorial updated to integrate changes to pyramid_routesalchemy template.
  • Add pyramid.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer interface to Interfaces API chapter (has implementation() method, required to be used when getting at Chameleon macros).
  • Add a “Modifying Package Structure” section to the project narrative documentation chapter (explain turning a module into a package).
  • Documentation was added for the new handler ZCML directive in the ZCML section.


  • pyramid.configuration.Configurator is now deprecated. Use pyramid.config.Configurator, passing its constructor autocommit=True instead. The pyramid.configuration.Configurator alias will live for a long time, as every application uses it, but its import now issues a deprecation warning. The pyramid.config.Configurator class has the same API as pyramid.configuration.Configurator class, which it means to replace, except by default it is a non-autocommitting configurator. The now-deprecated pyramid.configuration.Configurator will autocommit every time a configuration method is called.

    The pyramid.configuration module remains, but it is deprecated. Use pyramid.config instead.

1.0a4 (2010-11-21)


  • URL Dispatch now allows for replacement markers to be located anywhere in the pattern, instead of immediately following a /.
  • URL Dispatch now uses the form {marker} to denote a replace marker in the route pattern instead of :marker. The old colon-style marker syntax is still accepted for backwards compatibility. The new format allows a regular expression for that marker location to be used instead of the default [^/]+, for example {marker:\d+} is now valid to require the marker to be digits.
  • Add a pyramid.url.route_path API, allowing folks to generate relative URLs. Calling route_path is the same as calling pyramid.url.route_url with the argument _app_url equal to the empty string.
  • Add a pyramid.request.Request.route_path API. This is a convenience method of the request which calls pyramid.url.route_url.
  • Make test suite pass on Jython (requires PasteScript trunk, presumably to be 1.7.4).
  • Make test suite pass on PyPy (Chameleon doesn’t work).
  • Surrounding application configuration with config.begin() and config.end() is no longer necessary. All paster templates have been changed to no longer call these functions.
  • Fix configurator to not convert ImportError to ConfigurationError if the import that failed was unrelated to the import requested via a dotted name when resolving dotted names (such as view dotted names).


  • SQLAlchemy+URLDispatch and ZODB+Traversal tutorials have been updated to not call config.begin() or config.end().

Bug Fixes

  • Add deprecation warnings to import of pyramid.chameleon_text and pyramid.chameleon_zpt of get_renderer, get_template, render_template, and render_template_to_response.
  • Add deprecation warning for import of pyramid.zcml.zcml_configure and pyramid.zcml.file_configure.
  • The pyramid_alchemy paster template had a typo, preventing an import from working.
  • Fix apparent failures when calling pyramid.traversal.find_model(root, path) or pyramid.traversal.traverse(path) when path is (erroneously) a Unicode object. The user is meant to pass these APIs a string object, never a Unicode object. In practice, however, users indeed pass Unicode. Because the string that is passed must be ASCII encodeable, now, if they pass a Unicode object, its data is eagerly converted to an ASCII string rather than being passed along to downstream code as a convenience to the user and to prevent puzzling second-order failures from cropping up (all failures will occur within pyramid.traversal.traverse rather than later down the line as the result of calling e.g. traversal_path).

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The pyramid.testing.zcml_configure API has been removed. It had been advertised as removed since repoze.bfg 1.2a1, but hadn’t actually been.


  • The pyramid.settings.get_settings API is now deprecated. Use pyramid.threadlocals.get_current_registry().settings instead or use the settings attribute of the registry available from the request (request.registry.settings).


  • Removed zodbsessions tutorial chapter. It’s still useful, but we now have a SessionFactory abstraction which competes with it, and maintaining documentation on both ways to do it is a distraction.


  • Replace Twill with WebTest in internal integration tests (avoid deprecation warnings generated by Twill).

1.0a3 (2010-11-16)


  • Added Mako TemplateLookup settings for mako.error_handler, mako.default_filters, and mako.imports.
  • Normalized all paster templates: each now uses the name main to represent the function that returns a WSGI application, each now uses WebError, each now has roughly the same shape of development.ini style.
  • Added class vars matchdict and matched_route to pyramid.request.Request. Each is set to None.
  • New API method: pyramid.settings.asbool.
  • New API methods for pyramid.request.Request: model_url, route_url, and static_url. These are simple passthroughs for their respective functions in pyramid.url.
  • The settings object which used to be available only when request.settings.get_settings was called is now available as registry.settings (e.g. request.registry.settings in view code).

Bug Fixes

  • The pylons_* paster templates erroneously used the {squiggly} routing syntax as the pattern supplied to add_route. This style of routing is not supported. They were replaced with :colon style route patterns.
  • The pylons_* paster template used the same string (your_app_secret_string) for the session.secret setting in the generated development.ini. This was a security risk if left unchanged in a project that used one of the templates to produce production applications. It now uses a randomly generated string.


  • ZODB+traversal wiki (wiki) tutorial updated due to changes to pyramid_zodb paster template.
  • SQLAlchemy+urldispach wiki (wiki2) tutorial updated due to changes to pyramid_routesalchemy paster template.
  • Documented the matchdict and matched_route attributes of the request object in the Request API documentation.


  • Obtaining the settings object via registry.{get|query}Utility(ISettings) is now deprecated. Instead, obtain the settings object via the registry.settings attribute. A backwards compatibility shim was added to the registry object to register the settings object as an ISettings utility when setattr(registry, 'settings', foo) is called, but it will be removed in a later release.
  • Obtaining the settings object via pyramid.settings.get_settings is now deprecated. Obtain it as the settings attribute of the registry now (obtain the registry via pyramid.threadlocal.get_registry or as request.registry).

Behavior Differences

  • Internal: ZCML directives no longer call get_current_registry() if there’s a registry attribute on the ZCML context (kill off use of threadlocals).
  • Internal: Chameleon template renderers now accept two arguments: path and lookup. Lookup will be an instance of a lookup class which supplies (late-bound) arguments for debug, reload, and translate. Any third-party renderers which use (the non-API) function pyramid.renderers.template_renderer_factory will need to adjust their implementations to obey the new callback argument list. This change was to kill off inappropriate use of threadlocals.

1.0a2 (2010-11-09)


  • All references to events by interface (e.g. pyramid.interfaces.INewRequest) have been changed to reference their concrete classes (e.g. in documentation about making subscriptions.
  • All references to Pyramid-the-application were changed from mod-pyramid to app-Pyramid. A custom role setting was added to docs/ to allow for this. (internal)

1.0a1 (2010-11-05)

Features (delta from BFG 1.3)

  • Mako templating renderer supports resource specification format for template lookups and within Mako templates. Absolute filenames must be used in Pyramid to avoid this lookup process.

  • Add pyramid.httpexceptions module, which is a facade for the webob.exc module.

  • Direct built-in support for the Mako templating language.

  • A new configurator method exists: add_handler. This method adds a Pylons-style “view handler” (such a thing used to be called a “controller” in Pylons 1.0).

  • New argument to configurator: session_factory.

  • New method on configurator: set_session_factory

  • Using request.session now returns a (dictionary-like) session object if a session factory has been configured.

  • The request now has a new attribute: tmpl_context for benefit of Pylons users.

  • The decorator previously known as pyramid.view.bfg_view is now known most formally as pyramid.view.view_config in docs and paster templates. An import of pyramid.view.bfg_view, however, will continue to work “forever”.

  • New API methods in pyramid.session: signed_serialize and signed_deserialize.

  • New interface: pyramid.interfaces.IRendererInfo. An object of this type is passed to renderer factory constructors (see “Backwards Incompatibilities”).

  • New event type: pyramid.interfaces.IBeforeRender. An object of this type is sent as an event before a renderer is invoked (but after the application-level renderer globals factory added via pyramid.configurator.configuration.set_renderer_globals_factory, if any, has injected its own keys). Applications may now subscribe to the IBeforeRender event type in order to introspect the and modify the set of renderer globals before they are passed to a renderer. The event object iself has a dictionary-like interface that can be used for this purpose. For example:

    from import subscriber
    from pyramid.interfaces import IRendererGlobalsEvent
    def add_global(event):
        event['mykey'] = 'foo'

    If a subscriber attempts to add a key that already exist in the renderer globals dictionary, a KeyError is raised. This limitation is due to the fact that subscribers cannot be ordered relative to each other. The set of keys added to the renderer globals dictionary by all subscribers and app-level globals factories must be unique.

  • New class: pyramid.response.Response. This is a pure facade for webob.Response (old code need not change to use this facade, it’s existence is mostly for vanity and documentation-generation purposes).

  • All preexisting paster templates (except zodb) now use “imperative” configuration (starter, routesalchemy, alchemy).

  • A new paster template named pyramid_starter_zcml exists, which uses declarative configuration.

Documentation (delta from BFG 1.3)

  • Added a pyramid.httpexceptions API documentation chapter.
  • Added a pyramid.session API documentation chapter.
  • Added a Session Objects narrative documentation chapter.
  • Added an API chapter for the pyramid.personality module.
  • Added an API chapter for the pyramid.response module.
  • All documentation which previously referred to webob.Response now uses pyramid.response.Response instead.
  • The documentation has been overhauled to use imperative configuration, moving declarative configuration (ZCML) explanations to a separate narrative chapter declarative.rst.
  • The ZODB Wiki tutorial was updated to take into account changes to the pyramid_zodb paster template.
  • The SQL Wiki tutorial was updated to take into account changes to the pyramid_routesalchemy paster template.

Backwards Incompatibilities (with BFG 1.3)

  • There is no longer an IDebugLogger registered as a named utility with the name repoze.bfg.debug.

  • The logger which used to have the name of repoze.bfg.debug now has the name pyramid.debug.

  • The deprecated API pyramid.testing.registerViewPermission has been removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.testing.registerRoutesMapper has been removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.request.get_request was removed.

  • The deprecated API named was removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.view.view_execution_permitted was removed.

  • The deprecated API named pyramid.view.NotFound was removed.

  • The bfgshell paster command is now named pshell.

  • The Venusian “category” for all built-in Venusian decorators (e.g. subscriber and view_config/bfg_view) is now pyramid instead of bfg.

  • pyramid.renderers.rendered_response function removed; use render_pyramid.renderers.render_to_response instead.

  • Renderer factories now accept a renderer info object rather than an absolute resource specification or an absolute path. The object has the following attributes: name (the renderer= value), package (the ‘current package’ when the renderer configuration statement was found), type: the renderer type, registry: the current registry, and settings: the deployment settings dictionary.

    Third-party repoze.bfg renderer implementations that must be ported to Pyramid will need to account for this.

    This change was made primarily to support more flexible Mako template rendering.

  • The presence of the key repoze.bfg.message in the WSGI environment when an exception occurs is now deprecated. Instead, code which relies on this environ value should use the exception attribute of the request (e.g. request.exception[0]) to retrieve the message.

  • The values bfg_localizer and bfg_locale_name kept on the request during internationalization for caching purposes were never APIs. These however have changed to localizer and locale_name, respectively.

  • The default cookie_name value of the authtktauthenticationpolicy ZCML now defaults to auth_tkt (it used to default to repoze.bfg.auth_tkt).

  • The default cookie_name value of the pyramid.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy constructor now defaults to auth_tkt (it used to default to repoze.bfg.auth_tkt).

  • The request_type argument to the view ZCML directive, the pyramid.configuration.Configurator.add_view method, or the pyramid.view.view_config decorator (nee bfg_view) is no longer permitted to be one of the strings GET, HEAD, PUT, POST or DELETE, and now must always be an interface. Accepting the method-strings as request_type was a backwards compatibility strategy servicing repoze.bfg 1.0 applications. Use the request_method parameter instead to specify that a view a string request-method predicate.

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