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The Pyramid Web Framework, a Pylons project

Project description


.. image::
:alt: 1.8-branch Travis CI Status

.. image::
:alt: Master Documentation Status

.. image::
:alt: Latest Documentation Status

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`Pyramid <>`_ is a small, fast, down-to-earth, open
source Python web framework. It makes real-world web application development
and deployment more fun, more predictable, and more productive.

.. code-block:: python

from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server
from pyramid.config import Configurator
from pyramid.response import Response

def hello_world(request):
return Response('Hello %(name)s!' % request.matchdict)

if __name__ == '__main__':
config = Configurator()
config.add_route('hello', '/hello/{name}')
config.add_view(hello_world, route_name='hello')
app = config.make_wsgi_app()
server = make_server('', 8080, app)

Pyramid is a project of the `Pylons Project <>`_.

Support and Documentation

See `Pyramid Support and Development
for documentation, reporting bugs, and getting support.

Developing and Contributing

See `HACKING.txt <>`_ and
` <>`_
for guidelines on running tests, adding features, coding style, and updating
documentation when developing in or contributing to Pyramid.


Pyramid is offered under the BSD-derived `Repoze Public License


Pyramid is made available by `Agendaless Consulting <>`_
and a team of `contributors

1.8a1 (2016-12-25)

Backward Incompatibilities

- Support for the ``IContextURL`` interface that was deprecated in Pyramid 1.3
has been removed. See

- Following the Pyramid deprecation period (1.6 -> 1.8),
daemon support for pserve has been removed. This includes removing the
daemon commands (start, stop, restart, status) as well as the following
arguments: ``--daemon``, ``--pid-file``, ``--log-file``,
``--monitor-restart``, ``--status``, ``--user``, ``--group``,

To run your server as a daemon you should use a process manager instead of


- ``pcreate`` is now interactive by default. You will be prompted if a file
already exists with different content. Previously if there were similar
files it would silently skip them unless you specified ``--interactive``
or ``--overwrite``.

- Removed undocumented argument ``cachebust_match`` from
``pyramid.static.static_view``. This argument was shipped accidentally
in Pyramid 1.6. See

- Change static view to avoid setting the ``Content-Encoding`` response header
to an encoding guessed using Python's ``mimetypes`` module. This was causing
clients to decode the content of gzipped files when downloading them. The
client would end up with a ``foo.txt.gz`` file on disk that was already
decoded, thus should really be ``foo.txt``. Also, the ``Content-Encoding``
should only have been used if the client itself broadcast support for the
encoding via ``Accept-Encoding`` request headers.

- Settings are no longer accessible as attributes on the settings object
(e.g. ````). This was deprecated in Pyramid 1.2.


- Python 3.6 compatibility.

- ``pcreate`` learned about ``--package-name`` to allow you to create a new
project in an existing folder with a different package name than the project
name. See

- The ``_get_credentials`` private method of ``BasicAuthAuthenticationPolicy``
has been extracted into standalone function ``extract_http_basic_credentials``
in ``pyramid.authentication`` module, this function extracts HTTP Basic
credentials from a ``request`` object, and returns them as a named tuple.

- Pyramid 1.4 silently dropped a feature of the configurator that has been
restored. It's again possible for action discriminators to conflict across
different action orders.

- ``pyramid.paster.bootstrap`` and its sibling ``pyramid.scripting.prepare``
can now be used as context managers to automatically invoke the ``closer``
and pop threadlocals off of the stack to prevent memory leaks.

- Added ``pyramid.config.Configurator.add_exception_view`` and the
``pyramid.view.exception_view_config`` decorator. It is now possible using
these methods or via the new ``exception_only=True`` option to ``add_view``
to add a view which will only be matched when handling an exception.
Previously any exception views were also registered for a traversal
context that inherited from the exception class which prevented any
exception-only optimizations.

- Added the ``exception_only`` boolean to
``pyramid.interfaces.IViewDeriverInfo`` which can be used by view derivers
to determine if they are wrapping a view which only handles exceptions.
This means that it is no longer necessary to perform request-time checks
for ``request.exception`` to determine if the view is handling an exception
- the pipeline can be optimized at config-time.

- ``pserve`` should now work with ``gevent`` and other workers that need
to monkeypatch the process, assuming the server and / or the app do so
as soon as possible before importing the rest of pyramid.

- Pyramid no longer copies the settings object passed to the
``pyramid.config.Configurator(settings=)``. The original ``dict`` is kept.

- The csrf trusted origins setting may now be a whitespace-separated list of
domains. Previously only a python list was allowed. Also, it can now be set
using the ``PYRAMID_CSRF_TRUSTED_ORIGINS`` environment variable similar to
other settings. See

- ``pserve --reload`` now uses the
`hupper <>`
library to monitor file changes. This comes with many improvements:

- If the `watchdog <>`_ package is
installed then monitoring will be done using inotify instead of
cpu and disk-intensive polling.

- The monitor is now a separate process that will not crash and starts up
before any of your code.

- The monitor will not restart the process after a crash until a file is

- The monitor works on windows.

- You can now trigger a reload manually from a pyramid view or any other
code via ``hupper.get_reloader().trigger_reload()``. Kind of neat.

- You can trigger a reload by issuing a ``SIGHUP`` to the monitor process.


- A new ``[pserve]`` section is supported in your config files with a
``watch_files`` key that can configure ``pserve --reload`` to monitor custom
file paths. See

- Allow streaming responses to be made from subclasses of
``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException``. Previously the response would
be unrolled while testing for a body, making it impossible to stream
a response.

- Update starter, alchemy and zodb scaffolds to support IPv6 by using the
new ``listen`` directives in waitress.

- All p* scripts now use argparse instead of optparse. This improves their
``--help`` output as well as enabling nicer documentation of their options.

- Any deferred configuration action registered via ``config.action`` may now
depend on threadlocal state, such as asset overrides, being active when
the action is executed.

- Asset specifications for directories passed to
``config.add_translation_dirs`` now support overriding the entire asset
specification, including the folder name. Previously only the package name
was supported and the folder would always need to have the same name.

- ``config.begin()`` will propagate the current threadlocal request through
as long as the registry is the same. For example:

.. code-block:: python

request = Request.blank(...)
config.begin(request) # pushes a request
config.begin() # propagates the previous request through unchanged
assert get_current_request() is request


Bug Fixes

- Fixed bug in ``proutes`` such that it now shows the correct view when a
class and ``attr`` is involved.

- Fix a ``FutureWarning`` in Python 3.5 when using ``re.split`` on the
``format`` setting to the ``proutes`` script.

- Fix a ``RuntimeWarning`` emitted by WebOb when using arbitrary objects
as the ``userid`` in the ``AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy``. This is now caught
by the policy and the object is serialized as a base64 string to avoid
the cryptic warning. Since the userid will be read back as a string on
subsequent requests a more useful warning is emitted encouraging you to
use a primitive type instead.

- Pyramid 1.6 introduced the ability for an action to invoke another action.
There was a bug in the way that ``config.add_view`` would interact with
custom view derivers introduced in Pyramid 1.7 because the view's
discriminator cannot be computed until view derivers and view predicates
have been created in earlier orders. Invoking an action from another action
would trigger an unrolling of the pipeline and would compute discriminators
before they were ready. The new behavior respects the ``order`` of the action
and ensures the discriminators are not computed until dependent actions
from previous orders have executed.

- Fix bug in i18n where the default domain would always use the Germanic plural
style, even if a different plural function is defined in the relevant
messages file. See

- The ``config.override_asset`` method now occurs during
``pyramid.config.PHASE1_CONFIG`` such that it is ordered to execute before
any calls to ``config.add_translation_dirs``.


- The ``pcreate`` script and related scaffolds have been deprecated in favor
of the popular
`cookiecutter <>`_ project.

All of Pyramid's official scaffolds as well as the tutorials have been
ported to cookiecutters:

- `pyramid-cookiecutter-starter

- `pyramid-cookiecutter-alchemy

- `pyramid-cookiecutter-zodb


Documentation Changes

- Update Typographical Conventions.

- Add `pyramid_nacl_session
to session factories. See

- Update ``HACKING.txt`` from stale branch that was never merged to master.

- Updated Windows installation instructions and related bits.

- Fix an inconsistency in the documentation between view predicates and
route predicates and highlight the differences in their APIs.

- Clarify a possible misuse of the ``headers`` kwarg to subclasses of
:class:`pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException` in which more appropriate
kwargs from the parent class :class:`pyramid.response.Response` should be
used instead. See

- The SQLAlchemy + URL Dispatch + Jinja2 (``wiki2``) and
ZODB + Traversal + Chameleon (``wiki``) tutorials have been updated to
utilize the new cookiecutters and drop support for the ``pcreate``

See and

- Improve output of p* script descriptions for help.

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