Python Netlink library
Pyroute2 is a pure Python netlink library. It requires only Python stdlib, no 3rd party libraries. The library was started as an RTNL protocol implementation, so the name is pyroute2, but now it supports many netlink protocols. Some supported netlink families and protocols:
- rtnl, network settings — addresses, routes, traffic controls
- nfnetlink — netfilter API: ipset, nftables, …
- ipq — simplest userspace packet filtering, iptables QUEUE target
- devlink — manage and monitor devlink-enabled hardware
- generic — generic netlink families
- nl80211 — wireless functions API (basic support)
- taskstats — extended process statistics
- acpi_events — ACPI events monitoring
- thermal_events — thermal events monitoring
- VFS_DQUOT — disk quota events monitoring
Starting with 0.5.2 the library supports also PF_ROUTE sockets on BSD systems.
Pyroute2 runs natively on Linux and emulates some limited subset of RTNL netlink API on BSD systems on top of PF_ROUTE notifications and standard system tools.
Other platforms are not supported.
The simplest usecase
The objects, provided by the library, are socket objects with an extended API. The additional functionality aims to:
- Help to open/bind netlink sockets
- Discover generic netlink protocols and multicast groups
- Construct, encode and decode netlink and PF_ROUTE messages
Maybe the simplest usecase is to monitor events. Disk quota events:
from pyroute2 import DQuotSocket # DQuotSocket automatically performs discovery and binding, # since it has no other functionality beside of the monitoring with DQuotSocket() as ds: for message in ds.get(): print(message)
Get notifications about network settings changes with IPRoute:
from pyroute2 import IPRoute with IPRoute() as ipr: # With IPRoute objects you have to call bind() manually ipr.bind() for message in ipr.get(): print(message)
Network namespace examples
Network namespace manipulation:
from pyroute2 import netns # create netns netns.create('test') # list print(netns.listnetns()) # remove netns netns.remove('test')
Create veth interfaces pair and move to netns:
from pyroute2 import IPDB ip = IPDB() # create interface pair ip.create(ifname='v0p0', kind='veth', peer='v0p1').commit() # move peer to netns with ip.interfaces.v0p1 as veth: veth.net_ns_fd = 'test' # don't forget to release before exit ip.release()
List interfaces in some netns:
from pyroute2 import NetNS from pprint import pprint ns = NetNS('test') pprint(ns.get_links()) ns.close()
More details and samples see in the documentation.
make install or pip install pyroute2
Python >= 2.7
The pyroute2 testing framework requires flake8, coverage, nosetests.